Infant formula, baby formula or just formula or baby milk, infant milk or first milk, is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder or liquid. The U. S. Federal Food and Cosmetic Act defines infant formula as "a food which purports to be or is represented for special dietary use as a food for infants by reason of its simulation of human milk or its suitability as a complete or partial substitute for human milk". Manufacturers state that the composition of infant formula is designed to be based on a human mother's milk at one to three months postpartum; the most used infant formulas contain purified cow's milk whey and casein as a protein source, a blend of vegetable oils as a fat source, lactose as a carbohydrate source, a vitamin-mineral mix, other ingredients depending on the manufacturer. In addition, there are infant formulas using soybean as a protein source in place of cow's milk and formulas using protein hydrolysed into its component amino acids for infants who are allergic to other proteins.
An upswing in breastfeeding in many countries has been accompanied by a deferment in the average age of introduction of baby foods, resulting in both increased breastfeeding and increased use of infant formula between the ages of 3- and 12-months. A 2001 World Health Organization report found that infant formula prepared in accordance with applicable Codex Alimentarius standards was a safe complementary food and a suitable breast milk substitute. In 2003, the WHO and UNICEF published their Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, which restated that "processed-food products for...young children should, when sold or otherwise distributed, meet applicable standards recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission", warned that "lack of breastfeeding—and lack of exclusive breastfeeding during the first half-year of life—are important risk factors for infant and childhood morbidity and mortality". In particular, the use of infant formula in less economically developed countries is linked to poorer health outcomes because of the prevalence of unsanitary preparation conditions, including lack of clean water and lack of sanitizing equipment.
A formula-fed child living in unclean conditions is between 6 and 25 times more to die of diarrhea and four times more to die of pneumonia than a breastfed child. Use of powdered infant formula has been associated with serious illness, death, due to infection with Cronobacter sakazakii and other microorganisms that can be introduced to PIF during its production. Although C. sakazakii can cause illness in all age groups, infants are believed to be at greatest risk of infection. Between 1958 and 2006, there have been several dozen reported cases of E. sakazakii infection worldwide. The WHO believes; the use and marketing of infant formula has come under scrutiny. Breastfeeding, including exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, is advocated as "ideal" for babies and infants, both by health authorities — and accordingly in ethical advertising of infant formula manufacturers. Despite the recommendation that babies be breastfed for the first 6 months, less than 40% of infants below this age are breastfed worldwide.
The overwhelming majority of American babies are not breastfed for this period – in 2005 under 12% of babies were breastfed for the first 6 months, with over 60% of babies of 2 months of age being fed formula, one in four breastfed infants having infant formula feeding within two days of birth. Some studies have shown that use of formula can vary according to the parents' socio-economic status, ethnicity or other characteristics. For example, according to a research conducted in Vancouver, Canada, 82.9% of mothers breastfeed their babies at birth, but the number differed between Caucasians and non-Caucasians, with the difference attributed to marital status and family income. In the United States, mothers of lower socio-economic status have been found less to breastfeed, although this may be related to adverse effects of government nutrition supplementation programs that provide subsidies for infant formula; the use of hydrolysed cow milk baby formula versus standard milk baby formula does not appear to change the risk of allergies or autoimmune diseases.
In some cases, breastfeeding is medically contraindicated. These include: Mother's health: The mother has active tuberculosis, she is ill or has had certain kinds of breast surgery, which may have removed or disconnected all milk-producing parts of the breast. She is taking any kind of drug that could harm the baby, including both prescription drugs such as cytotoxic chemotherapy for cancer treatments as well as illicit drugs. One of the main global risks posed by breast milk is the transmission of HIV and other infectious diseases. Breastfeeding by an HIV-infected mother poses a 5–20% chance of transmitting HIV to the baby. However, if a mother has HIV, she is more to transmit it to her child during the pregnancy or birth than during breastfeeding. A 2012 study conducted by researchers from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine showed reduced HIV-1 transmission in humanized mice, due to components in the breast milk. Cytomegalovirus infection poses dangerous co
Men in the Raw is a 1923 American Western film directed by George Marshall and written by George Hively. The film stars Jack Hoxie, Marguerite Clayton, Sid Jordan, J. Morris Foster, Tom Kerrick, William Lowery; the film was released on October 1923, by Universal Pictures. As described in a film magazine, Windy Watkins, noted prevaricator, tells the men of the Bar Nothing Ranch a series of thrilling adventures, a stranger becomes interested. So Windy proceeds to tell him how he and Phil Hollis while in Alaska had trouble with a pair of men who had known Phil in Montana. Phil was killed, Windy tells the stranger, Windy was accused, he escaped and assumed the charge of the ranch of Eunice Hollis, under threat of cattle rustlers, but was forced to leave when word of the murder accusation bobs up. Windy completes the story, the stranger surprises them by saying that Windy told the truth and that he was a federal marshal come to arrest the storyteller. A chase ensues, the men grapple midstream and carried through a subterranean passage until they reach the hiding place of Bill Spray and his cattle rustlers.
The marshal finds in Spray the real murderer. His innocence and veracity established, Windy returns to Eunice. Jack Hoxie as Windy Watkins Marguerite Clayton as Eunice Hollis Sid Jordan as Bill Spray J. Morris Foster as Phil Hollis Tom Kerrick as Les Elder William Lowery as Marshal Flynn Art Manning as Tom Morley Tex Parker as Spray Henchman Scout as Windy's Horse Men in the Raw on IMDb Synopsis at AllMovie
Vigabatrin, brand name Sabril, is a medication used to treat epilepsy. It became available as a generic medication in 2019, it works by inhibiting the breakdown of γ-aminobutyric acid. It is known as γ-vinyl-GABA, is a structural analogue of GABA, but does not bind to GABA receptors. In Canada, vigabatrin is approved for use as an adjunctive treatment in treatment resistant epilepsy, complex partial seizures, secondary generalized seizures, for monotherapy use in infantile spasms in West syndrome; as of 2003, vigabatrin is approved in Mexico for the treatment of epilepsy, not satisfactorily controlled by conventional therapy or in diagnosed patients who have not tried other agents. Vigabatrin is indicated for monotherapy use in secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures, partial seizures, in infantile spasms due to West syndrome. On August 21, 2009, Lundbeck announced that the U. S. Food and Drug Administration had granted two New Drug Application approvals for vigabatrin; the drug is indicated as monotherapy for pediatric patients one month to two years of age with infantile spasms for whom the potential benefits outweigh the potential risk of vision loss, as adjunctive therapy for adult patients with refractory complex partial seizures who have inadequately responded to several alternative treatments and for whom the potential benefits outweigh the risk of vision loss.
In 1994, Feucht and Brantner-Inthaler reported that vigabatrin reduced seizures by 50-100% in 85% of children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome who had poor results with sodium valproate. Vigabatrin reduced cholecystokinin tetrapeptide-induced symptoms of panic disorder, in addition to elevated cortisol and ACTH levels, in healthy volunteers. Vigabatrin is used to treat seizures in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, an inborn GABA metabolism defect that causes intellectual disability, seizures, speech disturbance, ataxia through the accumulation of γ-Hydroxybutyric acid. Vigabatrin helps lower GHB levels through GABA transaminase inhibition. However, this is in the brain only. Sleepiness, dizziness, depression, memory disturbances, aggression, vertigo, vision loss, insomnia, impaired concentration, personality issues. Out of 299 children, 33 became hyperactive; some patients develop psychosis during the course of vigabatrin therapy, more common in adults than in children. This can happen in patients with no prior history of psychosis.
Other rare CNS side effects include anxiety, emotional lability, tremor, abnormal gait, speech disorder. Abdominal pain, constipation and nausea. Dyspepsia and increased appetite occurred in less than 1% of subjects in clinical trials. Fatigue, weight gain, asthenia. A teratology study conducted in rabbits found that a dose of 150 mg/kg/day caused cleft palate in 2% of pups and a dose of 200 mg/kg/day caused it in 9%; this may be due to a decrease in methionine levels, according to a study published in March 2001. In 2005, a study conducted at the University of Catania was published stating that rats whose mothers had consumed 250–1000 mg/kg/day had poorer performance in the water maze and open-field tasks, rats in the 750-mg group were underweight at birth and did not catch up to the control group, rats in the 1000 mg group did not survive pregnancy. There is no controlled teratology data in humans to date. In 2003, vigabatrin was shown by Frisén and Malmgren to cause irreversible diffuse atrophy of the retinal nerve fiber layer in a retrospective study of 25 patients.
This has the most effect on the outer area of the retina. Visual field defects had been reported as early as 1997 by Tom Eke and others, in the UK; some authors, including Comaish et al. believe that visual field loss and electrophysiological changes may be demonstrable in up to 50% of Vigabatrin users. The retinal toxicity of vigabatrin can be attributed to a taurine depletion. Due to safety issues, the Vigabatrin REMS Program is required by the FDA to ensure informed decisions before initiating and to ensure appropriate use of this drug. A study published in 2002 found that vigabatrin causes a statistically significant increase in plasma clearance of carbamazepine. In 1984, Drs Rimmer and Richens at the University of Wales reported that administering vigabatrin with phenytoin lowered the serum phenytoin concentration in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Five years the same two scientists reported a fall in concentration of phenytoin of 23% within five weeks in a paper describing their failed attempt at elucidating the mechanism behind this interaction.
Vigabatrin is an irreversible mechanism-based inhibitor of gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GABA. Inhibition of GABA-AT results in increased levels of GABA in the brain. Vigabatrin is a racemic compound, its -enantiomer is pharmacologically active. With most drugs, elimination half-life is a useful predictor of dosing schedules and the time needed to reach steady state concentrations. In the case of vigabatrin, however, it has been found that the half-life of biologic activity is far longer than the elimination half-life. For vigabatrin, there is no range of target concentrations because researchers found no difference between the serum concentration levels of responders and
George Gordon Meade Easby known as Meade or Mr. Easby, was a multi-talented person, from an artist to acting and producing films, he served as an employee of the U. S. State Department for over twenty-five years and as a talk host on an AM radio station in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Easby was the great-grandson of General George Meade, victor of the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg against Robert E. Lee, a descendant of seven signers of the U. S. Declaration of Independence. Easby's mother was a descendant of Nicholas Waln, who came to Philadelphia in 1682 aboard the ship Welcome with William Penn, was given the section of the city now known as Frankford. Easby was born on June 1918 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, his father was a banker in Philadelphia and World War I hero. Easby's mother was Henrietta Meade Large Easby, described as "prim and reserved, a Victorian lady of few words", he had a younger brother Steven who died at a young age in 1931 from some type of childhood disease. The family "traces its roots to Easby Abbey in England.
General George Meade, victor of the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War, was Easby's great-grandfather through Meade's daughter. "My mother's mother was General Meade's daughter," said Easby. Easby graduated from Chestnut Hill Academy in June 1936, after reaching the age of 18. To celebrate all of this, on July 9, 1936, his parents purchased for him a brand new convertible Packard Super Eight luxury automobile from the nearest Packard dealership on Germantown Avenue. By the fall of the same year, he began studying illustration at the University of the Arts in Center City, Philadelphia. After the start of World War II in 1939, Easby was drafted into the United States Army and was assigned to patrol the Atlantic Coast. At the end of World War II Easby became a recognized cartoonist, he got involved in acting and producing low-budget Hollywood films. He worked as a radio talk host and as a U. S. State Department employee for over twenty-five years, he served on the Commission of Fine Arts and met with important figures.
In the meantime, Easby became a major art and antique collector, who inherited more than 100,000 antiques and personal items, many of, in his family for centuries. His collection includes items belonging to General George Meade, a chair and other high valued items belonging to Napoleon of France as well as jewelry belonging to Joséphine de Beauharnais, it includes the utensils that were used by the founding fathers of the United States during the signing of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia. Many pieces from his collection have been loaned to the White House, U. S. State Department for its diplomatic reception rooms, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City; some of his pieces are housed at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Easby's furniture items were traded at auctions such as Christie's and Sotheby's in the above one million dollar range each. Among many of the antique watches and clocks left to Easby, one was made for the 18th-century Queen Marie Antoinette of France. Easby was a collector of antique cars.
He owned the 1954 Rolls-Royce Silver Wraith, owned by Prince Aly Khan, his first vehicle and a few others. Following the January 1969 death of his father Easby has been living by himself in the family's Baleroy Mansion, located in the affluent Chestnut Hill section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, it has been given a title as the "Most Haunted Home in America", due to its infestation of spirits, jinns, angels or other supernatural beings that came to the 32-room mansion with the large collection of antiques. In 1990 Easby told The Philadelphia Inquirer, "The neighbors worry that it might become a Disney World with buses and tourists, but heavens, I've assured them that it won't." Easby died on December 2005, at a hospice in Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania. He had no living siblings or children; the cause of his death was reported as "multiple organ failure". According to a 2008 Philadelphia court record: Easby was buried at Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, he was known as an kind and generous person.
Bill Morrison is an American, New York–based filmmaker and artist. His films combine rare archival material set to contemporary music, have been screened in theaters, museums and concert halls around the world. Morrison was born in Illinois, he attended Reed College from 1983 to 1985, graduated with a BFA from the Cooper Union School of Art in 1989. He received the President's Citation from Cooper Union in 2016. Morrison had a mid-career retrospective at New York's Museum of Modern Art, October 2014 – March 2015, he is a fellow of the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, has received the Alpert Awards in the Arts, a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts, Creative Capital, the Foundation for Contemporary Arts Grants to Artists award. His theatrical projection design with Ridge Theater has been recognized with two Bessie Awards, an Obie Award. Morrison has collaborated with some of the most influential composers and performers of our time, including John Adams, Gavin Bryars, Bill Frisell, Philip Glass, Michael Gordon, Henryk Górecki, Jóhann Jóhannsson, Kronos Quartet, David Lang, Steve Reich, & Julia Wolfe among many others.
Decasia, his feature-length collaboration with composer Michael Gordon, was selected by the Library of Congress to its National Film Registry in 2013, becoming the first film of the 21st century selected to the list. It has been hailed by J. Hoberman as "the most praised American avant-garde film of the fin de siècle." The director Errol Morris commented while viewing Decasia that "This may be the greatest movie made". The film was commissioned by the Basel Sinfonietta to be shown on three screens surrounding the audience, behind which 55 musicians performed Michael Gordon's score. In 2011, Spark of Being, a collaboration with composer/trumpeter Dave Douglas, won The Douglas Edwards Experimental/Independent Film/Video Award at the 2011 Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards. In 2014, The Great Flood, a collaboration with composer/guitarist Bill Frisell, received the Smithsonian Magazine's American Ingenuity Award for Historical Scholarship. In 2016 Morrison presented the world premiere of Dawson City: Frozen Time in the Orizzonti section of the 73rd Venice International Film Festival, the North American premiere at the 54th New York Film Festival.
In 2017, The film was released by Kino Lorber, was named the best Documentary of 2017 by the Boston Society of Film Critics, was awarded a Critics' Choice Award for Most Innovative Documentary, an International Documentary Association Creative Recognition Award for Best Editing, was included on over 100 critics lists of the best films of 2017. In 2017 the film was released in Italy by Cineteca di Bologna, in 2019 it was released on DVD and Blu-ray in the UK by Second Run DVD. Morrison's collected works through 2014 were released as a 5-disc box set from Icarus Films in September 2014, a 3-disc Blu-ray box set from the British Film Institute in May 2015. Morrison has acted in other directors' films, notably Andrew Bujalski's Mutual Appreciation and its quasi-sequel Peoples House. Cinematograph Electricity The Unchanging Sea The Letter Weaving Dawson City: Postscript Dawson City: Frozen Time Little Orphant Annie The Dockworker's Dream Back to the Soil Beyond Zero: 1914-1918 The Great Flood All Vows Re:Awakenings Just Ancient Loops Tributes - Pulse The Miners' Hymns Spark of Being Release Dystopia Fuel Who By Water The Highwater Trilogy How To Pray Outerborough Gotham Light is Calling The Mesmerist East River Decasia Trinity Ghost Trip City Walk Film of Her Nemo The World Is Round The Death Train Footprints Photo Op Lost Avenues Night Highway Bill Morrison's website The film archaeologist.
The Hohe Egge near Ottlar in the North Hessian county of Waldeck-Frankenberg is a hill, 604.9 m above sea level, in the Upland in the Rothaar mountains. The Hohe Egge lies in the Upland, the northeastern foothills of the Rothaar mountains, in the Diemelsee Nature Park between Willingen and Diemelsee reservoir, its summit rises 850 metres southeast of the village church of Ottlar, 2.5 km southwest of Giebringhausen and 2.2 km northwest of Deisfeld, which are all in the municipality of Diemelsee, 1.9 km north-northeast of Hemmighausen, in the municipality of Willingen. The hills is on the territory of Diemelsee; the northern spur of the Hohe Egge is called the Harberg, its eastern spur is the Niegelscheid and its southern spur is unnamed. The Diemel runs past the hill to the east, feeding the eastern arm of the Diemelsee and, after flowing through the reservoir, continues down to the Weser. To the northwest the Holzbach stream rns through Ottlar flowing northeast and a little above the eastern arm of the reservoir into the Diemel.
The Hohe Egge belongs to the major unit group of Süder Uplands, the major unit of the Rothaar Mountains and the sub-unit of the Upland. Most of it falls within the natural region of Inner Upland, its northern and eastern slopes descend into the major unit of the East Sauerland Foothills and the sub-unit of Adorf Bay in the natural region of Vorupland Hill Country