China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Jaguar AJ-V8 engine
The Jaguar AJ-8 is a compact DOHC V8 piston engine used in many Jaguar vehicles. It was the fourth new engine type in the history of the company. In 1997 it replaced both designs available on Jaguar cars: the straight-6 Jaguar AJ6 engine, the Jaguar V12 engine, it remained the only engine type available on Jaguar until 1999 with the launch of the S-Type, when the Jaguar AJ-V6 engine was added to the list. The AJ-V8 is available in displacements ranging from 3.2L to 5.0L, a supercharged version is produced. Ford Motor Company used this engine in other cars, including the Lincoln LS and the 2002-2005 Ford Thunderbird, as well as in several Land Rovers, the Aston Martin V8 Vantage; the AJ-V8 was designed to use Nikasil-coated cylinders rather than the more-common iron cylinder liners. However, like the BMW M60, high-sulphur fuel reacted with the Nikasil coating and caused engine failures. Jaguar replaced affected engines, has used conventional cast-iron linings since; the engine used a two-state Variable Valve Timing system to switch the intake cam timing by 30°.
Newer variants use a more sophisticated system which can vary intake timing incrementally up to 48°. The Lincoln version was made in the United States. Other engine features include fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods, a special one-piece cast camshaft, reinforced plastic intake manifold; the AJ-V8 was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2000. The AJ8 engine is manufactured in an all-new, dedicated Jaguar facility located within the Ford Bridgend Engine Plant in Bridgend, South Wales; the Jaguar "plant-within-a-plant" saved considerable investment costs by Jaguar. It is staffed by workers dedicated to Jaguar engine production and includes a linked flow-line of computer numerically controlled machines with automated loading and assembly. Component supply is on a "just-in-time" basis; the 4.0 L AJ26 engine was introduced in 1996. The number "26" comes from 12+6+8, because when the first ideas were sketched, a family of 6-, 8- and 12-cylinder engines was contemplated, although only the 8-cylinder version was produced.
It has stroke. It was updated in 1998 as the AJ27 with continuously variable valve timing; the AJ-V8 was updated again in 2000 as the AJ28. The aspirated version produces 290 hp in the 2000-2002 XK8. Vehicles using this engine: AJ26 1997-1998 Jaguar XJ8 1997-1998 Jaguar XK8 1997-1998 Daimler V8 AJ27 1999-2003 Jaguar XJ8 1999-2003 Jaguar XK8 1999-2003 Daimler V8 AJ28 2000-2002 Jaguar S-Type 281 hp, 287 lb⋅ft The supercharged version of the AJ26 is used in the high-performance R versions of Jaguar's cars; the engine was updated with AJ27 specifications for 2000. It produces 370 387 lb ⋅ ft with the help of an Eaton supercharger; the supercharged engine did not use variable cam timing as the normal benefits of improved volumetric efficiency are not noticeable on a boosted engine. Vehicles using the supercharged version include: AJ26S 1998-1999 Jaguar XJR 1998-1999 Jaguar XKR 1998-1999 Daimler Super V8 AJ27S 2000-2003 Jaguar XJR 2000-2003 Jaguar XKR 2000-2003 Daimler Super V8 The 3.2 litre variant was the second to be introduced.
It reduces the stroke to 70 mm and power falls to 240 hp and 233 lb⋅ft. This variant was not available in the North American market. Vehicles using this engine: 1997-2003 Jaguar XJ8 The 3.5 L. The stroke was 76.5 mm. Output was 345 N ⋅ m at 4,200 rpm. Vehicles using this engine: 2002–2007 Jaguar XJ8 3.5, 262 hp and 254 lb⋅ft The 3.9 L AJ30/AJ35 variant is a unique displacement used only by Ford and Lincoln and is built in Ford's Lima, OH engine plant. Bore and stroke is 86 mm × 85 mm; the AJ35 version introduced for the 2003 model year added variable valve timing of the intake camshafts and electronic throttle control. While the block, crankshaft and connecting rods are all unique to this displacement, many other parts are shared with the AJ-V8 engines produced in the UK by Jaguar. Vehicles using this engine: 2000-2002 Lincoln LS, 252 hp 267 lb⋅ft 2002 Ford Thunderbird, 252 hp 267 lb⋅ft 2003-2006 Lincoln LS, 280 hp 286 lb⋅ft 2003-2005 Ford Thunderbird, 280 hp 286 lb⋅ft Ford Forty-Nine conceptThe last AJ35 was produced in March 2006 after only 3 years.
Total run of AJ30/35 was nearly 250,000 units The 4.196 L. It was introduced in 2002 as the AJ33 and produces 294 hp at 6,000 rpm with 303 lb⋅ft of torque at 4,100 rpm increased to 300 hp and 310 lb⋅ft. Vehicles using this engine: 2003–2006 Jaguar XK-series 294 hp, 303 lb⋅ft 2006–2008 Jaguar XK-series 300 hp, 310 lb⋅ft 2002–2008 Jaguar S-Type 4.2, 300 hp and 310 lb⋅ft 2004–2009 Jaguar XJ8, 300 hp and 310 lb⋅ft 2008–2010 Jaguar XF, 300 hp and 310 lb⋅ft The AJ33S is a supercharged/intercooled variant of the AJ33. It was introduced in 2002 to replace the 4.0 SC and produces 390 hp at 6,100 rpm with 399 lb⋅ft of torque at 3,500 rpm. The engine was updated to AJ34S specification to include Variable Valve Timing as well as other minor updates. Vehicles using this engine: 2004-2009 Jaguar XJR/Super V8, 400 hp (298 kW.
Chery Jaguar Land Rover
Chery Jaguar Land Rover is an automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Changshu, China. A 50:50 joint venture between UK-headquartered Jaguar Land Rover, itself a subsidiary of Tata Motors of India. Chery Jaguar Land Rover's first assembly plant is in Changshu, with production having commenced in October 2014. Chery and Jaguar Land Rover were first reported to be in discussions about the possible creation of a Chinese joint venture manufacturing company in August 2010. In March 2012, Chery and Jaguar Land Rover announced plans to invest an initial US$2.78 billion in a new Mainland China-based joint venture to manufacture Jaguar and Land Rover vehicles and engines, as well as the establishment of a research and development centre and the creation of a new automobile marque. The establishment of the joint venture received the formal approval of the National Development and Reform Commission in November 2012. Construction of Chery Jaguar Land Rover's first assembly plant began in Changshu in the same month, with a planned completion date of July 2014.
Range Rover Evoque Land Rover Discovery Sport Jaguar XFL Jaguar XEL Jaguar E-Pace
In automotive engineering, a longitudinal engine is an internal combustion engine in which the crankshaft is oriented along the long axis of the vehicle, front to back. This type of motor is used for rear-wheel drive cars, except for some Audi and SAAB models equipped with longitudinal engines in front wheel drive. In front-wheel drive cars a transverse engine is used. Trucks have longitudinal engines with rear-wheel drive. For motorcycles, the use of a particular type depends on the drive: in case of a chain or belt drive a transverse engine is used, with shaft drives a longitudinal engine. Longitudinal engines in motorcycles do have one disadvantage: the "tipping point" of the crankshaft tilts along the entire motorcycle to a greater or lesser degree when accelerating; this is resolved by having other components, such as the generator and the gearbox, rotate in the opposite direction to the crankshaft. Most larger, "premium" vehicles use this engine orientation, both front and rear wheel driven, because powerful engines such as the inline-6 and 90° big-bore V8 are too long to fit in a FF transverse engine bay, while most mainstream modern vehicles use front wheel drive along with a transverse engine arrangement.
Cars with longitudinal engines have a smaller minimum turning circle than those with transverse engines. This is because there is more space to the sides of the engine, allowing deeper wheel arches so the front wheels are able to turn through a greater angle; this is a list of typical examples of types of engines which can be placed in motor vehicles: in-line or straight engine — where two, four, five and eight cylinders are placed in a single plane. V engine — where two, six, ten, twelve, or sixteen cylinders are placed in two separate planes, looking like a "V" when viewed from the end of the crankshaft. Flat or boxer engine — where two, six or more cylinders are arranged in two diametrically horizontally opposed planes. W engine — where two vee engines are siamesed together, where at eight, twelve or sixteen cylinders are arranged in four separate planes
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, manufacturing and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's largest economic sectors by revenue; the automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations. The word automotive is from the Greek autos, Latin motivus to refer to any form of self-powered vehicle; this term, as proposed by Elmer Sperry, first came into use with reference to automobiles in 1898. The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, the U. S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U. S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.
S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U. S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U. S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China doubled the U. S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 over 1998 to 2012, the number of automobile models in the U. S. has grown exponentially. Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage. Safety in the automotive industry is important and therefore regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market.
The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety. In case of safety issues, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run; this procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material. Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly; the automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies.
The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets. Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down, it is expected that this trend will continue as the younger generations of people no longer want to own a car anymore, prefer other modes of transport. Other powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets buy more cars than established markets. According to a J. D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010; the study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports confirmed the opposite. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units. The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 13, boldfaced in the list below, possess the capability to design automobiles from the ground up; this is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production in 2016.
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies. Notable current relationships include: Daimler AG holds a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ. Daimler AG holds an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation. Daimler AG holds a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance. Daimler AG holds a 12% stake in Beijing Automotive Group, Daimler AG holds an 85% stake in Master Motors. Dongfeng Motor holds a 12.23% stake and a 19.94% exercisable voting rights in PSA Groupe. FAW Group owns 49% of Haima Automobile. FCA holds a 10% stake in Ferrari. FCA holds a 67% stake in Fiat Automobili Srbija. FCA holds 37.8% of Tofaş with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding. Fiat Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fiat Industrial owns a 46% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fujian Motors Group holds a 15% stake in King Long. FMG, Beijing Automotive Group, China Motor, Daimler has a joint venture called Fujian Benz.
FMG, China Motor, Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called Soueast, FMG holds a 50% stake, both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake. Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in The London Taxi Company. Geely Automobile holds a 49.9% stake in PROTON Holdings and a 51% stake in Lotus Cars. Geely Holding Group holds a 9.69% stake in Daimle
A valvetrain or valve train is a mechanical system that controls operation of the valves in an internal combustion engine, whereby a sequence of components transmits motion throughout the assembly. A conventional reciprocating internal combustion engine uses valves to control the flow of the air/fuel admix into and out of the combustion chamber. A typical ohv valvetrain consists of valves, rocker arms, pushrods and camshaft. Valvetrain opening/closing and duration, as well as the geometry of the valvetrain, controls the amount of air and fuel entering the combustion chamber at any given point in time. Timing for open/close/duration is controlled by the camshaft, synchronized to the crankshaft by a chain, belt, or gear. Valvetrains are built in several configurations, each of which varies in layout but still performs the task of opening and closing the valves at the time necessary for proper operation of the engine; these layouts are differentiated by the location of the camshaft within the engine: Cam-in-block The camshaft is located within the engine block, operates directly on the valves, or indirectly via pushrods and rocker arms.
Because they require pushrods they are called pushrod engines. Overhead camshaft The camshaft is located above the valves within the cylinder head, operates either indirectly or directly on the valves. Camless This layout uses no camshafts at all. Technologies such as solenoids are used to individually actuate the valves; the valvetrain is the mechanical system responsible for operation of the valves. Valves are of the poppet type, although many others have been developed such as sleeve and rotary valves. Poppet valves require small coil springs, appropriately named valve springs, to keep them closed when not actuated by the camshaft, they are attached to the valve stem ends, seating within spring retainers. Other mechanisms can be used in place of valve springs to keep the valves closed: Formula 1 engines employ pneumatic valve springs in which pneumatic pressure closes the valves, while motorcycle manufacturer Ducati uses desmodromic valve drive which mechanically close the valves. Depending on the design used, the valves are actuated directly by a rocker arm, finger, or bucket tappet.
Overhead camshaft engines use fingers or bucket tappets, upon which the cam lobes contact, while pushrod engines use rocker arms. Rocker arms are actuated by a pushrod, pivot on a shaft or individual ball studs in order to actuate the valves. Pushrods are slender metal rods seated within the engine block. At the bottom ends the pushrods are fitted with lifters, either solid or hydraulic, upon which the camshaft, located within the cylinder block, makes contact; the camshaft pushes on the lifter, which pushes on the pushrod, which pushes on the rocker arm, which rotates and pushes down on the valve. Camshafts must actuate the valves at the appropriate time in the combustion cycle. In order to accomplish this the camshaft is linked to and kept in synchronisation with the crankshaft through the use of a metal chain, rubber belt, or geartrain; because these mechanisms are essential to the proper timing of valve actuation they are named timing chains, timing belts, timing gears, respectively. Typical normal-service engine valve-train components may be too lightweight for operating at high revolutions per minute, leading to valve float.
This occurs when the action of the valve no longer opens or closes, such as when the valve spring force is insufficient to close the valve causing a loss of control of the valvetrain, as well as a drop in power output. Valve float will damage the valvetrain over time, could cause the valve to be damaged as it is still open while the piston comes to the top of its stroke. Upgrading to high pressure valve springs could allow higher valvetrain speeds, but this would overload the valvetrain components and cause excessive and costly wear. High-output and engines used in competition feature camshafts and valvetrain components that are designed to withstand higher RPM ranges; these changes include additional modifications such as larger-sized valves combined with freer breathing intake and exhaust ports to improve air flow. Automakers offer factory-approved performance parts to increase engine output, numerous aftermarket parts vendors specialize in valvetrain modifications for various engine applications.
Cam-in-block Overhead camshaft Camless Animation
The Jaguar F-Type is a two-door, two-seater sports car, manufactured by British luxury car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover under their Jaguar marque since 2013. The car's JLR D6a platform is based on a shortened version of the XK's platform, it serves as the spiritual successor to the famous E-Type while being the replacement for the XK grand tourer. The car was launched as a 2-door soft-top convertible, with a 2-door fastback coupé version launched in 2013; the F-Type name was first used on a pair of unrelated concepts as far back as 1982, when Jaguar realised that the XJ-S had grown too large in size and weight to be classed as a proper successor to the E-Type. Two new projects, codenamed the XJ41 and XJ42 got to an advanced state of development by 1988, however the project was cancelled when Ford Motor Company took over Jaguar in 1989, the newly installed management determined that upgrading the company's dated production facilities was a higher priority; the XJ-S was given a major facelift instead as a stop gap solution.
The XJ41/XJ42 studies evolved into the Aston Martin DB7 and the Jaguar XK8 which were launched in 1994 and 1996 - the latter being more of a direct replacement for the XJS than a true successor to the E-Type. A second F-Type concept was unveiled at the Detroit Motor Show in January, 2000, it was a two-seat speedster with a 3.0-litre V6 engine from the S-Type saloon. Geoff Lawson, Jaguar's Head of Styling, had been working on the development of the car, but his sudden death in 1999 led Ian Callum, the new Head of Styling, to continue the project; this project was soon cancelled, but revived, with Callum once again being assigned to work on the development of the new Jaguar sports car. The C-X16 concept takes cues from the 2010 C-X75 plug-in hybrid concept sports car, including the shape of the front grille and the wrap-around rear lights, along with a side-hinged opening rear window reminiscent of the 1961 E-Type fastback coupé; the concept car was unveiled at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show. Jaguar stated that the C-X16 was their smallest car since the 1954 Jaguar XK120, at: 4,445 mm length.
The F-Type, previewed stylistically by the C-X16, was developed under the project code "X152". The convertible version of F-Type was first revealed in Sundance, London, followed by a presentation at the 2012 Paris Motor Show and the 2013 Goodwood Festival of Speed; the coupé version was unveiled at the 2013 Los Angeles Auto Show and 2013 Tokyo Motor Show, followed by 2013 Jaguar Academy of Sport Annual Awards, an exclusive event in Canary Wharf, London. The vehicle was set to go on sale in spring 2014. Launch models scheduled include the F-Type, F-Type S and F-Type R. At the Geneva Motor Show in March 2016, Jaguar unveiled the F-Type SVR. Available in both coupé and convertible body styles along with having all-wheel-drive, it features the same 5.0-litre supercharged V8 engine from the V8 S and R, but produced a maximum power output of 575 PS at 6,500 rpm and 700 N⋅m of torque at 3,500-5,000 rpm, the car can accelerate from 0–100 km/h in 3.5 seconds and to can attain a top speed of 322 km/h, making it the first Jaguar road car since the XJ220 to reach 200 mph.
The SVR convertible can attain a top speed of 194 mph. The F-Type utilises an all-aluminium unitary chassis, assembled with flush rivets and glue. Sound and vibration insulation is provided by the addition of a special underbody tray and engine mounts, a double bulkhead between the engine bay and passenger compartment; the convertible roof is an electrically operated retractable fabric piece. Jaguar says by eschewing metal it can keep the car's centre of gravity low, while a Thinsulate layer means thermal and sound insulation is akin to a solid roof. At launch, the entry-level model used Jaguar’s new 3.0-litre V6 supercharged petrol engine, producing a maximum power output of 340 PS, enabling the car to accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 5.1 seconds, attain a top speed of 161 mph. The F-Type S has the same engine uprated at 380 PS, allowing the car to attain a top speed of 171 mph, achieve acceleration from 0 to 60 mph in 4.8 seconds. Next in the range is the V8 F-Type R, with Jaguar’s 5.0-litre, 550 PS supercharged V8 petrol engine, allowing the car to attain a top speed of 186 mph and accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 4.0 seconds.
Topping the range is the F-Type SVR, with the same engine as the F-Type R uprated at 575 PS enabling the car to attain a top speed of 200 mph and accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 3.5 seconds. The layout is front-engine, rear-wheel-drive, or all-wheel drive for the F-Type SVR; the gearbox is an eight-speed automatic with paddle-shifters offering manual override. In 2015, a ZF six-speed manual became available as an option on the V6 models. There is a mechanical limited-slip differential on the V6 S and an electronic limited-slip differential on the V8. In 2018, a 2.0L turbocharged Inline-4 engine was added as the new entry level powertrain, Jaguar's first four-cylinder sports car. The F-Type has a double-wishbone front and rear suspension with adaptive dampers and adjustable suspension settings to allow the driver to adjust ride and handling; the car has a total of 25 different driving modes programmed to suit different road conditions and driving styles. The interior of the F-Type has a two-seater setup with the leather upholstery and control buttons finished in aluminium.
There is a touchscreen display in the centre co