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An inductor called a coil, choke, or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it. An inductor consists of an insulated wire wound into a coil around a core; when the current flowing through an inductor changes, the time-varying magnetic field induces an electromotive force in the conductor, described by Faraday's law of induction. According to Lenz's law, the induced voltage has a polarity which opposes the change in current that created it; as a result, inductors oppose any changes in current through them. An inductor is characterized by its inductance, the ratio of the voltage to the rate of change of current. In the International System of Units, the unit of inductance is the henry named for 19th century American scientist Joseph Henry. In the measurement of magnetic circuits, it is equivalent to weber/ampere. Inductors have values that range from 1 µH to 20 H. Many inductors have a magnetic core made of iron or ferrite inside the coil, which serves to increase the magnetic field and thus the inductance.

Along with capacitors and resistors, inductors are one of the three passive linear circuit elements that make up electronic circuits. Inductors are used in alternating current electronic equipment in radio equipment, they are used to block AC while allowing DC to pass. They are used in electronic filters to separate signals of different frequencies, in combination with capacitors to make tuned circuits, used to tune radio and TV receivers. An electric current flowing through a conductor generates a magnetic field surrounding it; the magnetic flux linkage Φ B generated by a given current I depends on the geometric shape of the circuit. Their ratio defines the inductance L, thus L:= Φ B I. The inductance of a circuit depends on the geometry of the current path as well as the magnetic permeability of nearby materials. An inductor is a component consisting of a wire or other conductor shaped to increase the magnetic flux through the circuit in the shape of a coil or helix. Winding the wire into a coil increases the number of times the magnetic flux lines link the circuit, increasing the field and thus the inductance.

The more turns, the higher the inductance. The inductance depends on the shape of the coil, separation of the turns, many other factors. By adding a "magnetic core" made of a ferromagnetic material like iron inside the coil, the magnetizing field from the coil will induce magnetization in the material, increasing the magnetic flux; the high permeability of a ferromagnetic core can increase the inductance of a coil by a factor of several thousand over what it would be without it. Any change in the current through an inductor creates a changing flux, inducing a voltage across the inductor. By Faraday's law of induction, the voltage induced by any change in magnetic flux through the circuit is given by E = − d Φ B d t. Reformulating the definition of L above, we obtain Φ B = L I, it follows. So inductance is a measure of the amount of electromotive force generated for a given rate of change of current. For example, an inductor with an inductance of 1 henry produces an EMF of 1 volt when the current through the inductor changes at the rate of 1 ampere per second.

This is taken to be the constitutive relation of the inductor. The dual of the inductor is the capacitor, which stores energy in an electric field rather than a magnetic field, its current–voltage relation is obtained by exchanging current and voltage in the inductor equations and replacing L with the capacitance C. In a circuit, an inductor can behave differently at different time instant. However, it's easy to think about the short-time limit and long-time limit: In the long-time limit, after the magnetic flux through the inductor has stabilized, no voltage would be induced between the two sides of the inductor. In the short-time limit, if the inductor starts with a certain current I, since the current through the inductor is known at this instant, we can replace it with an ideal current source of current I. If I=0, the short-time equivalence of an inductor is an open circuit; the polarity of the induced voltage is given by Lenz's law, which states that the induced voltage will be such as to oppose the change in current.

For example, if the current through an inductor is increasing, the induced voltage will be positive at the cu

Casualties of Retail

Casualties of Retail is an album by Enter the Haggis, released on the United for Opportunity label on October 25, 2005. The title comes from a line in the song "Gasoline". "Music Box" "Another Round" "Gasoline" "Twirling Towards Freedom" "Congress" "Haven" "Minstrel Boy" "Martha Stuart" "She Moved Through the Fair" "Life for Love" "To the Quick" "Down with the Ship" Brian Buchanan - vocals, acoustic guitar, mandolin Craig Downie - highland and Deger bagpipes, tin whistle, jaw harp, harmonica Mark Abraham - electric bass, vocals James Campbell - drums, vocals Trevor Lewington - vocals and acoustic guitars, banjo Congas and cowbells by Anthony Giles Harmonica on "Another Round" by Paul Reddick

The Shipwrecked Fishermen and Mariners' Royal Benevolent Society

The Shipwrecked Fishermen and Mariners' Royal Benevolent Society or the Shipwrecked Mariners for short, is a national charity founded in 1839, which operates throughout the United Kingdom and Ireland, whose purpose is to provide help to former merchant seamen and their widows and dependants who are in need. It was founded at the instigation of Mr. John Rye, a philanthropic retired medical man of Bath and his servant Mr. Charles Gee Jones, born in Weston-super-Mare, a former Bristol pilot and landlord of the Pulteney Arms in Bath, following the tragic loss of life from the Clovelly fishing fleet in a severe storm in November 1838. Aided by Sir Jahleel Brenton, at that time governor of Greenwich Hospital, Mr. Rye succeeded in establishing the Society, of collecting a respectable sum as a first subscription by going from house to house in Bath collecting half crowns; the portrait of Mr. Rye and Mr. Gee Jones was painted to commemorate the founding of the Society, which now hangs in the boardroom of the Society's Headquarters in Chichester.

The Society's first President was Admiral Sir George Cockburn, 10th Baronet, who in the War of 1812 cruised Chesapeake Bay and captured and burnt Washington on 24 August 1814. The Society's first patron was Queen Victoria and it has had a royal patron since. One of its first Vice-Presidents was Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Bt; the Society was incorporated by an Act of Parliament in 1850. The Society's flag, a St George's cross with the letters SFMS in the quadrants and a number, was displayed by ships and their position reported by the coastguard to the Shipping and Mercantile Gazette in London. From 1851 until 1854 it operated lifeboats at Lytham, Portmadoc, Llanelly, Teignmouth and Newhaven but it was subsequently agreed that it would be wiser if one organisation concentrated on rescuing lives at sea while the other helped the survivors or their bereaved families ashore, so in 1854 the Society transferred its lifeboats to the RNLI; the Society, which operates through a national network of volunteers known as Honorary Agents, deals with over 2,000 cases of need a year and is based in Chichester, West Sussex.

The Society hold an annual photography competition. George Cockburn The Shipwrecked Fishermen & Mariners' Royal Benevolent Society, Brief History of the First Hundred Years published in 1939. Official website

Rhomboid minor muscle

In human anatomy, the rhomboid minor is a small skeletal muscle on the back that connects the scapula with the vertebrae of the spinal column. Located inferior to levator scapulae and superior to rhomboid major, it acts together with the latter to keep the scapula pressed against the thoracic wall, it lies superficial to the long spinal muscles. The rhomboid minor arises from the inferior border of the nuchal ligament, from the spinous processes of the seventh cervical and first thoracic vertebrae, from the intervening supraspinous ligaments, it is inserted into a small area of the medial border of the scapula at the level of the scapular spine. Together with the rhomboid major, the rhomboid minor retracts the scapula when trapezius is contracted. Acting as a synergist to the trapezius, the rhomboid major and minor elevate the medial border of the scapula medially and upward, working in tandem with the levator scapulae muscle to rotate the scapulae downward. While other shoulder muscles are active, the rhomboid major and minor stabilize the scapula.

The nerve supply comes from the dorsal scapular nerve, with most of its fibers derived from the C5 nerve root and only minor contribution from C4 or C6. The rhomboid minor gets its arterial blood supply from the dorsal scapular artery, it is separated from the rhomboid major by a slight interval, but the adjacent margins of the two muscles are united. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 434 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:01:st-0211 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center


Ubik is a 1969 science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick; the story is set in a future 1992 where psychic powers are common and utilized in corporate espionage. It follows Joe Chip, a technician at a psychic agency who begins to experience strange alterations in reality that can be temporarily reversed by a mysterious store-bought substance called Ubik. Ubik is one of Dick's most acclaimed novels. In 2009, it was chosen by Time magazine as one of the 100 greatest novels since 1923. In his review for Time, critic Lev Grossman described it as "a unsettling existential horror story, a nightmare you'll never be sure you've woken up from". By the year 1992, humanity has colonized; the protagonist, Joe Chip, is a debt-ridden technician working for Runciter Associates, a "prudence organization" employing "inertials"—people with the ability to negate the powers of telepaths and "precogs"—to enforce the privacy of clients. The company is run by Glen Runciter, assisted by his deceased wife Ella, kept in a state of "half-life", a form of cryonic suspension that allows the deceased limited consciousness and ability to communicate.

While consulting with Ella, Runciter discovers that her consciousness is being invaded by another half-lifer named Jory Miller. When business magnate Stanton Mick hires Runciter Associates to secure his lunar facilities from alleged psychic intrusion, Runciter assembles a team of 11 of his best inertials, including recent hire Pat Conley, a mysterious girl with the unique psychic ability to undo events by changing the past. Runciter and Chip travel with the group to Stanton Mick's Moon base, where they discover that the assignment is a trap set by the company's main adversary, Ray Hollis, who leads an organization of psychics. A bomb blast kills Runciter without harming the others, they rush back to Earth to place him into half-life, but they cannot establish contact with him and his body is set to be buried. From the moment of the explosion, the group begins to experience shifts in reality. Many objects they come into contact with are much older than they should be, some being older types of the same object.

They find themselves moving into the past anchoring in 1939. At the same time, they find themselves surrounded by "manifestations" of Runciter; as the novel progresses, members of the group one by one begin to feel tired and cold suddenly shrivel and die. Joe Chip attempts to make sense of what is happening and discovers two contradictory messages from Runciter, one stating that he is alive and they are dead, another claiming to have been recorded by him while he was still alive; the latter message advertises Ubik, a store-brought product which can be used to temporarily reverse deterioration and which appears as a can of aerosol spray. Chip deduces that they may have all died in the blast and are now linked together in half-life, unsuccessfully tries to get hold of Ubik. After receiving another message, Joe Chip accuses Pat Conley of working for Hollis and causing the deterioration with her ability, while he himself is withering away, she confirms this; as she leaves him to die, he is saved by Runciter, who sprays him with Ubik and tells him that the group is indeed in half-life and he himself is alive and trying to help them, though he does not know where Ubik comes from.

As Runciter disappears, Jory Miller reveals himself to Chip, telling him that he, not Conley, has now killed off the entire group, as he "consumes" half-lifers to sustain himself, that the entire reality they are experiencing is created and maintained by him, except the reversal to 1939. However, Chip is temporarily protected from being consumed through the effect of Ubik, leaves Jory; as he at last begins to deteriorate again, he meets Ella, who saves him by granting him a life-long supply of Ubik, instructs him to stay half-alive to assist Runciter after she herself reincarnates. Ubik is claimed to have been developed by her and several other half-lifers as a defense against Jory; each chapter is introduced by a commercial advertising Ubik as a different product serving a specific use. The last chapter is introduced by Ubik claiming that it has created and directed the universe, that its real name is unknown and unspoken. In the short chapter, in the "living" world mourning the loss of his best employees, finds himself with coins showing Chip's face, feels that this is "just the beginning".

Dick's former wife Tessa remarked,"Ubik is a metaphor for God. Ubik is all-powerful and all-knowing, Ubik is everywhere; the spray can is only a form that Ubik takes to make it easy for people to use it. It is not the substance inside the can that helps them, but rather their faith in the promise that it will help them." She interpreted the ending by writing,"Many readers have puzzled over the ending of Ubik, when Glen Runciter finds a Joe Chip coin in his pocket. What does it mean? Is Runciter dead? Are Joe Chip and the others alive? This is meant to tell you that we can't be sure of anything in the world that we call'reality.' It is possible that they are all dead and in cold pac or that the half-life world can affect the full-life world. It is possible that they are all alive and dreaming."Peter Fitting sees parallels between the God-Devil/Life-Death relationship of Ubik and the antagonist's consumptive abilities within half-life, the commercialized industry between psychics and psychic-inhibiting "inertials" which occupies the novel's "reality".

Fitting notes Dick's effort to de-sacralize and commercialize Ubik through the ironic advertising messages which begin each chapter. In 1998, Cryo Interactive Entertai

Cathy Tyson

Catherine Tyson is an English stage and television actress. She won the Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress for the 1986 film Mona Lisa; the film earned her Golden Globe and BAFTA Award nominations. She has starred in The Serpent and the Rainbow, in the ITV drama series Band of Gold. Born in Kingston-upon-Thames, the daughter of a Trinidadian barrister father and an English social worker mother and her family moved to Liverpool when she was about two years old. Tyson attended the Everyman Youth Theatre in her teens, she dropped out of college at 17 to pursue an acting career at Liverpool's Everyman Theatre, before joining the RSC in 1984. In 1984, Tyson made an early TV appearance playing Joanna in Scully. Tyson's film debut was in Mona Lisa as an elegant prostitute, her other films include The Serpent and the Rainbow. Her best-known television appearance was as a prostitute, Carol Johnson, in the ITV series Band of Gold. In 2007, Tyson joined the cast of two long-running television series.

She played headmistress Miss Gayle in the BBC One school drama Grange Hill, featured in the ITV soap opera Emmerdale as single mother Andrea Hayworth. Tyson played Herodia in BBC Three's Liverpool Nativity, a modern adaptation of the traditional Christmas story. Recorded as a live event in Liverpool city centre on 16 December 2007, it was broadcast several times over the Christmas period and repeated the following year. In September 2009, Tyson enrolled at the adult learning centre City Lit on an access to higher education course in creative studies. A year she began a degree in English and Drama at Brunel University. Tyson hosted a charity event for the Sick Children's Trust on 17 November 2007, again on 1 November 2008; the event, organised by Friends of Eckersley House, a committee supporting the charity's Leeds house, was held at the Haven Golden Sands resort in Mablethorpe, Lincolnshire. She is one of the Honorary Patrons of the London children's charity Scene & Heard. Tyson has one child, from her former marriage to actor and comedian Craig Charles.

Cathy Tyson on IMDb