Ingeborg Bachmann was an Austrian poet and author. Bachmann was born in the Austrian state of Carinthia, the daughter of a headmaster, she studied philosophy, German philology, law at the universities of Innsbruck and Vienna. In 1949, she received her Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Vienna with her dissertation titled "The Critical Reception of the Existential Philosophy of Martin Heidegger". After graduating, Bachmann worked as a scriptwriter and editor at the Allied radio station Rot-Weiss-Rot, a job that enabled her to obtain an overview of contemporary literature and supplied her with a decent income, making possible proper literary work. Furthermore, her first radio dramas were published by the station, her literary career was enhanced by contact with Hans Weigel and the literary circle known as Gruppe 47, whose members included Ilse Aichinger, Paul Celan, Heinrich Böll, Marcel Reich-Ranicki and Günter Grass. She won the Prize of Group 47 in 1953 for her poetry collection Die gestundete Zeit.
In 1953, she moved to Rome, where she spent the large part of the following years working on poems and short stories as well as opera libretti in collaboration with Hans Werner Henze, which soon brought with them international fame and numerous awards. Her relationship with the Swiss author Max Frisch influenced the depiction of the second protagonist in Frisch's 1964 novel Gantenbein upon her, his infidelity, their separation in 1962, had a deep impact on Bachmann. During her years she suffered from alcoholism and drug abuse. A friend described it: "I was shocked by the magnitude of her tablet addiction, it must have been 100 per day, the bin was full of empty boxes. She looked bad, she was pale, and her whole body was covered in bruises. I wondered; when I saw how she slipped her Gauloise that she smoked and let it burn off on her arm, I realized: burns caused by falling cigarettes. The numerous tablets had made her body insensible to pain." On the night of 25/26 September 1973 a fire occurred in her bedroom, she was taken to the Roman Sant' Eugenio hospital for treatment.
During her stay, she experienced withdrawal symptoms from barbiturate substance abuse. The doctors treating her were not aware of this habit, it may have contributed to her subsequent death on 17 October 1973, she is buried at the Annabichl cemetery in Klagenfurt. Bachmann's doctoral dissertation expresses her growing disillusionment with Heideggerian existentialism, in part resolved through her growing interest in Ludwig Wittgenstein, whose Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus influenced her relationship to language. During her lifetime, Bachmann was known for her two collections of poetry, Die gestundete Zeit and Anrufung des Grossen Bären. Bachmann's literary work focuses on themes like personal boundaries, establishment of the truth, philosophy of language, the latter in the tradition of Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Many of her prose works represent the struggles of women to survive and to find a voice in post-war society, she addresses the histories of imperialism and fascism, in particular, the persistence of imperialist ideas in the present.
Fascism was a recurring theme in her writings. In her novel Der Fall Franza Bachmann argued that fascism had not died in 1945 but had survived in the German speaking world of the 1960s in human relations and in men's oppression of women. In Germany the achievements of the women's rights campaign at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century had been systematically undone by the fascist Nazi regime in the 1930s. Bachmann's engagement with fascism followed that of other women writers who in the immediate post-war period dealt with fascism from a woman's perspective, such as Anna Seghers, Ilse Aichinger, Ingeborg Drewitz and Christa Wolf. Bachmann was in the vanguard of Austrian women writers who discovered in their private lives the political realities from which they attempted to achieve emancipation. Bachmann's writings and those of Barbara Frischmuth, Brigitte Schwaiger and Anna Mitgutsch were published in Germany. Male Austrian authors such as Franz Innerhofer, Josef Winkler and Peter Turrini wrote popular works on traumatic experiences of socialisation.
These authors produced their works for major German publishing houses. After Bachmann's death in 1973 Austrian writers such as Thomas Bernhard, Peter Handke and Elfriede Jelinek continued the tradition of Austrian literature in Germany. Between November 1959 and February 1960 Bachmann gave five lectures on poetics at the Goethe University Frankfurt. Known as the Frankfurter Vorlesungen: Probleme zeitgenössischer Dichtung they are and substantively Bachmann's central work. In it she explained recurring themes in her early literary publications and she discussed the function of literature in society. Bachmann insisted that literature had to be viewed in its historic context, thus foreshadowing a rising interest in studying the connection between literary discourse and the contemporary understanding of history. In the first lecture on Fragen und Scheinfragen Bachmann focused on the role of writers in the post-war society and lists essential questions that are "destructive and frightening in their simplicity".
They are: why write? What do we mean by change and why do we want it through art? What are the limitations of the writer who wants to bring about change? Bachmann
Mr. Proudfoot Shows a Light is a 1941 British World War II public information/propaganda short film, directed by Herbert Mason and produced by Edward Black for 20th Century Fox; the film had a number of well-known actors of the period, featuring British film and stage actors, Sydney Howard and Wylie Watson. Mr. Proudfoot Shows a Light was commissioned by the Ministry of Information and was designed to emphasise, in a humorous manner, the need for absolute adherence to wartime blackout regulations. A secondary consideration of the production was to present information in a way that would relieve the stress of civilians coping with nightly bombing raids in the Blitz. Mr. Proudfoot is an attention-seeking bore who subjects his long-suffering wife and exasperated acquaintances to endless tall tales about narrow escapes from bombs, he teases the local blackout warden for his ridiculous pettiness when it comes to enforcing blackout restrictions. One night Mr. Proudfoot invites a friend over for a late night game of billiards, but is careless about his blackout.
After moving the blackout screen over to let in some air, the light showing from his home provides a target for a stray German bomber. The German crew had been struggling with inclement weather and were unable to get their bearings until they see the light below, after some calculations, indicates they are over London. Having unloaded a bomb over Mr. Proudfoot's district, hitting his house with calamitous results, the Luftwaffe bomber is shot down by RAF Hawker Hurricane fighters. Under interrogation, one of the German crew states that they were guided to their target by a light blazing from a property that allowed them to plot out an attack. Despite his injuries, Mr. Proudfoot appears at his local pub bandaged and bruised, but is still boasting to anyone who will listen about his latest brush with death. Filming for Mr. Proudfoot Shows a Light took place in Shepherd's Bush Studios; the film includes a studio set scene of a Luftwaffe base and the interiors of aircraft cockpits, alongside authentic newsreel footage of an aerial dogfight and a downed aircraft.
Mr. Proudfoot Shows a Light on IMDb Mr. Proudfoot Shows a Light at BFI Film & TV Database Watch Mr. Proudfoot Shows a Light at Media Collections Online, Indiana University Libraries
Richard Dennis Ralston is an American former professional tennis player whose active career spanned the 1960s and 1970s.. As a young player he was coached by tennis pro Pancho Gonzales, he attended the University of Southern California and won NCAA championships under their coach George Toley. He and partner Bill Bond captured the NCAA doubles title in 1964, he was the highest-ranked American player at the end of three consecutive years in the 1960s. His best result at a Grand Slam singles event came in 1966 when he was seeded sixth and reached the final of the Wimbledon Championships which he lost to fourth-seeded Manuel Santana in straight sets. At the end of that year he turned professional. Ralston was a member of the Handsome Eight, the initial group of players signed to the professional World Championship Tennis tour, he won 27 national singles titles, including five grand-slam doubles crowns. Ralston, Davis Cup winner with the US Davis Cup team in 1963, continued to serve in the team as a coach from 1968 to 1971 and as a captain from 1972 to 1975, winning with it the trophy in 1972 over Romania.
Ralston was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1987. Note: The Australian Open was held twice in 1977, in January and December. Dennis Ralston at the International Tennis Hall of Fame Dennis Ralston at the Association of Tennis Professionals Dennis Ralston at the International Tennis Federation Dennis Ralston at the Davis Cup