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Infantry

Infantry is a military specialization that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry and tank forces. Known as foot soldiers or infantrymen, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. Infantry make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, bear the largest brunt in warfare, as measured by casualties, deprivation, or physical and psychological stress; the first military forces in history were infantry. In antiquity, infantry were armed with an early melee weapon such as a spear, axe or sword, or an early ranged weapon like a javelin, sling, or bow, with a few infantrymen having both a melee and a ranged weapon. With the development of gunpowder, infantry began converting to firearms. By the time of Napoleonic warfare, infantry and artillery formed a basic triad of ground forces, though infantry remained the most numerous. With armoured warfare, armoured fighting vehicles have replaced the horses of cavalry, airpower has added a new dimension to ground combat, but infantry remains pivotal to all modern combined arms operations.

Infantry have much greater local situational awareness than other military forces, due to their inherent intimate contact with the battlefield. Infantry can more recognise and respond to local conditions and changing enemy weapons or tactics, they can operate in a wide range of terrain inaccessible to military vehicles, can operate with a lower logistical burden. Infantry are the most delivered forces to ground combat areas, by simple and reliable marching, or by trucks, sea or air transport, they can be augmented with a variety of crew-served weapons, armoured personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles. In English, use of the term infantry began about the 1570s, describing soldiers who march and fight on foot; the word derives from Middle French infanterie, from older Italian infanteria, from Latin īnfāns, from which English gets infant. The individual-soldier term infantryman was not coined until 1837. In modern usage, foot soldiers of any era are now considered infantrymen. From the mid-18th century until 1881 the British Army named its infantry as numbered regiments "of Foot" to distinguish them from cavalry and dragoon regiments.

Infantry equipped with special weapons were named after that weapon, such as grenadiers for their grenades, or fusiliers for their fusils. These names can persist long after the weapon speciality. More in modern times, infantry with special tactics are named for their roles, such as commandos, snipers and militia. Dragoons were created. However, if light cavalry was lacking in an army, any available dragoons might be assigned their duties. Conversely, starting about the mid-19th century, regular cavalry have been forced to spend more of their time dismounted in combat due to the ever-increasing effectiveness of enemy infantry firearms, thus most cavalry transitioned to mounted infantry. As with grenadiers, the dragoon and cavalry designations can be retained long after their horses, such as in the Royal Dragoon Guards, Royal Lancers, King's Royal Hussars. Motorised infantry have trucks and other unarmed vehicles for non-combat movement, but are still infantry since they leave their vehicles for any combat.

Most modern infantry have vehicle transport, to the point where infantry being motorised is assumed, the few exceptions might be identified as modern light infantry, or "leg infantry" colloquially. Mechanised infantry go beyond motorised, having transport vehicles with combat abilities, armoured personnel carriers, providing at least some options for combat without leaving their vehicles. In modern infantry, some APCs have evolved to be infantry fighting vehicles, which are transport vehicles with more substantial combat abilities, approaching those of light tanks; some well-equipped mechanised infantry can be designated as armoured infantry. Given that infantry forces also have some tanks, given that most armoured forces have more mechanised infantry units than tank units in their organisation, the distinction between mechanised infantry and armour forces has blurred; the terms "infantry", "armour", "cavalry" used in the official names for military units like divisions, brigades, or regiments might be better understood as a description of their expected balance of defensive and mobility roles, rather than just use of vehicles.

Some modern mechanised infantry units are termed cavalry or armoured cavalry though they nev

Wood Lake, Minnesota

Wood Lake is a city in Yellow Medicine County, United States. The population was 439 at the 2010 census. Wood Lake was laid out in 1884; the town took its name from nearby Wood Lake. Wood Lake was incorporated in 1891. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.81 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 439 people, 181 households, 118 families living in the city; the population density was 542.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 195 housing units at an average density of 240.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.5% White, 4.6% Native American, 1.6% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.5% of the population. There were 181 households of which 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.8% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.8% were non-families.

26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age in the city was 38 years. 24.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.7% male and 48.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 436 people, 182 households, 119 families living in the city; the population density was 541.6 people per square mile. There were 190 housing units at an average density of 236.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.62% White, 1.15% Native American, 0.23% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.23% of the population. There were 182 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.8% were married couples living together, 4.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.6% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, 19.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $38,203, the median income for a family was $46,875. Males had a median income of $30,900 versus $20,789 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,903. None of the families and 3.9% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 4.8% of those over 64

Edward Burd Grubb Jr.

Edward Burd Grubb Jr. was a Union Army colonel and regimental commander in the American Civil War. He commanded two of them. In recognition of his service, in 1866, he was nominated and confirmed for appointment to the grade of brevet brigadier general of volunteers, to rank from March 13, 1865, he was appointed by President Benjamin Harrison as United States Ambassador to Spain. He was a noted foundryman, business owner and New Jersey politician, close to Woodrow Wilson. Grubb was born in Burlington, New Jersey, to a fourth-generation member of the Grubb Family Iron Dynasty, Edward Burd Grubb Sr. and his wife Euphemia Parker. The Grubb family was descended from John Grubb who came from Cornwall and settled in Delaware in the early 1680s, he was educated at Burlington College named St. Mary's Hall-Doane Academy and graduated in 1860, just five months before Abraham Lincoln was elected as President. In May 1861, he enlisted in the 3rd New Jersey Volunteer Infantry. Commissioned as a first lieutenant, he would be promoted to Captain and served as an aide to Brig. Gen. George W. Taylor during the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, where he contracted typhoid and was confined to a hospital ship shortly after the Battle of Malvern Hill.

He would not rejoin the brigade until shortly before their successful assault on Crampton's Gap, during the lead-up to Battle of Antietam. The VI Corps was held in reserve during the battle, though Edward wrote that his men were convinced they could have finished Lee's army if properly employed. In November 1862, Grubb was promoted to Major, was transferred to the 23rd New Jersey Volunteer Infantry, a nine-month enlistment unit made up of men from his hometown of Burlington and various parts of Burlington County. In March 1863, despite his youth, he was promoted to Colonel and commander of the regiment when its previous leader, Col. Henry O. Ryerson, left to take command of the 10th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry, he led his regiment, nicknamed "The Yahoos", as it participated in his brigade's assault on Confederate positions at Salem Church during the May 1863 Battle of Chancellorsville. Wounded in action, he was mustered out when his regiment's enlistment expired by law in June 1863. After a year spent in recruitment and recruit training, Grubb was re-commissioned as colonel and appointed commander of the 37th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry, a 100-day enlistment unit.

The new regiment served in the trenches of Petersburg, in garrison duty until it was mustered out in October 1864. One night after arriving in the trenches, with few arms and little ammunition, the regiment came under fire and took some casualties, their helplessness in this situation gave rise to the nickname they would bear in the New York Times, "Grubb's Game Chickens". His younger brother, Parker Grubb, serving as the 37th New Jersey's regimental adjutant, died of disease during the regiment's service. In recognition of his service, on July 9, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Grubb for appointment to the grade of brevet brigadier general of volunteers, to rank from March 13, 1865, for "gallant and meritorious services during the war" and the United States Senate confirmed the appointment on July 23, 1866. After mustering out in 1865, Grubb returned to Burlington and established himself as a prominent iron manufacturer, taking over the family's business that went back to his great great grandfather, Peter Grubb Jr.

He was president of the Lebanon Valley Furnace Company from 1867 until about 1911. In 1868, he married daughter of an important family in the area. Together they had one daughter, he was elected to the Burlington City Council. He and his wife found time to travel extensively in Europe and accompanied Baron de Lesseps through the Suez Canal, his 1869 account of the canal and its technical aspects was the first such article to be published in the United States. In 1872, he had fellow veteran Frank Furness design a house on the river, still known as "Grubb Cottage". In 1874, he built a 12-acre estate at Edgewater Park Township, New Jersey, called "Grassmere", where he annually entertained the survivors of the 23rd regiment. In February 1874, Grubb was elected into the First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry, he was elected as the 16th Captain of the Troop, a position in which he served for 14 years with a break during his foray into politics. This period saw many critical reforms of the National Guard structure that helped ensure an effective mobilization and deployment for World War One.

He resigned from the troop in 1896, but regretted the decision and requested a commission as a colonel in the Expeditionary Force that went to Cuba in 1898. Grubb was a colonel in the New Jersey National Guard, his main contribution came during the 1881 centennial celebration of the Siege of Yorktown, where he commanded the New Jersey regiment that won a ceremonial silver cup for being the best drilled unit. He stayed active in veterans affairs, serving as New Jersey Department Commander of the Grand Army of the Republic, as well as hosting the annual reunions of his veterans. Grubb was on a safari in Africa when his wife died in 1886. Upon his return, he proposed to his longtime friend, Harriet Hubbard Ayer, the noted woman's rights activist who made a fortune manufacturing beauty creams. However, she declined his proposal. In 1889, Republicans nominated for Grubb for governor, hoping that the war hero could beat Leon Abbett, a popular former governor. During that year's