The Ingrians, sometimes called Ingrian Finns, are the Finnish population of Ingria, descending from Lutheran Finnish immigrants introduced into the area in the 17th century, when Finland and Ingria were both parts of the Swedish Empire. In the forced deportations before and after World War II most of them were relocated to other parts of the Soviet Union. Today the Ingrian Finns constitute the largest part of the Finnish population of the Russian Federation. According to some records, some 25,000 Ingrian Finns have returned or still reside in the Saint Petersburg region. Finnish-speaking Ingrians are not to be confused with Izhorian-speaking Ingrians. Ingrian Finns constitute of two groups: Savakot originated from migrant Savonians and Äyrämöiset coming from the Karelian Isthmus parts of the Swedish realm, they were Lutheran resettlers and migrant workers who moved to Ingria during the period of Swedish rule 1617–1703. Others originated from more or less voluntary conversion among the indigenous Finnic-speaking Votes and Izhorians, where approved by the Swedish authorities.
Finns made up 41.1 percent of the population of Ingria in 1656, 53.2 percent in 1661, 55.2 percent in 1666, 56.9 percent in 1671 and 73.8 percent in 1695. After the Russian reconquest and the foundation of Saint Petersburg, the flow of migration was reversed. Russian nobles were granted land in Ingria, Lutheran Ingrian Finns left Ingria, where they were in minority, for the area known as Old Finland, north of the Gulf of Finland, which Russia had gained from Sweden during the 18th century, where Lutherans were a large majority. There the Ingrian Finns assimilated with the Karelian Finns. In 1870, the printing of the first Finnish-language newspaper, Pietarin Sanomat, started in Ingria. Before that Ingria received newspapers from Vyborg; the first public library was opened in 1850, in Tyrö. The largest of the libraries, situated in Skuoritsa, had more than 2,000 volumes in the second half of the 19th century. In 1899, the first song festival in Ingria was held in Puutosti. By 1897, the number of Ingrian Finns had grown to 130,413, by 1917 it exceeded 140,000.
After the October Revolution, Ingrian Finns inhabiting the southern part of the Karelian Isthmus seceded from Bolshevik Russia and formed the short-lived Republic of North Ingria, backed by Finland. It was reintegrated with Russia at the end of 1920 under the Treaty of Tartu, but it enjoyed a certain degree of national autonomy. From 1928 to 1939, Ingrian Finns in North Ingria constituted the Kuivaisi National District with its center in Toksova and Finnish as its official language; the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union in 1926 recorded 114,831 "Leningrad Finns", as Ingrian Finns were called. Soviet rule, the German occupation during World War II, were as disastrous for the Ingrian Finns as for other small ethnic groups. Many Ingrian Finns were either executed, deported to Siberia, or forced to relocate to other parts of the Soviet Union. There were refugees to Finland, where they assimilated. In 1928, collectivization of agriculture started in Ingria. To facilitate it, in 1929–1931, 18,000 people from North Ingria were deported to East Karelia or the Kola Peninsula, as well as to Kazakhstan and other parts of Central Asia.
The situation for the Ingrian Finns deteriorated further because of the Soviet plan to create restricted security zones along the borders with Finland and Estonia, free of the Finnic peoples, who were considered politically unreliable. In April 1935 7,000 people were deported from Ingria to Kazakhstan, elsewhere in Central Asia, the Ural region. In May and June 1936 20,000 people, the entire Finnish population of the parishes of Valkeasaari, Lempaala and Miikkulainen near the Finnish border, were transferred to the area around Cherepovets. In Ingria they were replaced by people from other parts of the Soviet Union. In 1937 Lutheran churches and Finnish-language schools in Ingria were closed down, publications and radio broadcasting in Finnish were suspended. In March 1939 the Kuivaisi National District was liquidated. During the Winter War, the Soviet policy was mixed. On the one hand, Stalin's government destroyed Ingrian Finnish culture, but on the other hand, the maintenance of a Finnish-speaking population was desired as a way to legitimize the planned occupation of Finland.
The failure of the puppet Terijoki government led to the ultimate result that in 1941, Moscow decided that Ingrian Finns were unreliable, in 1942 most of the Ingrian Finns remaining in Ingria were forcibly relocated to Siberia. During the Finnish and German occupation of the area, Ingrian Finns were evacuated to Finland. However, after the Continuation War, most of these Ingrian Finns, who were still Soviet citizens, were forcibly returned to the Soviet Union, where they were dispersed into Central Russia. However, some Ingrian Finns were able to flee to Sweden, nearly 4,000 were able to remain in Finland. Ingrian Finns were forgotten during the presidencies of Juho Kusti Paasikivi and Urho Kekkonen. After the war many Ingrian Finns settled in Soviet-controlled Estonia. From the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 until 2010, about 25,000 Ingrian Finns moved from Russia and Estonia to Finland, where they were eligible for automatic residence permits under the Finnish Law of Return. In 2010, the Finnish government decided to stop the remigration, so Ingrian Finns seeking residence are now
Trestle Theatre Company is a professional theatre company specialising in mask and physical theatre. Based in a renovated chapel in the city of St Albans in the county of Hertfordshire, the company creates its own masks, performances and training, sending the masks nationally and internationally. Trestle Theatre Company was founded in 1981 by Sally Cook, Alan Riley and Toby Wilsher, three graduates from the BA Performance Arts course of Middlesex Polytechnic, the support of John Wright, their course leader, their initial plan was to tour the country with a pop-up trestle stage at markets and local fairs, following the blueprints of many internationally renowned Commedia Dell'Arte groups. However, this mode of performance proved impractical, but the name stuck to symbolize the group's original ambitions. Joined by Joff Chafer, the company continued to tour nationally, internationally, develop its distinctive story telling style: combining mask, physical theatre and puppetry. Trestle's strength came from its touring work.
Trestle's first few shows were produced in full helmet mask, most successful were the trilogy of shows looking at the trials of growing up: Crèche, School Rules and nd Hanging Arou mr sally went for a picnick and thought about another play and had several revivals, touring for 12 years after their initial production. Trestle's touring has continued beyond the early nineties, the majority of the shows visiting the width and breadth of the nation, continuing their ambition to tour internationally, adding countries such as Uzbekistan, Canada and most touring an adaptation of Hans Christian Andersen's The Snow Queen around India. In April 2002 the touring company set up home in the Hill End Hospital Chapel, a refurbished chapel of the old psychiatric hospital and one of 4 buildings deigned suitable for continued use. In 2004 artistic director, founding member, Toby Wilsher left Trestle Theatre to work as a freelance director and writer and Emily Gray was placed in the role. Since the new directorship, Trestle have continued to evolve their physical storytelling techniques past mask work in an effort to expand their repertoire and establish themselves within their new venue.
Between 2007 and 2009 Trestle collaborated with three international companies to share techniques: Little India. The process concentrated on rhythm techniques, Vedic chants and the Raga system of emotions and how they're used in performance. Work from this residency was used as inspiration for the production The Snow Queen, produced by The Unicorn Theatre. Lola: the life of Lola Montes. Work and training with Increpación continued to produce a second show, an adaptation of Oscar Wilde's Birthday of the Infanta, in association with The Unicorn Theatre; the Glass Mountain. This collaboration inspired the second production Moon Fool. Trestle Theatre Company works have worked in artistic partnership with several companies and organisations over the years, their most recent include: York Theatre Royal - York Theatre Royal is a grade II* listed building over 250 years old. Working as a producing house in their two auditoriums, the York Theatre Royal has a dedicated education and taking part department.
Alongside Trestle Theatre Company they are working on a project called On Our Turf, a project which brings theatre and the arts to smaller market towns across Yorkshire. Small Nose Productions - Small Nose are a theatre company that work in clowning and mask work, producing shows and supportive workshops. VIDEOfeet - VIDEOfeet work with film, graphic design, sound design and web design. Based in St Albans they have collaborated with Trestle Theatre for work on their website and trailers for some of their previous productions; the Snow Queen. Written by Anupama Chandreshekar, Directed by Rosamunde Hutt. India Tour: August 2012. UK Tour: April–June 2013; the Man With The Luggage. Written by Lizzie Nunnery. UK Tour: 21 September - 10 December 2011 The Birthday of the Infanta. Written by Oscar Wilde, adapted by Carl Miller. UK Tour: 2 March - 5 May 2011, 22 December 2011 at Trestle Arts Base. Moon Fool revamp Ill Met By Moonlight Based on A Midsummer Night's Dream by William Shakespeare, produced by Moon Fool.
Trestle Arts Base: 28 February-17 March 2011. Burn My Heart. In collaboration Blindeye, novel written by Beverley Naidoo, adapted by Rina Vergano. UK tour: 21 September - 13 November 2010. Twelve Fifteen Written by Anna Reynolds. Trestle Arts Base: 24–25 July 2010. Moon Fool – Ill Met by Moonlight. Based on A Midsummer Night's Dream by William Shakespeare, produced by Trestle Theatre and created by Moon Fool. UK tour: 3 February - 17 April 2010; the Glass Mountain. Written by Anna Reynolds. UK Tour: 24 September - 14 November 2009. Lola: the life of Lola Montez. Written by Esther Richardson in collaboration with Emily Gra
Mary Sybilla Lovell is a British writer, daughter of William G. and Mary Catherine Shelton. She married Clifford C. Lovell on 22 October 1960, they divorced in 1974. She married Geoffrey A. H. Watts on 11 July 1992, she has one child: Graeme R. Lovell, she was an accountant and company director until she began writing in 1980 following a serious riding accident which left her temporarily disabled. She has written biographies of Beryl Markham, Amelia Earhart, Jane Digby, Richard Francis Burton, Amy Elizabeth Thorpe, the Mitford Girls, Bess of Hardwick and The Churchills, her book on Markham, Straight on Till Morning and written in under a year, after weeks of interviews with the subject in Nairobi, became an immediate international bestseller when it was published in 1987 and was twelve weeks on the New York Times Best Seller list. She wrote The Mitford Girls, a biography of the celebrated Mitford sisters, first published in September 2001, her Bess of Hardwick, was published in the UK in 2005. Four of her books have been optioned for films.
Until 2011 she led reader groups interested in Jane Digby around Syria to follow in the footsteps of this favourite subject of hers. She loves to travel to the Middle East. Amelia, a major movie starring Richard Gere and Hilary Swank, was based on her bestselling book The Sound of Wings - a biography of Amelia Earhart, it was released in October 2009. Her last biography was The Churchills, a biography of the Churchill family from the 1st Duke Marlborough to the present generation, was published in April 2011 in the UK and May 2011 in the U. S. A; the paperback was due for release in April/May 2012. She lives in the New Hampshire. Beryl Markham - Straight on till Morning Beryl Markham’s African stories - The Splendid Outcast Amelia Earhart - The Sound of Wings Amy Elizabeth Thorpe - Cast No Shadow.
The Cliff mine was the first successful copper mine in the Copper Country of the state of Michigan in the United States. The mine is at the now-abandoned town of Clifton in Keweenaw County. Mining began in 1845, the Cliff was the most productive copper mine in the United States from 1845 through 1854. Large-scale mining stopped in 1878; the Cliff mined a fissure vein of native copper in Precambrian basalt beds. The vein was nearly vertical, dipping steeply to the east, running north–south, nearly perpendicular to the strike of the enclosing beds; the productive part of the vein was below the Greenstone flow, which forms the cliff from which the mine took its name. The mine started by mining only high-grade ore; the average ore grade mined declined over time, by 1869 was 3% copper, comparable to other copper mines of the time. Some native silver was recovered; the Pittsburgh and Boston Copper Harbor Mining Company and its successor the Pittsburgh and Boston Mining Company operated the Cliff mine from 1845 to 1870 sold the property to the Cliff Copper Company in 1871.
The Cliff Copper Company operated the mine from 1872 to 1878. The combined dividends paid by the companies was $2.5 million. The mine was leased to tributers, who continued minor copper production through 1887. Total production was 38.2 million pounds of refined copper. The Tamarack Mining Company bought the Cliff property and did extensive subsurface exploration from 1903 to 1908, but did not find any new ore bodies worth mining. According to legend, the great Cliff was discovered when an unnamed prospector fell down the face of a greenstone bluff and painfully injured his behind on a projecting piece of solid copper. Copper mining in Michigan List of Copper Country mines List of Copper Country mills Mindat.org, Cliff mine, Keweenaw Co. Michigan, USA, accessed 6 July 2009. Cliff Mine Archaeology Survey, official website and blog, CliffMine.wordpress.com, accessed 18 April 2010
Ilka Gedő was a Hungarian painter and graphic artist. Her work survives decades of persecution and repression, first by the semi-fascist regime of the 1930s and 1940s and after a brief interval of relative freedom between 1945 and 1949, by the communist regime of the 1950s to 1989. In the first stage of her career, which came to an end in 1949, she created a huge number of drawings that can be divided into various series. From 1964 on, she resumed her artistic activities creating oil paintings. "Ilka Gedő is one of the solitary masters of Hungarian art. She is bound to neither the avant-garde nor traditional trends, her matchless creative method makes it impossible to compare her with other artists." Ilka Gedő was born from the marriage of Simon Gedő and Elza Weiszkopf on 26 May 1921. Her father was a teacher at the Jewish grammar school, her mother worked as a clerk; some of the leading Hungarian writers and artists of the times were among the family's circle of friends. Ilka Gedő was raised in a family, where she had every opportunity to become an educated and sensitive artist.
She went to a secondary school bearing the name Új Iskola. This school offered teaching methods. Since her early childhood, Ilka Gedő had been continuously recording her experiences; the series of juvenilias preserved in the artist's estate, can be put into chronological order, thus one is confronted with a visual diary. She was seventeen years old when she spent her holidays in the Bakony hills, to the west of Budapest. During her holidays she spent all her time drawing the scenery. In the fields she followed the scythe-men with sketchbook in hand, so as to see again and again the recurring movement from the same angle, capturing the rhythm with considerable fluency and sophistication; the drawings and folders that have been preserved from the years 1937-1938 reveal that she had a complete technical mastery of drawing, this in spite of the fact that she had never received regular tuition until then. After passing her school-leaving examinations, Ilka Gedő considered starting her artistic studies in Paris, but the war interfered, due to the Jewish laws she could not go to the Hungarian Academy of Art either.
Had Gedő wished to attend the Academy, it is that she would have found her way barred. With the increase in influence of the Hungarian Fascists, the Arrow Cross Party, the open disenfranchisement of the Jews began in 1938 with the First Jewish Laws followed by the Second and Third in 1939 and 1941. From the late 1930s till the early 1940s Ilka Gedő was taught by three artists of Jewish origin who were killed by the Nazis at the end of the war. In 1939, her final examination year Gedő attended the open school of Tibor Gallé. Gedő's second master was Victor Erdei, a painter and graphic artist of the naturalist-impressionist and Art Nouveau style. Gedő's third teacher was the sculptor István Örkényi Strasser. From Strasser Gedő learnt the representation of mass. During the war, she made a living by doing ceramics, but she never stopped creating her series of graphics. Ilka Gedő visited the town of Szentendre. A small provincial town on the Danube, some twenty miles from Budapest, it provided between the wars a shelter for numerous artists.
From 1938 to 1947 Ilka Gedő made pastel drawings of the town, taking her forms and colours directly from nature. The colours red, vivid yellow, dark brown and green reach a high intensity of colourfulness. Up until the early 1940s, together with other young artists, Ilka Gedő visited the studio of Gyula Pap, a former disciple of Johannes Itten and a teacher of Bauhaus. During these years, up to 1944, Gedő made intimate studies in pencil of family life, she began a series of self-portraits which were to continue to the end, in 1949, of the first stage of her artistic career. In 1942 Ilka Gedő participated in the exhibition, organized by the Group of Socialist Artists and titled Freedom and the People that took place at the Centre of the Metal Workers' Union. On March 19, 1944, eight German divisions invaded Hungary; the persecution of Hungarian Jewry began in earnest. At unparalleled speed all of Hungary's provincial Jews were deported to concentration camps in Poland, where most of them were killed.
Despite protests by church leaders and Miklós Horthy's hesitant attempts to halt the deportations, by the summer of 1944 about 200,000 Jews were herded together in the Budapest ghetto and in specially designated houses. Following the unsuccessful attempt by Horthy to take Hungary out for the war, the Arrow Cross party carried out a military take-over on October 15, 1944. In the ghetto, the worst days of nightmare began. Through sheer luck, Ilka Gedő survived. In the Budapest Ghetto Ilka Gedő spent most of her time with reading and drawing recording her surroundings, her companions, the old people and children; these drawings are invaluable documents, but they are allegories of human humiliation and defencelessness. On one of her self-portrait drawings, she presents a frontal view of herself, showing a person who has lost control over her own fate. Accordingly, she has no age, no gender any more. On the last drawing we see the artist's self-portrait with a drawing-board; the eyes, so it seems, stare into nothingness.
The ego looks for support in her own self. On New Year's Eve 1945, Ilka Gedő met Endre Bíró who studied chemistry at the University of Szeged, after the war started to work for a research institute headed by th
Willem Christiaan van Manen was a Dutch theologian. He was professor in early Christian literature and New Testament exegesis at Leiden University and belonged to the Dutch school of Radical Criticism. Van Manen's 1865 doctoral thesis in Utrecht about the authenticity of 1 Thessalonians concluded that this was a genuine letter by Paul of Tarsus, but in 1889 he wrote a review where he agreed with a study by Rudolf Steck and with A. D. Loman, that all Pauline epistles were pseudepigraphs. Van Manen's main work "Paulus" was published 1890-1896; the first volume treated Acts, a theory of the development of Christianity in the 1st centuries. He argued that Acts was dependent on Flavius Josephus and other works, assigned it to the second quarter of the 2nd century; the other two volumes were 2 Corinthians. Van Manen contributed several essays to Encyclopaedia Biblica: Old-Christian literature the section "Epistles" Paul – Later criticism, a sequel to the treatment by E. Hatch Paul's epistle to the Romans Paul's and Polycarp's epistles to the Philippians Paul's epistle to Philemon