Closer (Joy Division album)
Closer is the second and final studio album by English rock band Joy Division, released on 18 July 1980 by Factory Records. Produced by Martin Hannett, it was Joy Division's first posthumous album and was released two months after the suicide of the band's lead singer and lyricist Ian Curtis. Following the release of the non-album single "Love Will Tear Us Apart" in June 1980, the remaining members re-formed as New Order. Today, Closer is recognised as a seminal release of the post-punk era; the songs on Closer were drawn from two distinct periods. The earlier guitar-driven compositions were written during the latter half of 1979: "Atrocity Exhibition", "Passover", "Colony", "A Means to an End" and "24 Hours". All were played live with some being recorded for various radio sessions; the album's other songs were written in early 1980, included more prominent use of synthesisers: "Isolation", "Heart and Soul", "The Eternal" and "Decades". Most songs were structured during jam sessions in the band's practice room.
Regarding the album's lyrical content, Bernard Sumner recollected: "We'd go to rehearsals and sit around and talk about banal things. We'd do that until we couldn't talk about banal things any more we'd pick up our instruments and record into a little cassette player. We didn't talk about the music or the lyrics much. We never analysed it."Closer was recorded between 18–30 March 1980 at Britannia Row Studios in Islington, London. It was produced by Martin Hannett, his production has been praised, with Pitchfork describing it as "sepulchral." However, as with their debut album, both Hook and Sumner were unhappy with Hannett's work. Peter Hook complained that the track "Atrocity Exhibition" was mixed on one of his days off, when he heard the final product was disappointed that the abrasiveness of his guitar part had been laden with effects and toned down, he wrote. Unknown Pleasures number two... Martin had melted the guitar with his Marshall Time Waster. Made it sound like somebody strangling a cat, to my mind killed the song.
I was so annoyed with him and went in and gave him a piece of my mind but he just turned around and told me to fuck off."The 1970 collection of "condensed novels" The Atrocity Exhibition by J. G. Ballard was an influence on the album, shares its title with the opening track; the album cover was designed by Martyn Atkins and Peter Saville, with a photograph of the Appiani family tomb in Genoa's Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno adorning much of the sleeve. The image itself was taken by Bernard Pierre Wolff in 1978. In a 2007 documentary on the band, designer Peter Saville commented that he, upon learning of singer Ian Curtis's suicide, expressed immediate concern over the album's design as it depicted a funeral theme, remarking "we've got a tomb on the cover of the album!"Closer was released on 18 July 1980 by Factory Records, as a 12" vinyl LP. The album reached No. 6 on the UK Albums Chart. It peaked at No. 3 in New Zealand in September 1981. Closer was named NME Album of the Year; the album, along with Unknown Pleasures and Still, was remastered and re-released in 2007.
As with Unknown Pleasures and Still, the remaster was packaged with a bonus live disc, recorded at the University of London Union. Factory boss Tony Wilson was pleased with the final album and predicted it would be a commercial success. Sumner recalled him saying at the time, "You know Bernard, this time next year you'll be lounging by a swimming pool in LA with a cocktail in your hand." Sumner was less optimistic and "just thought it was the most utterly ridiculous thing anyone had said to me." At the time of release, Sounds critic Dave McCullough wrote that there were "dark strokes of gothic rock" on Closer. He described the album as "breathtaking rock music, a peak of current peaks, a sharing of something that's in others at this time, but at the same time defining those black notions and leaving them unmatched." Writing for Smash Hits, Alastair Macaulay described the album as an "exercise in dark controlled passion" and wrote that its music "stands up on its own as the band's epitaph". Writing for Melody Maker, Paolo Hewitt described the album as "probably some of the most irresistible dance music we'll hear this year a far cry for sure from the suffocating claustrophobic world of the debut album," adding that "the best rock music has always dealt head-on with emotions and thought rather than cliched, standardised stances.
At the end of 1980, Closer was voted the 22nd best record of the year in the Pazz & Jop, an annual poll of American critics published by The Village Voice. Robert Christgau, the poll's supervisor, deemed the album an improvement over Unknown Pleasures in a retrospective review: "Curtis's torment is less oppressive here because it's less dominant—the dark, off-center rhythms have a life of their own, and if last time the dancier material had hooks, this time the dirges have something resembling tunes. Rolling Stone's Mikal Gilmore, in a 1981 profile of the band's work, wrote: "The music turns leaden and steady because it means to fulfill a vision of a world where suffering is unremitting and nothingness is quiescent." 2005 book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die defines Closer a "quantum leap" in terms of progression when compared to the band's debut album. According to Colin Larkin, Closer has since been "deservedly regarded by many critics as the most brilliant rock album of the 80s".
Neu! is the debut album by German krautrock band Neu!. It was recorded in December 1971 at Windrose-Dumont-Time Studios, Germany, mixed at Star-Musik Studio, Hamburg and released in 1972 by Brain Records, it was reissued by Grönland on 29 May 2001 and licensed to Astralwerks for US distribution. This was members Michael Rother and Klaus Dinger's first recording together after they left Kraftwerk in 1971, they continued to work with Konrad "Conny" Plank, producing the Kraftwerk recording sessions. Having broken off from Kraftwerk and Dinger began the recording sessions for what would become Neu!. The band was christened by Dinger and a pop-art style logo was created, featuring italic capitals. Dinger recalled Neu!'s logo:... it was a protest against the consumer society but against our "colleagues" on the Krautrock scene who had different taste/styling if any. I was well informed about Warhol, Pop Art, Contemporary Art. I had always been visual in my thinking. During that time, I lived in a commune and in order to get the space that we lived in, I set up an advertising agency which existed on paper.
Most of the people that I lived with were trying to break into advertising so I was somehow surrounded by this Neu! all the time. The pair recorded in Star Studios in Hamburg, with the up-and-coming Krautrock producer Plank, as Dinger had with Kraftwerk. Dinger noted that Plank served as a "mediator" between the disagreeing factions within the band; the band were booked into the studio for four days in late 1971. According to Dinger, the first two days were unproductive until he brought his shamisen to the sessions, a treated version of which can be heard on "Negativland", the first of the album's six tracks to be recorded, it was during these sessions. Two songs on the album, "Hallogallo" and "Negativland", feature this beat. Motorik is a repeated 44 drumbeat with only occasional interruptions best showcased on "Hallogallo". Dinger claimed never to have used the term "motorik" himself, preferring either "lange gerade" or "endlose gerade", he changed the beat's "name" to the "Apache beat" to coincide with his 1985 solo album Neondian.
The album displays elements of electronic music, industrial music, noise music and psychedelic rock. Neu! sold well for an underground album at the time. According to Dinger 30,000 copies were sold; the track "Negativland" provided the name for a group of American musical satirists. All tracks written by Michael Rother. Michael Rother – guitar, bass guitar Klaus Dinger – drums, bulbul tarang Konrad "Conny" Plank – producer, engineer Neu! at Discogs
Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock, they produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; the term "punk rock" was first used by certain American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe 1960s garage bands and subsequent acts perceived as stylistic inheritors. Between 1974 and 1976 the movement now called. By late 1976, bands such as Television and the Ramones in New York City, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, the Damned in London, the Saints in Brisbane were recognized as forming its vanguard; as 1977 approached, punk became a major and controversial cultural phenomenon in the UK. It spawned a punk subculture expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.
In 1977 the influence of the music and subculture became more pervasive. It took root in a wide range of local scenes that rejected affiliation with the mainstream. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as hardcore punk, street punk and anarcho-punk became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk pursued other musical directions, giving rise to spinoffs such as post-punk, new wave, indie pop, alternative rock, noise rock. By the 1990s, punk re-emerged in the mainstream with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands such as Green Day, The Offspring, Blink-182; the first wave of punk rock was "aggressively modern" and differed from what came before. According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of stuff was innovative and exciting. What happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away.
Soon you had endless solos. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock'n' roll." John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans and roll meant this wild and rebellious music." In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth." Technical accessibility and a Do. UK pub rock from 1972-1975 contributed to the emergence of punk rock by developing a network of small venues, such as pubs, where non-mainstream bands could play. Pub rock introduced the idea of independent record labels, such as Stiff Records, which put out basic, low-cost records. Pub rock bands put out small pressings of their records. In the early days of punk rock, this DIY ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.
Musical virtuosity was looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music". In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band"; the title of a 1980 single by the New York punk band Stimulators, "Loud Fast Rules!", inscribed a catchphrase for punk's basic musical approach. Some of British punk rock's leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated music predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared the Clash song "1977"; the previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural "Year Zero". As nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future".
While "self-imposed alienation" was common among "drunk punks" and "gutter punks", there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the "radical leftist utopianism" of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able to do what we want to do."The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that "attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult".
Industrial music is a genre of experimental music which draws on harsh, transgressive or provocative sounds and themes. AllMusic defines industrial music as the "most abrasive and aggressive fusion of rock and electronic music", "initially a blend of avant-garde electronics experiments and punk provocation"; the term was coined in the mid-1970s with the founding of Industrial Records by members of Throbbing Gristle and Monte Cazazza. While the genre name originated with Throbbing Gristle's emergence in the United Kingdom, concentrations of artists and labels vital to the genre emerged in Chicago; the first industrial artists experimented with noise and aesthetically controversial topics and visually, such as fascism, sexual perversion, the occult. Prominent industrial musicians include Throbbing Gristle, Monte Cazazza, SPK, Boyd Rice, Cabaret Voltaire, Z'EV. On Throbbing Gristle's 1977 debut album The Second Annual Report, they coined the slogan "industrial music for industrial people". Chicago-based independent label Wax Trax Records featured a heavy roster of industrial music acts.
The precursors that influenced the development of the genre included acts such as electronic music group Kraftwerk, experimental rock acts such as Pink Floyd and Frank Zappa, psychedelic rock artists such as Jimi Hendrix, composers such as John Cage. Musicians cite writers such as William S. Burroughs, philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche as influences. While the term was self-applied by a small coterie of groups and individuals associated with Industrial Records in the late 1970s, it was broadened to include artists influenced by the original movement or using an "industrial" aesthetic. A few years in the 1980s, artists on Chicago-based Wax Trax Records such as Front 242, KMFDM, Front Line Assembly and Sister Machine Gun gained prominence on the industrial music scene. Over time, the genre's influence blended with styles including ambient and rock. Electro-industrial music is a primary subgenre; the two other most notable hybrid genres are industrial rock and industrial metal, which include bands such as Nine Inch Nails and Ministry, both of which released platinum-selling albums in the 1990s.
These distinct genres are referred to as industrial. Industrial music drew from a broad range of predecessors. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the genre was first named in 1942 when The Musical Quarterly called Dmitri Shostakovich's 1927 Symphony No. 2 "the high tide of'industrial music'." In 1972 The New York Times described works by Ferde Grofé as a part of "his'industrial music' genre called on such instruments as four pairs of shoes, two brooms, a locomotive bell, a pneumatric drill and a compressed-air tank". Though these compositions are not directly tied to what the genre would become, they are early examples of music designed to mimic machinery noise and factory atmosphere. In his book Interrogation Machine: Laibach and NSK, Alexei Monroe argues that Kraftwerk were significant in the development of industrial music, as the "first successful artists to incorporate representations of industrial sounds into nonacademic electronic music." Industrial music was created by using mechanical and electric machinery, advanced synthesizers and electronic percussion as the technology developed.
Monroe argues for Suicide as an influential contemporary of the industrial musicians. Groups cited as inspirational by the founders of industrial music include The Velvet Underground, Joy Division, Martin Denny. Genesis P-Orridge of Throbbing Gristle had a cassette library including recordings by the Master Musicians of Jajouka, Charles Manson, William S. Burroughs. P-Orridge credited 1960s rock such as The Doors, Pearls Before Swine, The Fugs, Captain Beefheart, Frank Zappa in a 1979 interview. Chris Carter enjoyed and found inspiration in Pink Floyd and Tangerine Dream. Boyd Rice was influenced by the music of tiki culture. Z'EV cited Christopher Tree, John Coltrane, Miles Davis, Tim Buckley, Jimi Hendrix, Captain Beefheart, among others together with Tibetan, Javanese and African music as influential in his artistic life. Cabaret Voltaire cited Roxy Music as their initial forerunners, as well as Kraftwerk's Trans-Europe Express. Cabaret Voltaire recorded pieces reminiscent of musique concrète and composers such as Morton Subotnick.
Nurse with Wound cited a long list of obscure free improvisation and Krautrock as recommended listening. 23 Skidoo borrowed from Fela Kuti and Miles Davis's On the Corner. Many industrial groups, including Einstürzende Neubauten, took inspiration from world music. Many of the initial industrial musicians preferred to cite artists or thinkers, rather than musicians, as their inspiration. Simon Reynolds declares that "Being a Throbbing Gristle fan was like enrolling in a university course of cultural extremism." John Cage was an initial inspiration for Throbbing Gristle. SPK appreciated Jean Dubuffet, Marcel Duchamp, Jean Baudrillard, Michel Foucault, Walter Benjamin, Marshall McLuhan, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gilles Deleuze. Cabaret Voltaire took conceptual cues from Burroughs, J. G. Ballard, Tristan Tzara. Whitehouse and Nurse with Wound dedicated some of their work to the Marquis de Sade. Another influence on the industrial aesthetic was Lou Reed's Metal Machine Music. Pitchfork Music cites this album as "inspiring, in part, much of the contemporary avant-garde music scene—noise, in particular."
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Factory Records was a Manchester-based British independent record label, started in 1978 by Tony Wilson and Alan Erasmus, which featured several prominent musical acts on its roster such as Joy Division, New Order, A Certain Ratio, the Durutti Column, Happy Mondays and Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark and James. Like the 4AD label, Factory Records used a creative team which gave the label and the artists recording for it a particular sound and image; the label employed a unique cataloguing system that gave a number not just to its musical releases, but to artwork and other objects. Factory started in January 1978. At that time there was a punk label in Manchester called Rabid Records, run by Tosh Ryan and Martin Hannett, it had several successful acts, including Slaughter & the Dogs, John Cooper Clarke, Jilted John. After his seminal TV series So It Goes, Tony Wilson was interested in the way Rabid Records ran, was convinced that the real money and power were in album sales. With a lot of discussion, Tony Wilson, Rob Gretton and Alan Erasmus set up Factory Records, with Martin Hannett from Rabid.
The Factory name was first used for a club in May of that year, which featured local bands including the Durutti Column, Cabaret Voltaire from Sheffield, Joy Division. Peter Saville designed advertising for the club, in September Factory released an EP of music by acts who had played at the club called A Factory Sample. In 1978, Wilson compered the new wave afternoon at Deeply Vale Festival; this was the fourth live appearance by the fledgling Durutti Column and that afternoon Wilson introduced an appearance by the Fall, featuring Mark E. Smith and Marc "Lard" Riley on bass guitar; the Factory label set up an office in Erasmus' home on the first floor of 86 Palatine Road, the Factory Sample EP was released in early 1979. Singles followed by A Certain Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark; the first Factory LP, Joy Division's Unknown Pleasures, was released in June. In January 1980, The Return of the Durutti Column was released, the first in a long series of releases by guitarist Vini Reilly. In May, Joy Division singer Ian Curtis committed suicide shortly before a planned tour of the USA.
The following month saw Joy Division's single "Love Will Tear Us Apart" reach the UK top twenty, their second album Closer was released the following month. In late 1980, the remaining members of Joy Division decided to continue as New Order. Factory branched out, with Factory Benelux being run as an independent label in conjunction with Les Disques du Crepuscule, Factory US organising distribution for the UK label's releases in America. In 1981, Factory and New Order opened a nightclub and preparations were made to convert a Victorian textile factory near the centre of Manchester, which had seen service as a motor boat showroom. Hannett left the label, as he had wanted to open a recording studio instead, subsequently sued for unpaid royalties. Saville quit as a partner due to problems with payments, although he continued to work for Factory. Wilson and Gretton formed Factory Communications Ltd; the Haçienda opened in May 1982. Although successful in terms of attendance, attracting a lot of praise for Ben Kelly's interior design, the club lost large amounts of money in its first few years due to the low prices charged for entrance and at the bar, markedly cheaper than nearby pubs.
Adjusting bar prices failed to help matters as by the mid-1980s crowds were preferring ecstasy to alcohol. Therefore the Haçienda ended up costing tens of thousands of pounds every month. In 1983 New Order's "Blue Monday"; the label didn't make any money from it since the original sleeve, die-cut and designed to look like a floppy disk, was so costly to make that the label lost 5 pence on every copy they sold. Saville noted that nobody at Factory expected Blue Monday to be a commercially successful record at all, so nobody expected the cost to be an issue.1985 saw the first release by Happy Mondays. New Order and Happy Mondays became the most successful bands on the label, bankrolling a host of other projects. Factory, the Haçienda, became a cultural hub of the emerging techno and acid house genres and their amalgamation with post-punk guitar music. 1986 saw Mick Middles' book Joy Division to New Order published by Virgin Books. In 1989 the label extended its reach to fringe punk folk outfit To Hell With Burgundy.
Factory opened a bar and a shop in the Northern Quarter of Manchester. Factory's headquarters on Charles Street, near the Oxford Road BBC building, were opened in September 1990. In 1991, Factory suffered two tragedies: the deaths of Dave Rowbotham. Hannett had re-established a relationship with the label, working with Happy Mondays, tributes including a compilation album and a festival were organised. Rowbotham was one of the first musicians signed by the label. Saville's association with Factory was now reduced to designing for New Ord
Chrome is an American rock band founded in San Francisco in 1975 by musician Damon Edge and associated with the 1970s post-punk movement. The group's coarse sound blended science-fiction themes, tape experimentation, electronic noise with distorted acid rock guitar, bring together elements of punk and industrial music, they found little commercial success as part of San Francisco's 1970s music scene, but developed a cult following in the United Kingdom and Germany. They have been cited as forerunners of the 1980s industrial music boom. Edge died in 1995. Chrome was formed in 1975 by Gary Spain in San Francisco. While studying at the California Institute of the Arts, Edge became influenced in making unusual sounds. In his head, he started coming up with ideas for songs. Chrome's music contained a lot of atmosphere in the sound production, featuring three- and eight-note melodies layered with an atonal drone backed by a rhythm section; this sort of atmosphere was influenced by the music. About six months after that trip, Edge began recording his new music.
Chrome took part of their inspiration for their rough and sometimes chaotic music from punk pioneers like the Stooges. They released their first album, The Visitation, along with John Lambdin and Mike Low. After recording The Visitation, Edge sent the album to Warner Brothers to see if they wanted to release the album. A Warner Brothers A&R representative told Edge that the album sounded like a "messed up Doors album"; the label did not release the album, so Edge set up his own label, Siren Records. After the recording of the first album, singer Mike Low left the band, to be replaced by new guitarist Helios Creed. Chrome's commercial and artistic breakthrough came in 1977 with their second album, Alien Soundtracks; the album began as Ultra Soundtrack, a soundtrack for a radical San Francisco strip show, but was rejected for being too radical. During recording, aided by Creed's input abandoned conventional rock compositions, instead employing cut-up and collage techniques and processed sound to create a kind of sci-fi punk style.
The album was given 4 out of 5 stars in the UK music paper Sounds, Chrome began to gain a cult reputation in the UK and in Europe. After recording Alien Soundtracks, John Lambdin left the band, their third studio album, Half Machine Lip Moves, was released in 1979. Half Machine Lip Moves continued in the vein of the previous album, but heavier, with Creed's feedback guitar more to the fore. Edge's rough and ready drumming on this album included hitting pieces of scrap metal. Half Machine Lip Moves remains their best-known work, it was listed at No. 62 in The Wire list of "100 Records That Set the World on Fire", was cited as the "beginning of industrial rock". Half Machine Lip Moves and their 1979 EP Read Only Memory cemented the band's growing reputation in the UK and led to the band being signed to Beggars Banquet Records for their fourth album, Red Exposure. By this time Chrome consisted of Edge and Creed; the album marked a move away from the more frenetic style of the two previous albums, with more use of drum machines and synthesizers.
In 1980, Edge met singer Fabienne Shine of the band Shakin' Street, married her two months later. She went on to collaborate with him on several Chrome albums. After a further EP and single, Chrome again expanded to a quartet with the addition of the new rhythm section of John and Hilary Stench; this lineup existed circa 1980–1983, produced the albums Blood on the Moon and 3rd from the Sun, the new material comprising the fifth LP of the 1982 Chrome Box set. The Chronicles material was released in France as an album titled Raining Milk, would be reissued in much longer versions on the distinct albums Chronicles I and Chronicles II; the title track from 3rd from the Sun was covered by the band Prong on their 1989 album Beg to Differ. In 1983, Edge moved to Paris. Shine introduced him to her band and a new lineup of Chrome was formed. Edge and his wife would separate. Edge continued to release albums with various musicians under the Chrome moniker over the next decade. In August 1995, Edge was found dead in his Redondo Beach apartment in California.
Edge had talked about reforming Chrome. After she and Edge separated, Shine continued to compose songs. In 1997, after Edge's death, she released; the title referred to her late husband. In 2004, she began touring again with Creed. A Creed-led version of Chrome that featured previous members John and Hilary Stench released a series of albums and toured between 1997 and 2001. Creed reactivated the Chrome name again, issuing a new album, Feel It Like a Scientist, in 2014; the group's next album, was released April 21, 2017, followed by a US tour. As of 2018, Chrome's current line-up consisted on Creed, Tommy Grenas, Aleph Omega, Lux Vibratus, Lou Minatti and Steve Fishman; the Visitation The works of Edge and Creed together, in San Francisco. Studio albumsAlien Soundtracks Half Machine Lip Moves Red Exposure (1980, Beggars Banq
Post-punk is a broad type of rock music that emerged from the punk movement of the 1970s, in which artists departed from the simplicity and traditionalism of punk rock to adopt a variety of avant-garde sensibilities and diverse influences. Inspired by punk's energy and DIY ethic but determined to break from rock cliches, artists experimented with sources including electronic music and black styles like dub, free jazz, disco. Communities that produced independent record labels, visual art, multimedia performances and fanzines developed around these pioneering musical scenes, which coalesced in cities such as London, New York, Melbourne and San Francisco; the early post-punk vanguard was represented by groups such as Siouxsie and the Banshees, Public Image Ltd, the Pop Group, Cabaret Voltaire, Pere Ubu, Gang of Four, Joy Division, Talking Heads, Throbbing Gristle, the Slits, the Cure, the Fall, Au Pairs. The movement was related to the development of ancillary genres such as gothic rock, neo-psychedelia, no wave, industrial music.
By the mid-1980s, post-punk had dissipated while providing the impetus for the New Pop movement as well much subsequent alternative and independent music. Post-punk is a diverse genre. Called "new musick", the terms were first used by various writers in the late 1970s to describe groups moving beyond punk's garage rock template and into disparate areas. Sounds writer Jon Savage used "post-punk" in early 1978. NME writer Paul Morley stated that he had "possibly" invented the term himself. At the time, there was a feeling of renewed excitement regarding what the word would entail, with Sounds publishing numerous preemptive editorials on new musick. Towards the end of the decade, some journalists used "art punk" as a pejorative for garage rock-derived acts deemed too sophisticated and out of step with punk's dogma. Before the early 1980s, many groups now categorized as "post-punk" were subsumed under the broad umbrella of "new wave", with the terms being deployed interchangeably. "Post-punk" became differentiated from "new wave".
Nicholas Lezard described the term "post-punk" as "so multifarious that only the broadest use... is possible". Subsequent discourse has failed to clarify whether contemporary music journals and fanzines conventionally understood "post-punk" the way that it was discussed in years. Music historian Clinton Heylin places the "true starting-point for English post-punk" somewhere between August 1977 and May 1978, with the arrival of guitarist John McKay in Siouxsie and the Banshees in July 1977, Magazine's first album, Wire's new musical direction in 1978 and the formation of Public Image Ltd. Simon Reynolds' 2005 book Rip It Up and Start Again is referenced as post-punk doctrine, although he has stated that the book only covers aspects of post-punk that he had a personal inclination toward. Wilkinson characterized Reynolds' readings as "apparent revisionism and'rebranding'". Author/musician Alex Ogg criticized: "The problem is not with what Reynolds left out of Rip It Up... but, that too much was left in".
Ogg suggested that post-punk pertains to a set of artistic sensibilities and approaches rather than any unifying style, disputed the accuracy of the term's chronological prefix "post", as various groups labeled "post-punk" predate the punk rock movement. Reynolds defined the post-punk era as occurring between 1978 and 1984, he advocated that post-punk be conceived as "less a genre of music than a space of possibility", suggesting that "what unites all this activity is a set of open-ended imperatives: innovation. AllMusic employs "post-punk" to denote "a more adventurous and arty form of punk". Many post-punk artists were inspired by punk's DIY ethic and energy, but became disillusioned with the style and movement, feeling that it had fallen into a commercial formula, rock convention, self-parody, they repudiated its populist claims to accessibility and raw simplicity, instead of seeing an opportunity to break with musical tradition, subvert commonplaces and challenge audiences. Artists moved beyond punk's focus on the concerns of a white, working-class population and abandoned its continued reliance on established rock and roll tropes, such as three-chord progressions and Chuck Berry-based guitar riffs.
These artists instead defined punk as "an imperative to constant change", believing that "radical content demands radical form". Though the music varied between regions and artists, the post-punk movement has been characterized by its "conceptual assault" on rock conventions and rejection of aesthetics perceived of as traditionalist, hegemonic or rockist in favor of experimentation with production techniques and non-rock musical styles such as dub, electronic music, noise, free jazz, world music, the avant-garde; some previous musical styles served as touchstones for the movement, including particular brands of krautrock, art rock, art pop and other music from the 1960s. Artists once again approached the studio as an instrument, using new recording methods and pursuing novel sonic territories. Author Matthew Bannister wrote that post-punk artists rejected the high cultural references of 1960s rock artists like the Beatles and Bob Dylan as well as paradigms that defined "rock as progressive, as art, as'sterile' studio perfectionism... by adopting an avant-garde aesth