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Ingrid Newkirk

Ingrid E. Newkirk is a British animal welfarist and the president of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, the world's largest animal rights organization, she is the author of several books, including Making Kind Choices and The PETA Practical Guide to Animal Rights: Simple Acts of Kindness to Help Animals in Trouble. Newkirk has worked for the animal-protection movement since 1972. Under her leadership in the 1970s as the District of Columbia's first female poundmaster, legislation was passed to create the first spay/neuter clinic in Washington, D. C. as well as an adoption program and the public funding of veterinary services, leading her to be among those chosen in 1980 as Washingtonians of the Year. Newkirk founded PETA in March 1980 with fellow animal rights activist Alex Pacheco, they came to public attention in 1981, during what became known as the Silver Spring monkeys case, when Pacheco photographed 17 macaque monkeys being experimented on inside the Institute of Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland.

The case led to the first police raid in the United States on an animal research laboratory and to an amendment in 1985 to the Animal Welfare Act. Since Newkirk has led campaigns to stop the use of animals in crash tests, convinced companies to stop testing cosmetics on animals, pressed for higher welfare standards from the meat industry, organized undercover investigations that have led to government sanctions against companies and entertainers who use animals, she is known, in particular, for the media stunts that she organizes to draw attention to animal-protection issues. In her will, for example, she has asked that her skin be turned into wallets, her feet into umbrella stands, her flesh into "Newkirk Nuggets" grilled on a barbecue. "We are complete press sluts", she told The New Yorker in 2003: "It is our obligation. We would be worthless if we were just polite and didn't make any waves."Although PETA takes a gradualist approach to improving animal welfare, Newkirk remains committed to ending animal use and the idea that, as PETA's slogan says, "animals are not ours to eat, experiment on, or use for entertainment".

Some animal rights abolitionists, most notably Gary Francione, have criticized PETA, calling it and other groups "the new welfarists". Some members of the animal advocacy movement have responded that Francione's position is unnecessarily divisive. Newkirk has been criticized for her support of actions carried out in the name of the Animal Liberation Front. Newkirk's position is that the animal rights movement is a revolutionary one and that "hinkers may prepare revolutions, but bandits must carry them out". PETA itself, however, "maintains a creed of nonviolence and does not advocate actions in which anyone, human or nonhuman, is injured". Newkirk and PETA have been criticized for euthanizing many of the animals taken into PETA's shelters, including healthy pets, opposition to the whole notion of pets, her position that "There's no rational basis for saying that a human being has special rights. A rat is a pig is a dog is a boy," as well as seeing eradication as a goal. PETA has responded to this line of criticism.

Newkirk was born in Britain, where she lived in Ware, Hertfordshire. Her father was a navigational engineer, when she was seven, the family moved to New Delhi, where her father worked for the government, while her mother volunteered for Mother Teresa in a leper colony and a home for unwed mothers. Newkirk attended a convent boarding school in the Himalayas for well-to-do Indian nationals and non-natives. "It was the done thing for a British girl in India", she told Michael Specter for The New Yorker. "But I was the only British girl in this school. I was hit by nuns, starved by nuns; the whole God thing was shoved right down my throat."Newkirk helped her mother out in the leper colony—packing pills and rolling bandages, stuffing toys for orphans, feeding strays—and says that this informed her view that anyone in need, including animals, was worthy of concern, along with her mother's advice that it doesn't matter who suffers, but how. She tells the story of an early experience of trying to rescue an animal, when she heard laughter in the alleyway behind the family home in New Delhi.

A group of people had bound a dog's legs, muzzled him lowered him into a muddy ditch, laughing as they watched him try to escape. Newkirk asked her servant to bring the dog to her, tried to get him to drink some water, but someone had packed his throat with mud, he died in her arms, she told the Financial Times. When she was eighteen, the family moved to Florida, where her father worked on designing bombing systems for the United States Air Force, it was there that she met Steve Newkirk. He introduced her to Formula One racing, which—along with sumo wrestling—remains one of her great passions, according to The New Yorker: "It's sex; the first time you hear them rev their engines, my God! That noise goes straight up my spine." Until she was 22, Newkirk had given no thought to animals rights or vegetarianism. In 1970, she and her husband moved to Poolesville, where she studied to become a stockbroker. A neighbor abandoned some kittens, Newkirk decided to take them to an animal shelter, she told Specter: When I arrived at the shelter, the woman said, "Come in the back and we will just put them down there."...

I thought. So I waited out front for a while, I asked if I could go back and see them, the woman just looked at me and said, "What are you talking about? They are all dead." I just snapped. The

Dramatists Guild Foundation

The Dramatists Guild Foundation is a public charity. According to its website, its mission is "to nurture writers for the theater. DGF supports the production new works across the United States by giving grants to non-profit theatrical organizations that produce works by American writers, they support writers directly. From time to time, DGF hosts a benefit gala; the 2009 gala honored Rosie's Broadway Kids. The 2012 gala honors John Kander. DGF's first spring concert - DGF: Toasts - honors his 70th birthday. DGF partnered with other NY theaters to produce the Shinsai: Theaters for Japan initiative; the Legacy Project is a set of filmed interviews between an experienced dramatist and an emerging one. Volume I was released in 2011; the videos are a resource for students, theater-lovers, the general public. Producers include Carol Hall, Peter Ratray and Jonathan Reynolds; the interviews are directed by Jeremy Levine and Landon Van Soest of Transient Pictures. Volume I features Lee Adams with Brian Yorkey, Edward Albee with Will Eno, Jerry Bock and Sheldon Harnick with David Zippel, A.

R. Gurney with Itamar Moses, John Kander with Kirsten Childs, Arthur Laurents with David Saint, Stephen Sondheim with Adam Guettel, Joseph Stein with Lin-Manuel Miranda, Charles Strouse with Michael John LaChiusa, Lanford Wilson with Craig Lucas. DGF puts on the Traveling Masters program that partners professional writers with American theaters; the writer conducts workshops and leads discussions. Last year, DGF brought Lisa Kron to CityWrights in Miami as part of the Traveling Masters; the Dramatists Guild Foundation awards two different types of grants: Theater Grants - Grants to nonprofit theaters/institutions across the country that develop and/or produce contemporary American plays and musicals. Individual Grants - One-time individual emergency grants to playwrights and composers; the Dramatists Guild of America The Dramatists Guild Foundation

Iraqi Army

The Iraqi Army the Iraqi Ground Forces, is the ground force component of the Iraqi Armed Forces, having been active in various incarnations throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. It was known as the Royal Iraqi Army up until the coup of July 1958; the Iraqi Army in its modern form was first created by the United Kingdom during the inter-war period of de facto British control of Mandatory Iraq. Following the invasion of Iraq by U. S. forces in 2003, the Iraqi Army was rebuilt along American lines with enormous amounts of U. S. military assistance at every level. Because of the Iraqi insurgency that began shortly after the invasion, the Iraqi Army was designed to be a counter-insurgency force. With the withdrawal of U. S. troops in 2011, Iraqi forces have assumed full responsibility for their own security. A New York Times article suggested that, between 2004 and 2014, the U. S. had provided the Iraqi Army with $25 billion in training and equipment in addition to an larger sum from the Iraqi treasury.

The Army extensively collaborated with Iraqi Popular Mobilization Forces during anti-ISIL operations. The threat of war with newly forming Republic of Turkey, which claimed the Ottoman vilayet of Mosul as part of their country, led the British to form the Iraqi Army on 6 January 1921; the Mussa Al-Kadhum Brigade consisted of ex-Iraqi-Ottoman officers, whose barracks were located in Kadhimyah. The United Kingdom provided support and training to the Iraqi Army and the Iraqi Air Force through a small military mission based in Baghdad. Iraqi Army Day celebrates the soldiers. From 1533 to 1918, Iraq was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, fought as part of the Military of the Ottoman Empire. After 1917, the United Kingdom took control of the country; the first Iraqi military forces established by the British were the Iraq Levies, several battalions of troops tasked to guard the Royal Air Force bases from which the British controlled Iraq. In August 1921, the British installed Hashemite King Faisal I as the client ruler of the British Mandate of Iraq.

Faisal had been forced out as the King of Syria by the French. British authorities selected Sunni Arab elites from the region for appointments to government and ministry offices in Iraq; the British and the Iraqis formalized the relationship between the two nations with the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1922. With Faisal's ascension to the throne, the Iraqi Army became the Royal Iraqi Army. In 1922, the army totalled 3,618 men; this was well below the 6,000 men requested by the Iraqi monarchy and less than the British set limit of 4,500. Unattractive salaries hindered early recruiting efforts. At this time, the United Kingdom maintained the right to levy local forces like the British-officered Iraq Levies which were under direct British control. With a strength of 4,984 men, the Iraq Levies outnumbered the army with its British set limit of 4,500 men. In 1924, the army grew to 5,772 men and, by the following year, had grown still more to reach 7,500 men, it was to stay at 7,500 men until 1933. The force now had six infantry battalions, three cavalry regiments, two mountain regiments, one field battery.

In 1932, the Kingdom of Iraq was granted official independence. This was in accordance with the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930, whereby the United Kingdom would end its official mandate on the condition that the Iraqi government would allow British advisers to take part in government affairs, allow British military bases to remain, a requirement that Iraq assist the United Kingdom in wartime. Upon achieving independence in 1932, political tensions arose over the continued British presence in Iraq, with Iraq's government and politicians split between those considered pro-British and those who were considered anti-British; the pro-British faction was represented by politicians such as Nuri as-Said who did not oppose a continued British presence. The anti-British faction was represented by politicians such as Rashid Ali al-Gaylani who demanded that remaining British influence in the country be removed. In 1936, General Bakr Sidqi, who had won a reputation from suppressing tribal revolts, was named Chief of the General Staff and pressured the King to demand that the Cabinet resign.

From that year to 1941, five coups by the RIrA occurred during each year led by the chief officers of the army against the government to pressure the government to concede to Army demands. In early April 1941, during World War II, Rashid Ali al-Gaylani and members of the anti-British "Golden Square" launched a coup d'état against the current government. Prime Minister Taha al-Hashimi resigned and Rashid Ali al-Gaylani took his place as Prime Minister. Rashid Ali proclaimed himself chief of a "National Defence Government." He installed a more compliant Regent. He attempted to restrict the rights of the British which were granted them under the 1930 treaty. On April 30 Iraqi Army units took the high ground to the south of RAF Habbaniya. An Iraqi envoy was sent to demand that no movements, either ground or air, were to take place from the base; the British refused the demand and themselves demanded that the Iraqi units leave the area at once. In addition, the British landed forces at Basra and the Iraqis demanded that these forces be removed.

At 0500 hours on 2 May 1941, the Anglo-Iraqi War broke out between the British and Rashid Ali's new government when the British at RAF Habbaniya launched air strikes against the Iraqis. By this time, the army had grown significantly, it had four infantry divisions with some 60,000 men. At full strength, each division had three brigades; the Iraqi 1st and 3rd Divisions were stationed in Baghdad. Based within Baghdad was the Independent Mechanized Brigade comprising a L3/35 light tank company, an ar

The Keener's Manual

The Keener's Manual is an imaginary book created by the 20th-century American political novelist Richard Condon. From it Condon used quotations or epigraphs in verse, to either illustrate the theme of his novels, or, in a large number of cases, as the source of the title, in particular six of his first seven books: The Oldest Confession, Some Angry Angel, A Talent for Loving, An Infinity of Mirrors, Any God Will Do. Only his second, most famous novel, The Manchurian Candidate, derived its title elsewhere. A number of his books reference it for epigraphs, however, using any of its verse as a source for titles. A "keen" is a "lamentation for the dead uttered in a loud wailing voice or sometimes in a wordless cry" and a "keener" is a professional mourner a woman in Ireland, who "utters the keen... at a wake or funeral." The epigraph to Condon's first novel, which appears on the title page of the first American hardback edition, reads in its entirety: The Oldest Confession Is one of Need, Half the need Love, The other half Greed Later we encounter the first use of a phrase, more known as the epigraph to The Manchurian Candidate than it is associated with this book.

On page 142 the protagonist, James Bourne, is at his grandiloquent worst as he once again tries to justify his criminality to his mistress: "I am you and you are me and what can we do for the salvation of each other?" Two hundred pages as the book comes to its tragic conclusion, one broken woman tries to console another with an long-winded speech that ends with, "I am you and you are me and what have we done to each other?" A year with the publication of the book, to make Condon famous, we find, on a frontis page of The Manchurian Candidate, two separate epigraphs, one from the Standard Dictionary of Folklore and Legend, the other, shorter one, from The Keener's Manual: "I am you and you are me and what have we done to each other?" In Condon's next book, Some Angry Angel a charismatic but homeless "rumdumb", orates to his fellow bums, "If this world is a legacy of Jesus Christ I am you and you are me and each flock to its own fold." To Condon, this phrase denotes the inter-connectedness of all human beings to each other those who are committed lovers.

"I am you and you are me and what can we do for the salvation of each other?" In Condon's third novel, published in 1960, the following verse is found in two places: as an epigraph on a blank frontis page five pages after the title page and two pages before the beginning of the text. The first quotation is attributed to The Keener's Manual but not the second; some angry angel, Bleared by Bach and too inbred, Climbed out of bed, glancing downward, Threw a rock Which struck an earthbound peacock's head. The peacock fell; the peacock's yell, Outraged by such treason, Cried out to know why it, Out of billions, Should be hit, And invented a reason. This article incorporates material from the Citizendium article "The Keener's Manual", licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License but not under the GFDL

Yunkyur, Verkhoyansky District, Sakha Republic

Yunkyur is a rural locality and the administrative center of Sartansky Rural Okrug of Verkhoyansky District in the Sakha Republic, located 362 kilometers from Batagay, the administrative center of the district. Its population as of the 2010 Census was 583. Official website of the Sakha Republic. Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic. Verkhoyansky District. Государственное Собрание Республики Саха. Закон №173-З №353-III от 30 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха », в ред. Закона №1058-З №1007-IV от 25 апреля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Саха "Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Якутия", №245, 31 декабря 2004 г

Samaria Ostraca

The Samaria Ostraca are 102 ostraca found in 1910 in excavations in Sebastia, Nablus led by George Andrew Reisner of the Harvard Semitic Museum. Of the 102, only 63 are legible; the ostraca are written in the paleo-Hebrew alphabet, which closely resemble those of the Siloam Inscription, but show a slight development of the cursive script. The primary inscriptions are known as KAI 183-188; these ostraca were found in the treasury of the palace of Ahab, king of Israel and date about his period, 850–750 BC. They are held in the collection of the Istanbul Archaeology Museums, they are written on fragments of five different types of vessels—large thick amphorae, with a drab or grey surface. Sherds with a smooth surface or a slip would be preferred for writing; these ostraca are evidently part of a somewhat clumsy method of book-keeping. Either they were a "day-book," notes of daily receipts to be written up in some form of "ledger" afterwards, it is possible they were handed in by the payer, not by the receiver.

All of them began with a date, such as "In the ninth, tenth, or fifteenth year" of the reign of Ahab. This is followed by the amount and quality of wine or oil received, with the name of the place where it came from and of the giver, such as "in the tenth year wine of Kerm-ha-Tell for a jar of fine oil" where evidently wine was accepted in place of fine oil. "A jar of old wine" and "a jar of fine oil" are the most usual descriptions. Ostracon No. I contains a list of amounts paid in by five people, it reads: IN THE TENTH YEAR. To SHEMARYAU. FROM BEER-YAM Jars of Old Wine. Rage', son of Elisha'......'Uzza, son of.. I Eliba, son of i Ba'ala, son of Elisha...... I Yeda'Yau, son of.. I Ostracon No. 2 is a similar document: IN THE TENTH YEAR. To GADDIYAU. FROM AZAH Jars of Old Wine. Abi-ba'al Ahaz.. Sheba' Meriba'al Ostracon, No. 18 In the tenth year. From Hazeroth to Gaddiyau. A jar of fine oil. Ostracon, No- 30 In the fifteenth year. From Shemida to Hillez Gaddiyau. Gera Hanniab. Samaria Ostracon, No. 55 In the tenth year.

Vineyard of Yehau-eli. A jar of fine oil; some names are of the villages or districts, others are names of the peasant farmers who paid their taxes in the form of jars of wine. Of the places mentioned on these Ostraca, Shechem is the only one that can be identified with a text occurring in the Old Testament. In Kerm-ha-Tell, Kerm-Yahu-'ali, the word Kerm must mean " the village, or vineyard," Tell means "mound"; this locality may be the current Tul Karm in Samaria. Six of these place-names occur in the Old Testament as "tribal subdivisions of Manasseh", in Joshua xvii. 2. and Numbers xxvi. 28/: Abi-'Ezer, Shechem, Shemida', No'ah, Hoglah. The names of the seventeen places occurring on these Ostraca are Shiftan, may be current village of Shoufa Beer-yam Azzo, may be current village of Azzon Gib, may be current village of Gaba or Jaba' Yasot, may be current village of Yasid Azat Par'an, Abi-'ezer, Kerm-ha-Tell, may be current town of Tulkarm Shemida', Khoglah, No'ah Shekem, Shereq; these names are preceded by the word" to," indicating.

The names occurring are: Ba'alzamar. Akhino'am. Shemaryau. Gaddiyau. Isha Akhimelek—/ Isha, son of Akhimelek. Nimshi. Bedyau. Akhima. Kheles. Kheles Gaddiyau—i.e. Kheles, son of Gaddiyau. Kheles Afsakh—/.*. Kheles, son of Afsakh. Khanan Ba'ara. Gomer. Khanndno'ana. Yeda'yau. Yeda'yau Akhimelek—. Most of these names sound unusual and un-Biblical. In form they recall more names occurring in the Tell-el-Amarna Letters and the records of Thothmes III's conquests in Syria; some of the names of taxpayers on these sherds are: Names with " son of." Rage' Elisha.'Alah Ela. Gera Khaimi'ab. Ye'ush of Yasheb Ba'al combinations Ba'ala of El Mettan. Ba'ala Elisha. Ba'al B Isha Ba'al'azkar. Abi-Ba'al. Meri-ba'al. Ba'ala Za. Single. Eliba. Akhima. Akhaz. Sheba. Qedar of Saq. Uzza. Kheles of Khaserot. Akhzai of Khaserot.' Yau " Combinations. Yeda'yau. Gera Yauyosheb. Mafna-yau Natao of Yasot, Abed-yau. Abi-yau. Marnayau Gaddiyau. In these personal names unfamiliar as most of them are, we are struck at once with the fact that Ba'al occurs in their formation with as great frequency as Yahveh or Yah appears in Biblical names of the Kingdom of Judah.

It is significant of the influence of Sidonian worship of Ba'al in the Northern Kingdom. Yet, if the syllable "yau" is part of the word Yahveh, with " h " dropped out, it would appear that in some families the worship of Yahveh is reflected in the family name; these lists of names bear clear testimony as to the co-existence of Ba'al worship alongside of the worship of Jehovah in Northern Israel. On the sherds found, the only years mentioned are the ninth, tenth and seventeenth, the only materials are wine and oil; the names Kheles, Akhimelek, Kha-nan, Ba'ara, Meribaal, are all Biblical, while Gaddiyau and Shemaryau are the northern forms of Gedaiah and Shemariah. Some of the Ba'al combinations are of Phoenician -- e.g.. Ba'alzamar; the names Abiba'al, Sheba9 Elisha, 9Uzza, Gera and Natan, are all Biblical. As no complete jar seems to have been found, it is impossible to