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Battle of Bileća

The Battle of Bileća was fought in August 1388 between the forces of the Kingdom of Bosnia led by Grand Duke of the kingdom, Vlatko Vuković, the Ottoman Turks under the leadership of Lala Şahin Pasha. The Ottoman army broke into the kingdom's southern region. After days of looting, the invaders clashed with the defending force near the town of Bileća, ending in the latter's decisive victory; the Ottoman Turks, based in Thrace, appeared as a considerable military and political factor for the western Balkans in the 1380s. Having turned rulers of various countries in Macedonia into their vassals, the Ottomans under Murad I started launching raids to the west, towards the Adriatic coast, they eagerly assisted feudal lords in the Balkans in their wars among themselves and exploiting discord and purposely weakening Balkan states. The Kingdom of Bosnia was thought far enough to be safe from an Ottoman incursion and in the east it was shielded by a belt of independent states that rose after the fall of the Serbian Empire.

The distance between Bosnia and Ottoman Thrace proved no barrier, however. The hostility between King Tvrtko I of Bosnia and Đurađ II Balšić, ruler of Zeta and vassal of Murad, led to clashes between Bosnians and Turks earlier than would have been expected; the first Ottoman incursion into Bosnia, about which little is known, took place in October 1386. It was suggested and enabled by Đurađ, caused panic in the neighbouring Republic of Ragusa. In 1388 Đurađ contacted the Ottoman commander Lala Şahin Pasha waging war in Epirus, hoping to slight Tvrtko; the threat of an Ottoman attack on Bosnia appeared in early August 1388. The Ottoman ruler Murad I had dispatched Lala Şahin Pasha to assist Đurađ. Ragusan authorities sent an emissary to Đurađ concerning Turks who had broken into Zachlumia, in the south of Tvrtko's realm and close to the Ragusa itself. On 15 August, the Ragusans decided to provide refuge in their state for Tvrtko's subjects who were fleeing the advancing invaders, allowing the noblemen and the common people to take shelter in the city of Dubrovnik and the island of Ston respectively.

The walls of Ston were prepared for defense. An emissary was sent that day to Lala Şahin Pasha, nearby; the Ragusans were intent on securing themselves in face of the imminent clash, the emissary sent to the Ottoman commander was meant to both negotiate and provide intelligence. On 22 August advice was sought from the Hungarian court as well; the size of the army dispatched by Murad against Tvrtko is not known, but it must have been considerable since it included his own sons. It was not a vast, conquering one, but neither was it a small and looting band, its goal was to bring plunder as well as to showcase Murad's military might. King Tvrtko's army, led by Duke Vlatko Vuković, allowed the Turks to penetrate as far as the town of Bileća; the Bosnians decisively defeated them. Lala Şahin Pasha escaped with his life; the precise date is disputed. On 26 August, Ragusans informed King Sigismund of Hungary of the outcome and decided to release the captured Zetans and Albanians, in the Ottoman army; the Ottoman attack and defeat made both Tvrtko and Đurađ more willing to come to terms with each other.

The Bosnian victory did not overshadow the effects of Ottoman plundering. While future incursions remained a possibility, the Bosnians did not face the Ottoman army again for a year following the victory in Bileća. In June 1389, Murad himself marched westwards intending to strike against Tvrtko. Murad might have suspected that Lazar, ruler of Moravian Serbia, contributed to the defeat near Bileća; this forced Serbians to band together against his army at the Battle of Kosovo. Battle of Pločnik Imber, Colin; the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1650: The Structure of Power. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1137014067. Finkel, Caroline. Osman's Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire. Basic Books. ISBN 0465023975. Ćirković, Sima. Историја средњовековне босанске државе. Srpska književna zadruga. Fine, John Van Antwerp, Jr; the Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0-472-08260-4 Veinstein, Gilles, "The Great Turk and Europe", Europe and the Islamic World: A History, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691147051 Ćorović, Vladimir.

Istorija srpskog naroda. Janus

Tony Pagone

Gaetano Pagone was a judge of the Federal Court of Australia from 21 June 2013 until 31 March 2018. Until 21 June 2013, he was a judge of the Supreme Court of Victoria in the Australian state of Victoria, he completed secondary education at De La Salle College and completed tertiary education at Monash University, graduating B. A. Dip. Ed. LL. B. In 1983, he obtained an LL. M. from Trinity Hall, Cambridge. In 2001, he was awarded a Monash Distinguished Alumni Award, he was first appointed to the Supreme Court in 2001, served until June 2002, when he took up the position of special counsel to the Commissioner of Taxation until December 2003. He was appointed to the Supreme Court again in May 2007, was the judge in charge of the Commercial Court, he is a professorial fellow at the University of Melbourne. The Honorable Tony Pagone QC was appointed as Commissioner to the Royal Commission into Aged Care Quality and Safety on 13 September 2019. List of Judges of the Federal Court of Australia List of Judges of the Supreme Court of Victoria