Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. Infrastructure is composed of public and private physical improvements such as roads, bridges, water supply, electrical grids, telecommunications. In general, it has been defined as "the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions". There are two general types of ways to view infrastructure, soft. Hard infrastructure refers to the physical networks necessary for the functioning of a modern industry; this includes roads, railways, etc. Soft infrastructure refers to all the institutions that maintain the economic, health and cultural standards of a country; this includes educational programs, official statistics and recreational facilities, law enforcement agencies, emergency services. The word infrastructure has been used in French since 1875 and in English since 1887 meaning "The installations that form the basis for any operation or system".
The word was imported from French, where it was used for establishing a roadbed of substrate material, required before railroad tracks or constructed pavement could be laid on top of it. The word is a combination of the Latin prefix "infra", meaning "below" as many of these constructions are underground, for example, tunnels and gas systems, railways and the French word "structure"; the army use of the term achieved currency in the United States after the formation of NATO in the 1940s, by 1970 was adopted by urban planners in its modern civilian sense. A 1987 US National Research Council panel adopted the term "public works infrastructure", referring to: "... both specific functional modes – highways, streets and bridges. A comprehension of infrastructure spans not only these public works facilities, but the operating procedures, management practices, development policies that interact together with societal demand and the physical world to facilitate the transport of people and goods, provision of water for drinking and a variety of other uses, safe disposal of society's waste products, provision of energy where it is needed, transmission of information within and between communities."
The American Society of Civil Engineers publishes a "Infrastructure Report Card" which represents the organizations opinion on the condition of various infrastructure every 2–4 years. As of 2017 they grade 16 categories, namely aviation, dams, drinking water, hazardous waste, inland waterways, levees and recreation, rail, schools, solid waste and wastewater. A way to embody personal infrastructure is to think of it in term of human capital. Human capital is defined by the Encyclopædia Britannica as “intangible collective resources possessed by individuals and groups within a given population"; the goal of personal infrastructure is to determine the quality of the economic agents’ values. This results in three major tasks: the task of economic proxies in the economic process. Institutional infrastructure branches from the term "economic constitution". According to Gianpiero Torrisi, Institutional infrastructure is the object of economic and legal policy, it compromises the grown and sets norms.
It refers to the degree of actual equal treatment of equal economic data and determines the framework within which economic agents may formulate their own economic plans and carry them out in co-operation with others. Material infrastructure is defined as “those immobile, non-circulating capital goods that contribute to the production of infrastructure goods and services needed to satisfy basic physical and social requirements of economic agents". There are two distinct qualities of material infrastructures: 1) Fulfillment of social needs and 2) Mass production; the first characteristic deals with the basic needs of human life. The second characteristic is the non-availability of infrastructure services. According to the business dictionary, economic infrastructure can be defined as "internal facilities of a country that make business activity possible, such as communication and distribution networks, financial institutions and markets, energy supply systems". Economic infrastructure support productive events.
This includes roads, bridges, cycling infrastructure, water distribution networks, sewer systems, irrigation plants, etc. Social infrastructure can be broadly defined as the construction and maintenance of facilities that support social services. Social infrastructures are created to increase social act on economic activity; these being schools and playgrounds, structures for public safety, waste disposal plants, sports area, etc. Core assets have monopolistic characteristics. Investors seeking core infrastructure look for five different characteristics: Income, Low volatility of returns, Inflation Protection, Long-term liability matching. Core Infrastructure incorporates all the main types of
Hendrik Kobell was an 18th-century landscape and marine painter, etcher and watercolorist from the Northern Netherlands. He came from a painting family and was a cousin of Ferdinand Kobell and Franz Kobell, German painters and brothers, his father was a pottery merchant, though he was not a professional artist, he trained his son in drawing, who loved to draw ships in the port of Rotterdam. The younger Kobell was able to take a journey in one when his father arranged some business he could attend to in London in 1779. There he conducted his business while drawing all sorts of ships and boats, when he returned to the Northern Netherlands in 1770, he gave up the pottery business to study art in Amsterdam, he studied for two years under Jacob de Vos and Cornelis Ploos van Amstel with such success that he was elected a member of the Stadstekenacademie. He travelled to Paris in 1772 and in 1772 settled in Rotterdam, where he helped set up a similar drawing academy, he painted in watercolors, doing landscapes and marines.
His work is distinguished by skillful lifelike depiction. His work as a draftsman and etcher was notable, he was executed in pen and heightened with India ink. He was the father and teacher of the painter Jan Kobell II, his other pupils were Carel Frederik Bendorp, Gerrit van der Pals. Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Kobell, Hendrik". Encyclopedia Americana. Gilman, D. C.. "Kobell". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Henrik Kobell on artnet
Sir Hugh Dillon Massy, 1st Baronet was an Anglo-Irish politician and baronet. Massy was Dean of Limerick and Ardfert, he was first elected to the Irish House of Commons as the Member of Parliament for Limerick City in May 1761, but was not returned for the seat in the second vote of that year. He stood in Clare in 1776, but was declared "not duly elected" and replaced by Sir Lucius O'Brien, 3rd Baronet. On 9 March 1782, Massy was made a Baronet, of Donass in the County of Clare, in the Baronetage of Ireland, he was elected as the MP for Clare in 1783 and held the seat until 1790. He married Elizabeth Stacpoole, daughter of George John Baptista Stacpoole and Mary Massy, on 16 August 1766, he was a first cousin of Hugh Massy, 1st Baron Massy and Eyre Massey, 1st Baron Clarina