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Ingmar Bergman

Ernst Ingmar Bergman was a Swedish director and producer who worked in film, television and radio. Considered to be among the most accomplished and influential filmmakers of all time, Bergman's films include Smiles of a Summer Night, The Seventh Seal, Wild Strawberries, Persona and Whispers, Scenes from a Marriage, Fanny and Alexander. Bergman directed over sixty films and documentaries for cinematic release and for television screenings, most of which he wrote, he directed over 170 plays. He forged a creative partnership with his cinematographers Gunnar Fischer and Sven Nykvist. Among his company of actors were Harriet and Bibi Andersson, Liv Ullmann, Gunnar Björnstrand, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin and Max von Sydow. Most of his films were set in Sweden, many films from Through a Glass Darkly onward were filmed on the island of Fårö. Philip French referred to Bergman as "one of the greatest artists of the 20th century... he found in literature and the performing arts a way of both recreating and questioning the human condition."

Director Martin Scorsese commented. It's impossible to overestimate the effect that those films had on people." Ernst Ingmar Bergman was born on 14 July 1918 in Uppsala, the son of Erik Bergman, a Lutheran minister and chaplain to the King of Sweden, Karin, a nurse who had Walloon ancestors. He grew up with his older brother Dag and sister Margareta surrounded by religious imagery and discussion, his father was a conservative parish minister with strict ideas of parenting. Ingmar was locked up in dark closets for infractions such as wetting himself. "While father preached away in the pulpit and the congregation prayed, sang, or listened", Ingmar wrote in his autobiography Laterna Magica, I devoted my interest to the church's mysterious world of low arches, thick walls, the smell of eternity, the coloured sunlight quivering above the strangest vegetation of medieval paintings and carved figures on ceilings and walls. There was everything that one's imagination could desire—angels, dragons, devils, humans...

Although raised in a devout Lutheran household, Bergman stated that he lost his faith when aged eight, only came to terms with this fact while making Winter Light in 1962. His interest in theatre and film began early: "At the age of nine, he traded a set of tin soldiers for a magic lantern, a possession that altered the course of his life. Within a year, he had created, by playing with this toy, a private world in which he felt at home, he recalled, he fashioned his own scenery and lighting effects and gave puppet productions of Strindberg plays in which he spoke all the parts."Bergman attended Palmgren's School as a teenager. His school years were unhappy, he remembered them unfavourably in years. In a 1944 letter concerning the film Torment, which sparked debate on the condition of Swedish high schools, the school's principal Henning Håkanson wrote, among other things, that Bergman had been a "problem child". Bergman wrote in a response that he had disliked the emphasis on homework and testing in his formal schooling.

In 1934, aged 16, he was sent to Germany to spend the summer holidays with family friends. He attended a Nazi rally in Weimar, he wrote in Laterna Magica about the visit to Germany, describing how the German family had put a portrait of Hitler on the wall by his bed, that "for many years, I was on Hitler's side, delighted by his success and saddened by his defeats". Bergman commented, he electrified the crowd.... The Nazism I had seen seemed fun and youthful". Bergman did two five-month stretches in Sweden of mandatory military service. Bergman enrolled at Stockholm University College in 1937, to study literature, he spent most of his time involved in student theatre and became a "genuine movie addict". At the same time, a romantic involvement led to a physical confrontation with his father which resulted in a break in their relationship which lasted for many years. Although he did not graduate from the university, he wrote a number of plays and an opera, became an assistant director at a local theatre.

In 1942, he was given the opportunity to direct one of Caspar's Death. The play was seen by members of Svensk Filmindustri, which offered Bergman a position working on scripts, he married Else Fisher in 1943. Bergman's film career began in 1941 with his work rewriting scripts, but his first major accomplishment was in 1944 when he wrote the screenplay for Torment, a film directed by Alf Sjöberg. Along with writing the screenplay, he was appointed assistant director of the film. In his second autobiographical book, Images: My Life in Film, Bergman describes the filming of the exteriors as his actual film directorial debut; the film sparked debate on Swedish formal education. When Henning Håkanson wrote a letter following the film's release, according to scholar Frank Gado, disparaged in a response what he viewed as Håkanson's implication that students "who did not fit some arbitrary prescription of worthiness deserved the system's cruel neglect". Bergman stated in the letter that he "hated school as a principle, as a system an

Thornhill, Ontario

Thornhill is a suburban community in the Regional Municipality of York in Ontario, Canada. It is split between the cities of Vaughan and Markham, lying along the north border of Toronto, centred on Yonge Street. Once a police village, Thornhill is now postal designation. According to the 2001 Census, Thornhill-Vaughan's population was 56,361, the population of Thornhill-Markham was 47,333; as of 2016, the total population was 112,719. It is south and south-west of Richmond Hill. Thornhill was founded in 1794, its first settlers on Yonge Street in Thornhill were Nicholas Miller. Of particular importance was the arrival of Benjamin Thorne in 1820 from Dorset, operating a gristmill, a sawmill, a tannery in the community; the settlement came to be known as Thorne's Mills, Thorne's Hill, from which its current name is derived. Between 1830 and 1848, Thornhill experienced a period of continued prosperity; the business district of Thornhill developed on its portion of Yonge Street, between Centre Street and John Street.

Stagecoaches travelled between Holland Landing and York as Yonge Street's road conditions improved with new stonework. During this prosperous period, several churches, many of which are still standing today, were constructed. Thornhill's location along Yonge Street, a major transportation route, proved beneficial to the community's growth throughout much of the twentieth century; the implementation of the electric radial Metropolitan line along Yonge Street in 1898 running north to Sutton and south to Toronto meant that, for the first time, people could reside in Thornhill and work in Toronto. By the 1920s, automobiles facilitated travel along Yonge Street. In 1931, Thornhill became a "Police Village". Before 1931, each township administered its half of the village; the creation of the Police Village gave Thornhill its own political boundaries. The village was headed by a reeve. In 1971, York Region was created, part of a wave of municipal re-organization which converted many townships into towns and eliminated many of the municipal forms of organization which had existed within those townships.

The establishment of a regional administration eliminated the Police Village of Thornhill. Thornhill's administration reverted to the newly formed towns of Vaughan at this time. However, many social institutions remained organized around the former municipal entities eliminated in 1971. Like neighbouring communities such as Woodbridge and Unionville – and more so than was the case for historic suburban communities within the City of Toronto – community organizations such as local newspapers, sports teams continued to operate under a Thornhill administrative structure; as an example, until the mid-1990s residents of Thornhill who wanted to play high-level hockey were required to play for a Thornhill team. While the old village of Thornhill revolved around Yonge Street between Centre and John Streets, the neighbourhood is thought to be between Dufferin Street to the west, Highway 7 to the north, Steeles Avenue to the south, Highway 404 to the east. Thornhill's growth since the 1960s and 1970s has been connected to its location bordering what is now the City of Toronto.

Growth has continued apace. Developments have sprung up across various areas of Thornhill in each of the municipal districts which encompass Thornhill, following the development patterns of the Greater Toronto Area. Thornhill has a ethnically diverse population, it is home to a significant number of Jewish, Korean and Italian people. According to 2001 Federal Census data, the electoral district of Thornhill consists of Chinese, the largest visible minority, accounting for 11% of total residents, followed by South Asian, Korean and West Asian. According to the 2009 Report of Canada's Demographic Task Force, Thornhill-Vaughan is home to more than 33,000 members of the Jewish community. Thornhill is split into Wards 5 in the City of Vaughan and Ward 1 in the City of Markham, it is represented by Sandra Yeung Racco, Alan Shefman, Keith Irish. Thornhill is a federal and provincial riding; the Member of Parliament for Thornhill is Peter Kent, the Member of Provincial Parliament is Gila Martow. There are no general hospitals in Thornhill, but a private hospital, Shouldice Hernia Centre, is located there.

Located at Bayview and John Street, the community centre features a double arena, therapy pool, gym room, running track, multi use rooms and Markham Public Library branch. The complex was opened in 1975; the community centre hosted the Markham Thunder of the Canadian Women's Hockey League from 2017 to 2019. Thornlea Pool is public swimming pool located further north of the community centre. Secondary schools Elementary schools Catholic schools Blessed Bishop Scalabrini Catholic Elementary School Holy Family Catholic Elementary School, closed rented to E. J. Sand Public School St. Elizabeth Catholic High School, established in 1987 Our Lady of the Rosary St. Joseph the Worker St. Robert Catholic Hi

87 BC

Year 87 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Cinna/Merula; the denomination 87 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. Lucius Cornelius Cinna is elected consul of Rome, thus returning the rule of Rome back to the democrats. Sulla arrives in besieges Athens, he orders Lucius Licinius Lucullus to raise a fleet from Rome's allies around the eastern Mediterranean. Ostia is razed by Gaius Marius. March 29 – Emperor Han Wudi dies after a 54-year reign in which he leads the Han Dynasty through its greatest expansion, the Empire's borders span from modern Kyrgyzstan in the west, to Korea in the east, to northern Vietnam in the south. Antikythera mechanism manufactured. Lucius Munatius Plancus, Roman consul March 29 – Han Wudi, emperor of the Han Dynasty Apollodorus of Artemita, Greek writer Gaius Atilius Serranus, Roman consul and senator Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo Vopiscus, Roman consul Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, Roman general and politician Gotarzes I, ruler of the Parthian Empire Lucius Cornelius Merula, Roman politician and priest Lucius Julius Caesar, Roman consul Marcus Antonius, Roman consul Publius Licinius Crassus, Roman consul and censor Quintus Ancharius, Roman politician