Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
Infanta María Cristina of Spain
Infanta Maria Cristina of Spain, Countess Marone was the fourth child of Alfonso XIII of Spain and Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg and paternal aunt of King Juan Carlos I. Infanta Maria Cristina was born at the Palacio Real in Spain; the Spanish Royal Family left the country in 1931, in the face of Republican demonstrations, settling in Paris, before moving to Fontainebleau. By 1933 King Alfonso and his daughters, the Infantas Beatriz and Maria Cristina, had moved to Rome, their father warned would-be suitors of the inherent dangers of hemophilia, from which suffered two of the king's sons. She renounced her succession rights to the throne of the defunct Spanish crown and, on 10 June 1940, morganatically married Enrico Eugenio Marone-Cinzano in Rome, he had been created 1st Count Marone on 13 May 1940 by Victor Emmanuel III of Italy. He was the son of Alberto Marone and his wife, Paola Cinzano, was the widower of Noemí Rosa de Alcorta y García-Mansilla, by whom he had issue; the marriage produced four daughters, ten grandchildren and eleven great-grandchildren: Doña Vittoria Eugenia Alfonsa Alberta del Pilar Enrica Paola Marone-Cinzano she married José Carlos Álvarez de Toledo y Gross, 6th Marquess of Casa Loring on 12 January 1961.
They have four children and five grandchildren: Vittoria Eugenia Álvarez de Toledo y Marone-Cizano, 7th Marchioness of Casa Loring she married Alfonso Codorniu y Aguilar on 29 September 1982. They have three children: Jaime Codorníu y Álvarez de Toledo Ana Codorníu y Álvarez de Toledo Carla Codorniu y Alvarez de Toledo Francisco de Borja Álvarez de Toledo y Marone-Cinzano, 9th Count of Villapaterna he married Jill Schlanger, they have two sons. Daniel Álvarez de Toledo y Schlanger Jacobo Álvarez de Toledo y Schlanger Marco Alfonso Álvarez de Toledo y Marone-Cinzano, a priest Gonzalo Álvarez de Toledo y Marone-Cinzano and without issue Doña Giovanna Paola Gabriella Marone-Cinzano she married Jaime Galobert y Satrustequi on 24 July 1967 and they were divorced in 1980, they have three grandsons. She remarried Luis Ángel Sánchez-Merlo y Ruiz on 4 August 1989. Alfonso Alberto Galobart y Marone-Cinzano he married Alejandra Kindelán y Oteyza on 26 June 1998, they have three sons. Andrea Galobart y Kindelán Alfonso Galobart y Kindelán Alejandro Galobart y Kindelán Doña María Theresa Beatrice Marone-Cinzano, married in Geneva on 22 April 1967 and divorced in 1989 José María Ruiz de Arana y Montalvo, 17th Duke of Baena, 17th Duke of Sanlúcar La Mayor, 15th Marquess of Villamanrique, 13th Marquess of Castromonte, 5th Marquess of Brenes, 11th Count of Sevilla La Nueva and 5th Viscount of Mamblas.
They have three daughters and three grandchildren: María Cristina del Carmen Margarita Ruiz de Arana y Marone-Cinzano, 18th Duquesa de Baena, 18th Duquesa de Sanlúcar la Mayor, 14th Marquesa de Castromonte, 12th Condesa de Sevilla la Nueva and 6th Viscondesa de Mamblas. Isabel Alfonsa Ruiz de Arana y Marone-Cinzano, 16th Marquesa de Villamanrique, married to Ignacio Izuzquiza y Fernández, they have two children: Cristina Izuzquiza y Ruiz de Arana Iñigo Izuzquiza y Ruiz de Arana Inés Ruiz de Arana y Marone-Cinzano, 6th Marquesa de Brenes, married Carlos Magraner y Ubieta in 2008. They have one daughter: Carla Magraner y Ruiz de Arana Doña Anna Alessandra Marone-Cinzano she married Gian Carlo Stavro Santarosa on 7 December 1968 and they were divorced in 1975, they have two daughters. She remarried Fernando Schwartz y Giron in 1985. Astrid Christina Antonia Stavro di Santarosa Yara Paola Stavro di Santarosa Infanta Maria Cristina returned to Spain and spent periods of time there, but never lived there permanently.
She died in Madrid of a heart attack on 23 December 1996 during a Christmas reunion of the royal family at the Villa Giralda, the residence of her cousin and sister-in-law, the Countess of Barcelona. A funeral service for the Infanta was held in the chapel of the Royal Palace of Madrid on December 24, an burial service was held on December 26 in the Marone-Cinzano Pantheon in Turin. Spain: 1,112th Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa Heraldry of Infanta Maria Cristina of Spain El Pais, La Familia Real asiste al entierro de la infanta María Cristina en Turín, 27 December 1996 El Pais.
Infanta Margarita, Duchess of Soria
Infanta Margarita of Spain, Duchess of Soria, 2nd Duchess of Hernani, Grandee of Spain, is the younger sister of King Juan Carlos and aunt of the reigning King Felipe VI of Spain. Infanta Margarita was born in Rome as the younger daughter of Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona, Princess María de las Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. Margarita has been blind since birth, she married the physician Carlos Zurita y Delgado on 12 October 1972 in Estoril at St. Anthony's Church, they have two children: Alfonso Juan Carlos Zurita y de Borbón. María Sofía Emilia Carmen Zurita y de Borbón, she has a son, born on 28 April 2018 in Madrid. In 1989, alongside her husband, they created the Fundación Cultural Duques de Soria. She's Honorary President of Madrid's delegation of UNICEF and of the Spanish Heart Foundation. Infanta Margarita renounced her right of succession to the Spanish throne upon marriage. On 6 January 1979, the Infanta's cousin Manfredo de Borbón, 1st Duke of Hernani and willed his ducal title to be inherited by Margarita.
The King granted this request, on 27 May 1981, she became 2nd Duchess of Hernani with accompanying dignity Grandee of Spain. The peerage title referres to the town Spain; the month after, on 23 June 1981, she was granted a higher dukedom for life by the king and became Duchess of Soria. 6 March 1939 - 27 May 1981: Her Royal Highness Infanta Margarita of Spain 27 May 1981 - 23 June 1981: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Hernani 23 June 1981 - present: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Soria and HernaniThe Infanta's style and title in full: Her Royal Highness Doña Margarita María de la Victoria Esperanza Jacoba Felicidad Perpetua de Todos los Santos de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias de Zurita, Infanta of Spain, Duchess of Soria, Grande de España, Duchess of Hernani, Grande de España. Spain: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III Spain: 1,192nd Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa Spain: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Alfonso X Greek Royal Family: Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Beneficence Italy Two Sicilian Royal Family: Knight Grand Cross of Justice of the Two Sicilian RoyalSacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George Portugal: Grand Cross of the Order of Infante Henry
Palace of Zarzuela
The Zarzuela Palace is the residence of King Felipe VI and Queen Letizia of Spain and their family. The palace is near the Royal Palace of El Pardo; the complex houses the official residence of King Felipe VI and his family in a nearby mansion. The palace is owned by the Spanish State and administered by a state agency named the Patrimonio Nacional. During the 17th century, King Felipe IV of Spain ordered a country palace or hunting lodge to be built at La Zarzuela near Madrid; the name "Zarzuela" is thought to be derived from the word "zarzas" meaning brambles, due to its function as a hunting lodge, meaning that it is situated amongst the brambles of the King's Hunting Grounds. It was a slate-roofed building with two lateral arcades. King Charles IV had the building altered to adapt it to 18th century fashion, adorned it with tapestries and porcelain, as well as furniture and his much-loved clocks. King Juan Carlos I and his wife, Queen Sofía, have lived in the palace since their marriage in May 1962.
After the death of Generalísimo Francisco Franco in November 1975, the King decided not to occupy his Palace of El Pardo, leaving it for foreign state guests, designating the Palacio de la Moncloa as the residence of the President of the Spanish Government, while they remained at the Zarzuela. The Royal Palace in the centre of Madrid, the former principal residence of the Spanish kings, is the official residence of the King, although it is used only for state occasions. During the summer of 2002, Felipe VI Prince of Asturias, moved into a new residence, a 3,150 square metres palace built within the grounds of the Palace of La Zarzuela; the palace theatre was the place of origin of zarzuela. Official webpage of the Spanish Monarchy
Geneva is the second-most populous city in Switzerland and the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Canton of Geneva; the municipality has a population of 200,548, the canton has 495,249 residents. In 2014, the compact agglomération du Grand Genève had 946,000 inhabitants in 212 communities in both Switzerland and France. Within Swiss territory, the commuter area named "Métropole lémanique" contains a population of 1.26 million. This area is spread east from Geneva towards the Riviera area and north-east towards Yverdon-les-Bains, in the neighbouring canton of Vaud. Geneva is a global city, a financial centre, a worldwide centre for diplomacy due to the presence of numerous international organizations, including the headquarters of many agencies of the United Nations and the Red Cross. Geneva hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world, it is where the Geneva Conventions were signed, which chiefly concern the treatment of wartime non-combatants and prisoners of war.
In 2017, Geneva was ranked as the world's fifteenth most important financial centre for competitiveness by the Global Financial Centres Index, fifth in Europe behind London, Zürich and Luxembourg. In 2019 Geneva was ranked among the ten most liveable cities in the world by Mercer together with Zürich and Basel; the city has been referred to as the world's most compact metropolis and the "Peace Capital". In 2017, Geneva was ranked as the seventh most expensive city in the world. Geneva was ranked third in purchasing power in a global cities ranking by UBS in 2018; the city was mentioned in Latin texts, by Caesar, with the spelling Genava from the Celtic *genawa- from the stem *genu-, in the sense of a bending river or estuary. The medieval county of Geneva in Middle Latin was known as pagus major Genevensis or Comitatus Genevensis. After 1400 it became the Genevois province of Savoy; the name takes various forms in modern languages, Geneva in English, French: Genève, German: Genf, Italian: Ginevra, Romansh: Genevra.
The city shares the origin of * genawa "estuary", with the Italian port city of Genoa. Geneva was an Allobrogian border town, fortified against the Helvetii tribe, when the Romans took it in 121 BC, it became Christian under the Late Roman Empire, acquired its first bishop in the 5th century, having been connected to the Bishopric of Vienne in the 4th. In the Middle Ages, Geneva was ruled by a count under the Holy Roman Empire until the late 14th century, when it was granted a charter giving it a high degree of self-governance. Around this time, the House of Savoy came to at least nominally dominate the city. In the 15th century, an oligarchic republican government emerged with the creation of the Grand Council. In the first half of the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation reached the city, causing religious strife, during which Savoy rule was thrown off and Geneva allied itself with the Swiss Confederacy. In 1541, with Protestantism on the rise, John Calvin, the Protestant Reformer and proponent of Calvinism, became the spiritual leader of the city and established the Republic of Geneva.
By the 18th century, Geneva had come under the influence of Catholic France, which cultivated the city as its own. France tended to be at odds with the ordinary townsfolk, which inspired the failed Geneva Revolution of 1782, an attempt to win representation in the government for men of modest means. In 1798, revolutionary France under the Directory annexed Geneva. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, on 1 June 1814, Geneva was admitted to the Swiss Confederation. In 1907, the separation of Church and State was adopted. Geneva flourished in the 19th and 20th centuries, becoming the seat of many international organizations. Geneva is located at 46°12' North, 6°09' East, at the south-western end of Lake Geneva, where the Rhône flows out, it is surrounded by three mountain chains, each belonging to the Jura: the Jura main range lies north-westward, the Vuache southward, the Salève south-eastward. The city covers an area of 15.93 km2, while the area of the canton is 282 km2, including the two small exclaves of Céligny in Vaud.
The part of the lake, attached to Geneva has an area of 38 km2 and is sometimes referred to as petit lac. The canton has only a 4.5-kilometre-long border with the rest of Switzerland. Of 107.5 km of border, 103 are shared with France, the Département de l'Ain to the north and west and the Département de la Haute-Savoie to the south and east. Of the land in the city, 0.24 km2, or 1.5%, is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.5 km2, or 3.1%, is forested. The rest of the land, 14.63 km2, or 91.8%, is built up, 0.49 km2, or 3.1%, is either rivers or lakes and 0.02 km2, or 0.1%, is wasteland. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 3.4%, housing and buildings made up 46.2% and transportation infrastructure 25.8%, while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 15.7%. Of the agricultural land, 0.3% is used for growing crops. Of the water in the municipality, 0.2 % is composed of lakes and 2.9 % streams. The altitude of Geneva is 373.6 metres, corresponds to the altitude of
Juan Carlos I of Spain
Juan Carlos I is a former King of Spain, reigning from 1975 until his abdication in 2014. Juan Carlos is the grandson of Alfonso XIII, the last king of Spain before the abolition of the monarchy in 1931 and the subsequent declaration of the Second Spanish Republic. Juan Carlos was born in Rome, during his family's exile. Generalísimo Francisco Franco, the Spanish dictator who initiated the civil war by means of a coup d'état against the constitutional republic in 1936, took over the government of Spain after his victory in the Spanish Civil War in 1939, in 1947 Spain's status as a monarchy was affirmed and a law was passed allowing Franco to choose his successor. Juan Carlos's father, was the fourth child of Alfonso, who had renounced his claims to the throne in January 1941. Juan was seen by Franco to be too liberal and in 1969 was bypassed in favour of Juan Carlos as Franco's successor as head of state. Juan Carlos came to Spain in 1947 to continue his studies. After completing his secondary education in 1955, he began his military training and entered the General Military Academy at Zaragoza.
He attended the Naval Military School, the General Academy of the Air, finished his tertiary education at the University of Madrid. In 1962, Juan Carlos married Princess Sophia of Denmark in Athens; the couple had two daughters and a son together: Elena and Felipe. Due to Franco's declining health, Juan Carlos first began periodically acting as Spain's head of state in the summer of 1974. Franco died in November the following year and Juan Carlos became king on 22 November 1975, two days after Franco's death, the first reigning monarch since 1931. Expected to continue Franco's legacy, Juan Carlos, soon after his accession introduced reforms to dismantle the Francoist regime and begin the Spanish transition to democracy; this led to the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 in a referendum, which re-established a constitutional monarchy. In 1981, Juan Carlos played a major role in preventing a coup that attempted to revert Spain to Francoist government in the King's name. In 2008, he was considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America.
Hailed for his role in Spain's transition to democracy, the King and the monarchy's reputation began to suffer after controversies surrounding his family arose, exacerbated by an elephant-hunting trip he undertook during a time of financial crisis in Spain. In 2014, Juan Carlos, citing personal reasons, abdicated in favour of his son, who acceded to the throne as Felipe VI. Juan Carlos was born to Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona, Princess María de las Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies in Rome, where his grandfather King Alfonso XIII of Spain and other members of the Spanish royal family lived in exile following the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931, he was baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias. He was given the name Juan Carlos after his father and maternal grandfather, Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, his early life was dictated by the political concerns of his father and General Franco. He moved to Spain in 1948 to be educated there.
He began his studies in San Sebastián and finished them in 1954 at the Instituto San Isidro in Madrid. He joined the army, doing his officer training from 1955 to 1957 at the Military Academy of Zaragoza. Juan Carlos has two sisters: Duchess of Badajoz, he had a younger brother, Alfonso. On the evening of Holy Thursday, 29 March 1956, Juan Carlos's younger brother Alfonso died in a gun accident at the family's home Villa Giralda in Estoril, on the Portuguese Riviera; the Spanish Embassy in Portugal issued the following official communiqué: Whilst His Highness Prince Alfonso was cleaning a revolver last evening with his brother, a shot was fired hitting his forehead and killing him in a few minutes. The accident took place at 20.30 hours, after the Infante's return from the Maundy Thursday religious service, during which he had received holy communion. Alfonso had won a local junior golf tournament earlier in the day went to evening Mass and rushed up to the room to see Juan Carlos who had come home for the Easter holidays from military school.
It is alleged that Juan Carlos began playing with a gun, given to Alfonso by General Franco. Rumors appeared in newspapers that the gun had been held by Juan Carlos at the moment the shot was fired; as they were alone in the room, it is unclear how Alfonso was shot, but according to Josefina Carolo, dressmaker to Juan Carlos's mother, Juan Carlos pointed the pistol at Alfonso and pulled the trigger, unaware that it was loaded. Bernardo Arnoso, a Portuguese friend of Juan Carlos said that Juan Carlos fired the pistol not knowing that it was loaded, adding that the bullet ricocheted off a wall, hitting Alfonso in the face. Helena Matheopoulos, a Greek author who spoke with Juan Carlos's sister Pilar, said that Alfonso had been out of the room and when he returned and pushed the door open, the door knocked Juan Carlos in the arm, causing him to fire the pistol. In 1957, Juan Carlos spent a year in the naval school at Marín, another in the Air Force school in San Javier in Murcia. In 1960–61, he studied Law, International Political Economy and Public Finance at Complutense University.
He went to live in the Palace of Zarzuela and began carrying out official engagements. The dictatorial re
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who