Indonesians

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Indonesians
Orang Indonesia
Flag of Indonesia.svg
Total population
 Indonesia
c. 260 million[1]
2016 estimate
c. 255 million[2]
2015 estimate
c. 237 million[3]
Indonesia 2010 census
Regions with significant populations
 Malaysia est 2,500,000 (2014)[4]
 Netherlands est 1,800,000 (2013)[5]
 Saudi Arabia est 1,500,000 (2014)[6]
 Singapore est 200,000 (2010)[7]
 Taiwan 161,000 (2010)[8]
 Hong Kong 102,100 (2006)[9]
 United States 101,270 (2006)[10]
 United Arab Emirates 100,000 (2006)[11]
 Australia 86,196 (2017)[12]
 Qatar 39,000 (2013)[13]
 South Korea 33,195 (2017)[14]
 Japan 30,567 (2003)[15][16]
 Germany 16,738 (2014)[17]
 Canada 14,320 (2006)[18]
 United Kingdom 9,624 (2011)[19][20][21][22]
 Macau 6,269 (2012)[23]
Languages
Indonesian, Javanese, Sundanese, Batak, Minangkabau, Buginese and other Indonesia languages.
Religion
Islam (majority) · Christianity (Protestantism and Roman Catholicism· Hinduism · Buddhism · Animism · Shamanism
Related ethnic groups
Native Indonesians, Austronesians, Polynesians, Papuans, Negritos, Melanesians, Mongoloids

Indonesians (Indonesian: Orang Indonesia) are citizens of Indonesia,[24] regardless of their race, ethnicity or religious background.[25][26] There are about 300 ethnicities in Indonesia, a multicultural archipelagic country with a diversity of languages, culture, and religious beliefs, the population of Indonesia according to the 2010 national census was 237.64 million,[2] and it was estimated to reach 255.4 million in 2015.[2] 51% live on the island of Java,[2] the world's most populous island.[27] Around 95% of Indonesians are Native Indonesians (formerly grouped as "Pribumi"), with Javanese forming the majority, while the other 5% are Indonesians with ancestry from foreign origin, such as Chinese Indonesians.

Population[edit]

As of 2014, Indonesians make up 3.46% of world total population, and Indonesia is the fourth most populous country after China, India and United States.

Despite a fairly effective family planning program that has been in place since the 1967,[28] for the decade ending in 2010, Indonesia's population growth was 1.49 percent. At that rate, Indonesia's population is projected to surpass the present population of the United States and would - if the current US population did not rise - become the world's third biggest after China and India by 2043,[29] the family planning already revitalised based on the 1967 program to avoid Indonesia becoming the world's third most populous country.

With a population of 150 million, Java is home to 51 percent of the Indonesian population, and is the most populous island on Earth, the Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on western Java. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java, it was the centre of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java was also the centre of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s. Java dominates Indonesia politically, economically and culturally.

Other major island of Indonesia are Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua that took other 49 percent of Indonesian population. There are also other small populated island(s) such as Bali, Bangka, Madura, Nias, Maluku, Lesser Sunda Islands, Riau Islands and others.

Ethnic groups[edit]

Indonesian people attending a football match

There are over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia.[30] 95% of those are of Native Indonesian ancestry.[31]

The largest ethnic group in Indonesia is the Javanese who make up nearly 52% of the total population, the Javanese are concentrated on the island of Java but millions have migrated to other islands throughout the archipelago because of the transmigration program.[32] The Sundanese, Malay, and Madurese are the next largest groups in the country.[32] Many ethnic groups, particularly in Kalimantan and Papua, have only hundreds of members. Most of the local languages belong to Austronesian language family, although a significant number, particularly in Papua, speak Papuan languages, the Chinese Indonesians population makes up a little less than 1% of the total Indonesian population according to the 2000 census.[32] Some of these Indonesians of Chinese descent speak various Chinese dialects, most notably Hokkien and Hakka.

The classification of ethnic groups in Indonesia is not rigid and in some cases unclear due to migrations, cultural and linguistic influences; for example some may consider Bantenese and Cirebonese to be members of Javanese people, however some others argue that they are different ethnic groups altogether since they have their own distinct dialects. This is the same case with Baduy people that share many cultural similarities with the Sundanese people. An example of hybrid ethnicity is the Betawi people, descended not only from marriages between different peoples in Indonesia but also with foreign origin like Arab, Chinese and Indian migrants since the era of colonial Batavia (Jakarta).

Culture[edit]

Language[edit]

An example of Javanese script

The Indonesian language (Bahasa Indonesia [baˈhasa indoneˈsia]) is the official language of Indonesia, it is a standardized register of Malay, an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Most Indonesians also speak one of more than 700 indigenous languages.[33][34]

Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are often fluent in another regional language (examples include Javanese, Sundanese and others), which are commonly used at home and within the local community. Most formal education, and nearly all national media and other forms of communication, are conducted in Indonesian; in East Timor, which was an Indonesian province from 1975 to 1999, Indonesian is recognised by the constitution as one of the two working languages (the other being English), alongside the official languages of Tetum and Portuguese.

Religion[edit]

Minang wedding

Indonesia is constitutionally a secular state and the first principle of Indonesia's philosophical foundation, Pancasila, is "belief in the one and only God". A number of different religions are practised in the country, and their collective influence on the country's political, economic and cultural life is significant,[35] the Indonesian Constitution guarantees freedom of religion.[36] However, the government recognises only six official religions (Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism and Confucianism).[37][38][39] Although based on data collected by the Indonesian Conference on Religion and Peace (ICRP), there are about 245 non-official religions in Indonesia.[40] Indonesian law requires that every Indonesian citizen hold an identity card that identifies that person with one of these six religions, although citizens may be able to leave that section blank.[41] Indonesia does not recognise agnosticism or atheism, and blasphemy is illegal;[42] in the 2010 Indonesian census, 87.18% of Indonesians identified themselves as Muslim (with Sunnis more than 99%,[43] Shias 0.5%,[44] Ahmadis 0.2%[45]), 6.96% Protestant, 2.91% Catholic, 1.69% Hindu, 0.72% Buddhist, 0.05% Confucianism, 0.13% other, and 0.38% unstated or not asked.[46]

Indonesia's political leadership has played an important role in the relations between groups, both positively and negatively, promoting mutual respect by affirming Pancasila but also promoting a Transmigration Program, which has caused a number of conflicts in the eastern region of the country.[47]

Literature[edit]

Indonesian Literature can refer to literature produced in the Indonesian archipelago, it is also used to refer more broadly to literature produced in areas with common language roots based on the Malay language (of which Indonesian is one scion). This would extend the reach to the Maritime Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, but also other nations with a common language such as Malaysia and Brunei, as well as population within other nations such as the Malay people living in Singapore.

There are also works written in and about Indonesia in unrelated languages. There are several languages and several distinct but related literary traditions within the geographical boundaries of the modern nation of Indonesia, for example, the island of Java has its own Javanese pre-national cultural and literary history. There are also Sundanese, Balinese, and Batak or Madurese traditions. Indonesia also has a colonial history of Dutch, British and Japanese occupation, as well as a history of Islamic influence that brought its own texts, linguistic and literary influences. There is also an oral literature tradition in the area.

The phrase Indonesian literature is used in this article to refer to Indonesian as written in the nation of Indonesia, but also covers literature written in an earlier form of the Indonesian language i.e. Malay language written in the Dutch East Indies.

Architecture[edit]

Tongkonan, Toraja traditional house

The Architecture of Indonesia reflects the diversity of cultural, historical and geographic influences that have shaped Indonesia as a whole. Invaders, colonizers, missionaries, merchants and traders brought cultural changes that had a profound effect on building styles and techniques.

Traditionally, the most significant foreign influence has been Indian. However, Chinese, Arab, and European influences have also played significant roles in shaping Indonesian architecture. Religious architecture varies from indigenous forms to mosques, temples, and churches, the sultans and other rulers built palaces. There is a substantial legacy of colonial architecture in Indonesian cities. Independent Indonesia has seen the development of new paradigms for postmodern and contemporary architecture.

Cuisine[edit]

Tumpeng rice, the national dish of Indonesia.

Indonesian cuisine is one of the most vibrant and colourful cuisines in the world, full of intense flavor.[48] It is diverse, in part because Indonesia is composed of approximately 6,000 populated islands of the total 18,000 in the world's largest archipelago,[49] with more than 300 ethnic groups calling Indonesia their home.[50] Many regional cuisines exist, often based upon indigenous culture and foreign influences.[49] Indonesia has around 5,350 traditional recipes, with 30 of them considered the most important.[50]

Indonesian cuisine varies greatly by region and has many different influences.[49][51][52] Sumatran cuisine, for example, often has Middle Eastern and Indian influences, featuring curried meat and vegetables such as gulai and kari, while Javanese cuisine is mostly indigenous,[49] with some hint of Chinese influence. The cuisines of Eastern Indonesia are similar to Polynesian and Melanesian cuisine. Elements of Chinese cuisine can be seen in Indonesian cuisine: foods such as bakmi (noodles), bakso (meat or fish balls), and lumpia (spring rolls) have been completely assimilated.

Physical characteristics and genetic research[edit]

A Togutil man. The vast majority of people in Indonesia are "Southern Mongoloids" but have a high degree of Australoid-Melanesian genetic heritage.[53]

The skin colour of Indonesian people ranges from fair skin with yellowish undertone to light brown to very dark brown or black skin colour. Archaeologist Peter Bellwood claims that the "vast majority" of people in Indonesia and Malaysia, the region he calls the "clinal Mongoloid-Australoid zone", are "Southern Mongoloids" but have a "high degree" of Australoid-Melanesian genetic heritage.[53]

Most Indonesian people are genetically close to Asians while the more eastern one goes how more people show Melanesian affinity. Geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza claims that there is a genetic division between East and Southeast Asians;[54] in a like manner, Zhou Jixu agrees that there is a physical difference between these two populations.[55] Other geneticists have found evidence for four separate populations, carrying distinct sets of non-recombining Y chromosome lineages, within the traditional Mongoloid category: North Asians, Han Chinese, Japanese and Southeast Asians.[56] The complexity of genetic data has led to doubt about the usefulness of the concept of a Mongoloid race itself, since distinctive East Asian features may represent separate lineages and arise from environmental adaptations or retention of common proto-Eurasian ancestral characteristics.[57]

See also[edit]

Non-indigenous Indonesians:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Indonesia Population clock". Country Meters. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Population Projection by Province, 2010-2035". Statistics Indonesia. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  3. ^ "Indonesia". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  4. ^ "Di Hadapan BMI Malaysia, Menlu Retno Tekankan Prioritas Perlindungan WNI" (in Indonesian). Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia, Kuala Lumpur. 27 January 2015. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2016. Diperkirakan terdapat sekitar 2,5 juta warga Indonesia berada di Malaysia, dimana hampir setengahnya berstatus ilegal. 
  5. ^ "Ada 1,8 Juta Diaspora Indonesia di Belanda". Swa.co.id. Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
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  8. ^ "Indonesia, Taiwan sign agreement on migrant protections". The Jakarta Post. 30 April 2011. Archived from the original on 22 November 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  9. ^ Media Indonesia Online 30 November 2006
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  15. ^ Sakurai 2003: 33
  16. ^ Sakurai 2003: 41
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  23. ^ "Macau Population Census". Census Bureau of Macau. May 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
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  25. ^ Center for Information and Development Studies. (1998) Pribumi dan Non-Pribumi dalam Perspektif Pemerataan Ekonomi dan Integrasi Sosial (Pribumi and Non-Pribumi in the Perspective of Economic Redistribution and Social Integration). Jakarta, Indonesia: Center for Information and Development Studies
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  41. ^ "Section II. Status of Government Respect for Religious Freedom". 2009 Report on International Religious Freedom - Indonesia. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. United States Department of State. 26 October 2009. Retrieved 10 April 2017 – via UNHCR. The 2006 civil registration bill requires citizens to identify their religion on National Identity Cards (KTP). The bill does not allow citizens to identify themselves as anything outside of the six recognized religious groups. Legally, citizens may leave the religious section blank, but some local government officials are not familiar with this option. Members of unrecognized religious groups are often unable to obtain KTPs as a result. 
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  44. ^ There are approximately 1 million Shia Muslims in the country which approximates to 0.5% of the total Muslim population. See: Reza, Imam. "Shia Muslims Around the World". Archived from the original on 22 May 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2009. approximately 400,000 persons who subscribe to the Ahmadiyya 
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  55. ^ http://sino-platonic.org/complete/spp175_chinese_civilization_agriculture.pdf The Rise of Agricultural Civilization in China, Sino-Platonic Papers 175, Zhou Jixu, citing Ho Ping-ti, ISBN 0-226-34524-6
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  57. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Mongoloid