The micrometre or micrometer commonly known by the previous name micron, is an SI derived unit of length equalling 1×10−6 metre. The micrometre is a common unit of measurement for wavelengths of infrared radiation as well as sizes of biological cells and bacteria, for grading wool by the diameter of the fibres; the width of a single human hair ranges from 10 to 200 μm. The longest human chromosome is 10 μm in length. Between 1 μm and 10 μm: 1–10 μm – length of a typical bacterium 10 μm – Size of fungal hyphae 5 μm – length of a typical human spermatozoon's head 3–8 μm – width of strand of spider web silk about 10 μm – size of a fog, mist, or cloud water droplet Between 10 μm and 100 μm about 10–12 μm – thickness of plastic wrap 10 to 55 μm – width of wool fibre 17 to 181 μm – diameter of human hair 70 to 180 μm – thickness of paper The term micron and the symbol μ were accepted for use in isolation to denote the micrometre in 1879, but revoked by the International System of Units in 1967; this became necessary because the older usage was incompatible with the official adoption of the unit prefix micro-, denoted μ, during the creation of the SI in 1960.
In the SI, the systematic name micrometre became the official name of the unit, μm became the official unit symbol. In practice, "micron" remains a used term in preference to "micrometre" in many English-speaking countries, both in academic science and in applied science and industry. Additionally, in American English, the use of "micron" helps differentiate the unit from the micrometer, a measuring device, because the unit's name in mainstream American spelling is a homograph of the device's name. In spoken English, they may be distinguished by pronunciation, as the name of the measuring device is invariably stressed on the second syllable, whereas the systematic pronunciation of the unit name, in accordance with the convention for pronouncing SI units in English, places the stress on the first syllable; the plural of micron is "microns", though "micra" was used before 1950. The official symbol for the SI prefix micro- is a Greek lowercase mu. In Unicode, there is a micro sign with the code point U+00B5, distinct from the code point U+03BC of the Greek letter lowercase mu.
According to the Unicode Consortium, the Greek letter character is preferred, but implementations must recognize the micro sign as well. Most fonts use the same glyph for the two characters. Metric prefix Metric system Orders of magnitude Wool measurement The dictionary definition of micrometre at Wiktionary
A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets and other astronomical objects. Space telescopes avoid many of the problems of ground-based observatories, such as light pollution and distortion of electromagnetic radiation. In addition, ultraviolet frequencies, X-rays and gamma rays are blocked by the Earth's atmosphere, so they can only be observed from space. Theorized by Lyman Spitzer in 1946, the first operational space telescopes were the American Orbiting Astronomical Observatory OAO-2 launched in 1968 and the Soviet Orion 1 ultraviolet telescope aboard space station Salyut 1 in 1971. Space telescopes are distinct from other imaging satellites pointed toward Earth for purposes of espionage, weather analysis and other types of information gathering. Wilhelm Beer and Johann Heinrich Mädler in 1837 discussed the advantages of an observatory on the Moon. In 1946, American theoretical astrophysicist Lyman Spitzer proposed a telescope in space, 11 years before the Soviet Union launched the first satellite, Sputnik 1.
Spitzer's proposal called for a large telescope. After lobbying in the 1960s and 70s for such a system to be built, Spitzer's vision materialized into the Hubble Space Telescope, launched on April 24, 1990 by the Space Shuttle Discovery. Performing astronomy from ground-based observatories on Earth is limited by the filtering and distortion of electromagnetic radiation due to the atmosphere; some terrestrial telescopes can reduce atmospheric effects with adaptive optics. A telescope orbiting Earth outside the atmosphere is subject neither to twinkling nor to light pollution from artificial light sources on Earth; as a result, the angular resolution of space telescopes is much smaller than a ground-based telescope with a similar aperture. Space-based astronomy is more important for frequency ranges which are outside the optical window and the radio window, the only two wavelength ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum that are not attenuated by the atmosphere. For example, X-ray astronomy is nearly impossible when done from Earth, has reached its current importance in astronomy only due to orbiting X-ray telescopes such as the Chandra observatory and the XMM-Newton observatory.
Infrared and ultraviolet are largely blocked. However, all these advantages do come with a price. Space telescopes are much more expensive to build than ground-based telescopes. Due to their location, space telescopes are extremely difficult to maintain; the Hubble Space Telescope was serviced by the Space Shuttle while many other space telescopes cannot be serviced at all. Space observatories can be divided into two classes: missions which map the entire sky, observatories which focus on selected astronomical objects or parts of the sky. Satellites have been launched and operated by NASA, ISRO, ESA, Japanese Space Agency and the Soviet space program succeeded by Roskosmos of Russia; as of 2018, many space observatories have completed their missions, while others continue operating on extended time. However, the availability of space telescopes and observatories in the future is threatened due to delays and budget cuts. While future space observatories are planned by NASA, JAXA and the China National Space Administration, scientists fear that there would be gaps in coverage that would not be covered by future projects and this would affect research in fundamental science.
Space observatories portal Airborne observatory Earth observation satellite List of telescope types Observatory Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes Timeline of telescopes and observing technology Ultraviolet astronomy X-ray astronomy satellite Neil English: Space Telescopes - Capturing the Rays of the Electromagnetic Spectrum. Springer, Cham 2017, ISBN 978-3-319-27812-4
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats. It is thus the inverse of the spatial frequency. Wavelength is determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings and is a characteristic of both traveling waves and standing waves, as well as other spatial wave patterns. Wavelength is designated by the Greek letter lambda; the term wavelength is sometimes applied to modulated waves, to the sinusoidal envelopes of modulated waves or waves formed by interference of several sinusoids. Assuming a sinusoidal wave moving at a fixed wave speed, wavelength is inversely proportional to frequency of the wave: waves with higher frequencies have shorter wavelengths, lower frequencies have longer wavelengths. Wavelength depends on the medium. Examples of wave-like phenomena are sound waves, water waves and periodic electrical signals in a conductor.
A sound wave is a variation in air pressure, while in light and other electromagnetic radiation the strength of the electric and the magnetic field vary. Water waves are variations in the height of a body of water. In a crystal lattice vibration, atomic positions vary. Wavelength is a measure of the distance between repetitions of a shape feature such as peaks, valleys, or zero-crossings, not a measure of how far any given particle moves. For example, in sinusoidal waves over deep water a particle near the water's surface moves in a circle of the same diameter as the wave height, unrelated to wavelength; the range of wavelengths or frequencies for wave phenomena is called a spectrum. The name originated with the visible light spectrum but now can be applied to the entire electromagnetic spectrum as well as to a sound spectrum or vibration spectrum. In linear media, any wave pattern can be described in terms of the independent propagation of sinusoidal components; the wavelength λ of a sinusoidal waveform traveling at constant speed v is given by λ = v f, where v is called the phase speed of the wave and f is the wave's frequency.
In a dispersive medium, the phase speed itself depends upon the frequency of the wave, making the relationship between wavelength and frequency nonlinear. In the case of electromagnetic radiation—such as light—in free space, the phase speed is the speed of light, about 3×108 m/s, thus the wavelength of a 100 MHz electromagnetic wave is about: 3×108 m/s divided by 108 Hz = 3 metres. The wavelength of visible light ranges from deep red 700 nm, to violet 400 nm. For sound waves in air, the speed of sound is 343 m/s; the wavelengths of sound frequencies audible to the human ear are thus between 17 m and 17 mm, respectively. Note that the wavelengths in audible sound are much longer than those in visible light. A standing wave is an undulatory motion. A sinusoidal standing wave includes stationary points of no motion, called nodes, the wavelength is twice the distance between nodes; the upper figure shows three standing waves in a box. The walls of the box are considered to require the wave to have nodes at the walls of the box determining which wavelengths are allowed.
For example, for an electromagnetic wave, if the box has ideal metal walls, the condition for nodes at the walls results because the metal walls cannot support a tangential electric field, forcing the wave to have zero amplitude at the wall. The stationary wave can be viewed as the sum of two traveling sinusoidal waves of oppositely directed velocities. Wavelength and wave velocity are related just as for a traveling wave. For example, the speed of light can be determined from observation of standing waves in a metal box containing an ideal vacuum. Traveling sinusoidal waves are represented mathematically in terms of their velocity v, frequency f and wavelength λ as: y = A cos = A cos where y is the value of the wave at any position x and time t, A is the amplitude of the wave, they are commonly expressed in terms of wavenumber k and angular frequency ω as: y = A cos = A cos in which wavelength and wavenumber are related to velocity and frequency as: k = 2 π λ = 2 π f v = ω
Infrared radiation, sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, is therefore invisible to the human eye, although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nanometers s from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions. IR wavelengths extend from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers, to 1 millimeter. Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared; as with all EMR, IR carries radiant energy and behaves both like a wave and like its quantum particle, the photon. Infrared radiation was discovered in 1800 by astronomer Sir William Herschel, who discovered a type of invisible radiation in the spectrum lower in energy than red light, by means of its effect on a thermometer. More than half of the total energy from the Sun was found to arrive on Earth in the form of infrared; the balance between absorbed and emitted infrared radiation has a critical effect on Earth's climate.
Infrared radiation is emitted or absorbed by molecules when they change their rotational-vibrational movements. It excites vibrational modes in a molecule through a change in the dipole moment, making it a useful frequency range for study of these energy states for molecules of the proper symmetry. Infrared spectroscopy examines transmission of photons in the infrared range. Infrared radiation is used in industrial, military, law enforcement, medical applications. Night-vision devices using active near-infrared illumination allow people or animals to be observed without the observer being detected. Infrared astronomy uses sensor-equipped telescopes to penetrate dusty regions of space such as molecular clouds, detect objects such as planets, to view red-shifted objects from the early days of the universe. Infrared thermal-imaging cameras are used to detect heat loss in insulated systems, to observe changing blood flow in the skin, to detect overheating of electrical apparatus. Extensive uses for military and civilian applications include target acquisition, night vision and tracking.
Humans at normal body temperature radiate chiefly at wavelengths around 10 μm. Non-military uses include thermal efficiency analysis, environmental monitoring, industrial facility inspections, detection of grow-ops, remote temperature sensing, short-range wireless communication and weather forecasting. Infrared radiation extends from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers to 1 millimeter; this range of wavelengths corresponds to a frequency range of 430 THz down to 300 GHz. Below infrared is the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Sunlight, at an effective temperature of 5,780 kelvins, is composed of near-thermal-spectrum radiation, more than half infrared. At zenith, sunlight provides an irradiance of just over 1 kilowatt per square meter at sea level. Of this energy, 527 watts is infrared radiation, 445 watts is visible light, 32 watts is ultraviolet radiation. Nearly all the infrared radiation in sunlight is shorter than 4 micrometers. On the surface of Earth, at far lower temperatures than the surface of the Sun, some thermal radiation consists of infrared in the mid-infrared region, much longer than in sunlight.
However, black body or thermal radiation is continuous: it gives off radiation at all wavelengths. Of these natural thermal radiation processes, only lightning and natural fires are hot enough to produce much visible energy, fires produce far more infrared than visible-light energy. In general, objects emit infrared radiation across a spectrum of wavelengths, but sometimes only a limited region of the spectrum is of interest because sensors collect radiation only within a specific bandwidth. Thermal infrared radiation has a maximum emission wavelength, inversely proportional to the absolute temperature of object, in accordance with Wien's displacement law. Therefore, the infrared band is subdivided into smaller sections. A used sub-division scheme is: NIR and SWIR is sometimes called "reflected infrared", whereas MWIR and LWIR is sometimes referred to as "thermal infrared". Due to the nature of the blackbody radiation curves, typical "hot" objects, such as exhaust pipes appear brighter in the MW compared to the same object viewed in the LW.
The International Commission on Illumination recommended the division of infrared radiation into the following three bands: ISO 20473 specifies the following scheme: Astronomers divide the infrared spectrum as follows: These divisions are not precise and can vary depending on the publication. The three regions are used for observation of different temperature ranges, hence different environments in space; the most common photometric system used in astronomy allocates capital letters to different spectral regions according to filters used. These letters are understood in reference to atmospheric windows and appear, for instance, in the titles of many papers. A third scheme divides up the band based on the response of various detectors: Near-infrared: from 0.7 to 1.0 µm. Short-wave infrared: 1.0 to 3 µm. InGaAs covers to about 1.8 µm. Mid-wave infrared: 3 to 5 µm (defined by the atmospheric window and covered by indium antimonide and mercury cadmium telluride and by lead
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics. The kelvin is the base unit of temperature in the International System of Units; until 2018, the kelvin was defined as the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water. In other words, it was defined such that the triple point of water is 273.16 K. On 16 November 2018, a new definition was adopted, in terms of a fixed value of the Boltzmann constant. For legal metrology purposes, the new definition will come into force on 20 May 2019; the Kelvin scale is named after the Belfast-born, Glasgow University engineer and physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, who wrote of the need for an "absolute thermometric scale". Unlike the degree Fahrenheit and degree Celsius, the kelvin is not referred to or written as a degree; the kelvin is the primary unit of temperature measurement in the physical sciences, but is used in conjunction with the degree Celsius, which has the same magnitude.
The definition implies that absolute zero is equivalent to −273.15 °C. In 1848, William Thomson, made Lord Kelvin, wrote in his paper, On an Absolute Thermometric Scale, of the need for a scale whereby "infinite cold" was the scale's null point, which used the degree Celsius for its unit increment. Kelvin calculated; this absolute scale is known today as the Kelvin thermodynamic temperature scale. Kelvin's value of "−273" was the negative reciprocal of 0.00366—the accepted expansion coefficient of gas per degree Celsius relative to the ice point, giving a remarkable consistency to the accepted value. In 1954, Resolution 3 of the 10th General Conference on Weights and Measures gave the Kelvin scale its modern definition by designating the triple point of water as its second defining point and assigned its temperature to 273.16 kelvins. In 1967/1968, Resolution 3 of the 13th CGPM renamed the unit increment of thermodynamic temperature "kelvin", symbol K, replacing "degree Kelvin", symbol °K. Furthermore, feeling it useful to more explicitly define the magnitude of the unit increment, the 13th CGPM held in Resolution 4 that "The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is equal to the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water."In 2005, the Comité International des Poids et Mesures, a committee of the CGPM, affirmed that for the purposes of delineating the temperature of the triple point of water, the definition of the Kelvin thermodynamic temperature scale would refer to water having an isotopic composition specified as Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water.
In 2018, Resolution A of the 26th CGPM adopted a significant redefinition of SI base units which included redefining the Kelvin in terms of a fixed value for the Boltzmann constant of 1.380649×10−23 J/K. When spelled out or spoken, the unit is pluralised using the same grammatical rules as for other SI units such as the volt or ohm; when reference is made to the "Kelvin scale", the word "kelvin"—which is a noun—functions adjectivally to modify the noun "scale" and is capitalized. As with most other SI unit symbols there is a space between the kelvin symbol. Before the 13th CGPM in 1967–1968, the unit kelvin was called a "degree", the same as with the other temperature scales at the time, it was distinguished from the other scales with either the adjective suffix "Kelvin" or with "absolute" and its symbol was °K. The latter term, the unit's official name from 1948 until 1954, was ambiguous since it could be interpreted as referring to the Rankine scale. Before the 13th CGPM, the plural form was "degrees absolute".
The 13th CGPM changed the unit name to "kelvin". The omission of "degree" indicates that it is not relative to an arbitrary reference point like the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales, but rather an absolute unit of measure which can be manipulated algebraically. In science and engineering, degrees Celsius and kelvins are used in the same article, where absolute temperatures are given in degrees Celsius, but temperature intervals are given in kelvins. E.g. "its measured value was 0.01028 °C with an uncertainty of 60 µK." This practice is permissible because the degree Celsius is a special name for the kelvin for use in expressing relative temperatures, the magnitude of the degree Celsius is equal to that of the kelvin. Notwithstanding that the official endorsement provided by Resolution 3 of the 13th CGPM states "a temperature interval may be expressed in degrees Celsius", the practice of using both °C and K is widespread throughout the scientific world; the use of SI prefixed forms of the degree Celsius to express a temperature interval has not been adopted.
In 2005 the CIPM embarked on a programme to redefine the kelvin using a more experimentally rigorous methodology. In particular, the committee proposed redefining the kelvin such that Boltzmann's constant takes the exact value 1.3806505×10−23 J/K. The committee had hoped tha
Manufacturing is the production of products for use or sale using labour and machines, tools and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most applied to industrial design, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale; such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances, sports equipment or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who sell them to end users and consumers. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product; the manufacturing process begins with the product design, materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. The manufacturing sector is connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing and Precision Castparts. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Siemens, FCA and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Panasonic, LG, Samsung and Tata Motors. In its earliest form, manufacturing was carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the pre-industrial world, the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture. Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system.
Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm. Manufacturing Engineering Agile manufacturing American system of manufacturing British factory system of manufacturing Craft or guild system Fabrication Flexible manufacturing Just-in-time manufacturing Lean manufacturing Mass customization – 3D printing, design-your-own web sites for sneakers, fast fashion Mass production Ownership Packaging and labeling Prefabrication Putting-out system Rapid manufacturing Reconfigurable manufacturing system Soviet collectivism in manufacturing History of numerical control Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant environmental costs; the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it.
Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, eliminating harmful chemicals; the negative costs of manufacturing can be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing; these are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are lower than in "developed-world" economies.
Manufacturing has unique health and safety challenges and has been recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues. Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as: The nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth. In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development, they have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors. On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.
S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand. Further, while U. S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U. S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries. A total of 3.2 million – one in six U. S. manuf
Aérospatiale, sometimes styled Aerospatiale, was a French state-owned aerospace manufacturer that built both civilian and military aircraft and satellites. It was known as Société nationale industrielle aérospatiale, its head office was in the 16th arrondissement of Paris. The name was changed to Aerospatiale during 1970. During the 1990s, Aérospatiale underwent several significant mergers, its helicopter division was, along with Germany's DaimlerBenz Aerospace AG, combined together to form the Eurocopter Group. In 1999, the majority of Aérospatiale, except for the satellites activities, merged with French conglomerate Matra's defense wing, Matra Haute Technologie, to form Aérospatiale-Matra; that same year, the satellite manufacturing division merged with Alcatel to become Alcatel Space, now Thales Alenia Space. In 2001, Aérospatiale-Matra merged with Spanish aviation company Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA and German defense firm DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG to form the multinational European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company.
The majority of the former assets of the company are part of the multinational Airbus consortium. During 1970, Aérospatiale was created under the name SNIAS as a result of the merger of several French state-owned companies - Sud Aviation, Nord Aviation and Société d'études et de réalisation d'engins balistiques; the newly formed entity was the largest aerospace company in France. From the onset, the French government owned a controlling stake in Aérospatiale. In 1971, Aérospatiale was directed by the French industrialist Henri Ziegler. Many of Aérospatiale's initial programmes were hangovers from its predecessors those of Sud Aviation; the most iconic and high-profile of the company's programmes was Concorde, a joint French-British attempt to develop and market a supersonic commercial airliner. Initial work on the project had commenced at Sud Aviation and the Bristol Aeroplane Company, its British counterpart; the engines for Concorde were developed as an Anglo-French joint effort between French engine firm SNECMA and Bristol Siddeley.
However, the programme was politicised and encountered considerable cost overruns and delays. Negatively affected by bad political decision and an oil crisis in the 1970s, only two airlines purchased Concorde. Aérospatiale's senior management were keen not to repeat the mistakes of the programme to produce Concorde, their next major effort was would be an international collaborative effort between British Aerospace and West German's aircraft company Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm. The consortium, known as called Airbus Industrie, was established with the purpose of building a twin-engined widebody airliner, known as the A300. While at first, it was difficult to achieve the outlook for the A300 looked negative. However, Aérospatiale continued to manufacture the jetliner without orders for some aircraft as it could not reasonably cut back production as French law required that laid-off employees were to receive 90 percent of their pay for a year as well as to retain their health benefits throughout.
Sales of the A300 picked up and the type became a major commercial success for those involved driving both the American Lockheed L-1011 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 from the market due to its cheaper operating model. On the back of this success, further airliners would be produced under the Airbus brand and the company would become a world leader in the field of large commercial aircraft during the 1990s. Aérospatiale played a leadership in the development of the European space sector. During the 1960s, Sud Aviation had been involved in a multinational European programme to produce the Europa space launch vehicle, being a three-stage rocket with separate stages manufactured in Britain and Germany respectively. However, all of the flight tests conducted were failures; when Aérospatiale stepped in during 1973, it was determined not to repeat the mistakes of Europa. The company proposed to build a new heavy launch vehicle, which would be called the Ariane, to take the place of Europea. While other European nations were invited to participate, it would be French officials that would be responsible and make the most important decisions.
This approach was agreed upon with several other nations. With this, the French went on to gain a strong advantage over the United States, which had centred its efforts on the Space Shuttle. However, the in-flight explosion of one of the shuttles in the Challenger disaster during 1986 showed that it was too complex for routine use as a satellite launch platform. Aérospatiale went on to develop more capable versions of the Ariane, which took much of the business of space launches away from the Americans during the 1990s. In 1992, German defense company DaimlerBenz Aerospace AG and Aérospatiale combined their respective helicopter divisions together to form the Eurocopter Group. During the late 1990s, Frenc