Muiris Ó Súilleabháin, Irish pronunciation:. Fiche Blian ag Fás was published in Irish and English in 1933; as one of the last areas of Ireland in which the old Irish language and culture had continued unchanged, the Great Blasket Island was a place of enormous interest to those seeking traditional Irish narratives. Ó Súilleabháin was persuaded to write his memoirs by George Thomson, a linguist and professor of Greek who had come to the island to hear and learn the Irish language. It was Thomson who encouraged him to go into the Guards, rather than emigrate to America as most of the young people did. Thomson edited and assembled the memoir, arranged for its translation into English with the help of Moya Llewelyn Davies. While Fiche Blian ag Fás was received with tremendous enthusiasm by critics, including E. M. Forster, their praise at times had a condescending tone. Forster described the book as a document of a surviving "Neolithic" culture; such interest was tied up with romantic notions of the Irish primitive, thus when Ó Súilleabháin tried to find a publisher for his second book, Fiche Bliain faoi Bhláth, there was little interest, as this narrative departed from the romantic realm of turf fires and pipe-smoking wise-women.
Dylan Thomas commenced, but did not finish, a filmscript of Twenty Years a-Growing. Following the death of his mother when he was six months old, Ó Súilleabháin was raised in an institution in Dingle, Co. Kerry. Aged eight, he returned to Great Blasket Island to live with his father and the rest of his siblings, learnt the native language, he joined the Garda Síochána in Dublin in 1927 and was stationed in the Gaeltacht area of Connemara, where he kept up contact with Thomson. In 1934, Ó Súilleabháin settled in Connemara. Ó Súilleabháin drowned on 25 June 1950, while swimming at Knocknacarra off the Connemara coast. Fiche Bliain ag Fás. Baile Átha Cliath: Clólucht an Talbóidigh. 1933. P. 381. Twenty Years a-Growing. Trans. Moya Llewelyn Davies & George Thomson.. New York City: Viking Books. 1933. P. 303. Vingt ans de jeunesse. Trans. Raymond Queneau. Paris, France: Gallimard. 1934
Tomás Ó Criomhthain was a native of the Irish-speaking Great Blasket Island 3 kilometres off the coast of the Dingle Peninsula in Ireland. He wrote two books, Allagar na h-Inise written over the period 1918–23 and published in 1928, An t-Oileánach, completed in 1923 and published in 1929. Both have been translated into English; the 2012 translation by Garry Bannister and David Sowby is to date the only unabridged version available in English. His books are considered classics of Irish-language literature containing portrayals of a unique way of life, now extinct, of great human, literary and anthropological interest, his writing is vivid and delightful, full of incident and balance, fine observation and good sense and restraint. He began to write down his experiences in diary-letters in the years after World War I, following persistent encouragement by Brian Ó Ceallaigh from Killarney. Ó Ceallaigh overcame Ó Criomhthain's initial reluctance by showing him works by Maxim Gorky and Pierre Loti, books describing the lives of peasants and fishermen, to prove to Ó Criomhthain the interest and value of such a project.
Once persuaded, Ó Criomhthain sent Ó Ceallaigh a series of daily letters for five years – a diary – which the latter forwarded to scholar and writer Pádraig "An Seabhac" Ó Siochfhradha for editing for publication. Ó Ceallaigh convinced Ó Criomhthain to write his life story and best-known work, An t-Oileánach. Ó Criomhthain had four sisters, Kate and Nora, a brother, Pats. His personality was well-grounded in intimate affection and respect for his parents who lived to a ripe old age; the only, disharmony arose between himself and Nora, five years his elder. She had been the family favourite until Tomás arrived "unexpectedly", her jealousy of him created friction between them. He married Máire Ní Chatháin in 1878, she bore ten children but many died before reaching adulthood: One boy fell from a cliff while hunting for a fledgling gull to keep as a pet among the chickens. Máire herself died while still young, their son Seán wrote a book, Lá dar Saol, describing the emigration of the remaining islanders to the mainland and America when the Great Blasket was abandoned in the 1940s and 1950s.
Ó Criomhthain received an intermittent education between the ages of 10 and 18 whenever a schoolteacher from the mainland lived for a while on the island. The teachers were young women who returned to the mainland on receiving proposals of marriage, he had a long childhood of enviable liberty from drudgery without the constant confinements of the classroom or a grinding programme of chores from which he was spared by having five older siblings. As a fisherman, Ó Criomhthain caught a wide variety of seafood, including scad, mackerel, herring, pollock, dogfish, rockfish, conger eel, seals, lobster, limpets and mussels, as well as seaweeds such as dulse, sea lettuce, sea belt, murlins. Many on the island relished seal meat much more than pork. One night Ó Criomhthain and colleagues caught a "huge creature" in their nets with great danger and difficulty, it was a whale or basking shark. Oil from the liver of this unidentified "great beast" fuelled all the lamps on the island for five years. Ó Criomhthain harvested turf for home fuel from the top of the island, the sods were carried home by an ass.
When he set to work cutting turf, he was interrupted by the island poet who distracted him by teaching him his lengthy songs. There is much comedy in Ó Criomhthain's silent exasperation at the hours wasted, yet he never snubbed the poet for fear a damaging satire would be composed against him. In addition to fish and other "sea fruit" Ó Criomhthain's diet included potatoes, lumps of butter, bread, sea birds and mutton; the few acres of arable land on the island were fertilised with dung and seaweed, supplemented by chimney-soot and mussel shells. The limited crops sown included a few other vegetables, along with oats and rye; the island was alive with rabbits which were caught in great numbers and the hunting was sometimes assisted by dogs or a ferret. Birds hunted for their meat and eggs included gulls, gannets, shearwaters and guillemots; the roof of his home was made of a thatch of rushes or reeds and his sisters would climb up to collect eggs from under the hens nesting on top. One amusing episode in An t-Oileánach describes a neighbour's family at supper when, to their bewilderment and consternation, young chickens began raining, one by one, onto the table and splashing into a mug of milk.
"For God's sake," cried the woman of the house, "where are they coming from?" One of the children spied a hole scratched in the roof by a mother hen. Ó Criomhthain lived in a cottage or stone cabin with a hearth at the kitchen end and sleeping quarters at the other. A feature of island life much remarked upon by mainland readers of his books was the keeping of animals in kitchens at night, including cows, sheep, dogs and hens, he was a keen collector of old tales and described a conversation between his father and a neighbour at the hearth one night. Once when at sea his father, the neighbour and other f
Inis na Bró
Inishnabro is one of the Blasket Islands of County Kerry, Ireland. Inishnabro is separated from Inishvickillane by a narrow sound, rises to 175 metres, has an area of 41.3 hectares. Early in 1970s, the U. S. commercial space pioneer Gary Hudson proposed using Inis na Bró as the launching site for a new rocket system. The proposal only became public in 2003, when Irish Government files from the period were released under the 30-year rule
The northern fulmar, fulmar, or Arctic fulmar is a abundant sea bird found in subarctic regions of the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans. There has been one confirmed sighting in the Southern Hemisphere, with a single bird seen south of New Zealand. Fulmars come in one of two color morphs: a light one, with white head and body and gray wings and tail, a dark one, uniformly gray. Though similar in appearance to gulls, fulmars are in fact members of the family Procellariidae, which include petrels and shearwaters; the northern fulmar and its sister species, the southern fulmar, are the extant members of the genus Fulmarus. The fulmars are in turn a member of the order Procellariiformes, they all share certain identifying features. First, they have nasal passages; the bills of Procellariiformes are unique in that they are split into between seven and nine horny plates. One of these plates makes up the hooked portion of the upper bill, called the maxillary unguis, they produce a stomach oil made up of wax esters and triglycerides, stored in the proventriculus.
This can be sprayed out of their mouths as a defense against predators from a early age, as an energy rich food source for chicks and for the adults during their long flights. It will mat the plumage of avian predators, can lead to their death, they have a salt gland, situated above the nasal passage that helps desalinate their bodies, due to the high amount of ocean water that they imbibe. This gland excretes a high saline solution from their nose; the northern fulmar was first described as by Carl Linnaeus, in 1761, based on a specimen from within the Arctic Circle, on Spitsbergen. The Mallemuk Mountain in Northeastern Greenland is named after the northern fulmar; the northern fulmar consists of three sub-species: F. g. glacialis –: the nominate race, which breeds in the high Arctic regions of the North Atlantic F. g. auduboni – Bonaparte, 1857: breeds in the low Arctic and boreal regions of the North Atlantic F. g. rodgersii – Cassin, 1862: breeds on the coast of eastern Siberia and the Alaskan Peninsula Fulmarus glacialis can be broken down to the Old Norse word full meaning "foul" and mar meaning "gull".
"Foul-gull" is in reference to its stomach oil and its superficial similarity to seagulls. Glacialis is Latin for "glacial" because of its extreme northern range; the northern fulmar is 46 cm in length. Body mass can range from 450 to 1,000 g; this species is gray and white with a pale yellow, thick and bluish legs. In the Pacific Ocean there is an intermediate morph as well. All morphs have certain similarities, such as only the dark morph has more than dark edges on the underneath, they all have pale inner primaries on the top of the wings; the Pacific morph has a darker tail than the Atlantic morph. Like other petrels, their walking ability is limited, but they are strong fliers, with a stiff wing action quite unlike the gulls, they look bull-necked compared to gulls, have short stubby bills. They are long-lived, with a lifespan of 31 years not uncommon; this fulmar will feed on shrimp, squid, plankton and carrion, as well as refuse. When eating fish, they will dive up to several feet deep to retrieve their prey.
The northern fulmar starts breeding at between six and twelve years old. It is monogamous, forms long term pair bonds, it returns to the same nest site year after year. The breeding season starts in May, their nest is a scrape on a grassy ledge or a saucer of vegetation on the ground, lined with softer material. The birds nest in large colonies Recently, they have started nesting on buildings. Both sexes are involved in the nest building process. A single white egg, 74 mm × 51 mm, is incubated by both sexes; the altricial chick is brooded for 2 weeks and fledges after 70 to 75 days. Again, both sexes are involved. During this period, the parents are nocturnal, will not be active on well-lit nights; the mating ritual of this fulmar consists of the female resting on a ledge and the male landing with his bill open and his head back. He commences up and down while calling, they make chuckling sounds while eating and guttural calls during the breeding season. The northern fulmar is estimated to have between 15,000,000 and 30,000,000 mature individuals, that occupy an occurrence range of 28,400,000 km2 and their North American population is on the rise, hence it is listed with the IUCN as Least Concern.
The range of these species increased last century due to the availability of fish offal from commercial fleets, but may contract because of less food from this source and climatic change. The population increase has been notable in the British Isles. BirdLife species factsheet for Fulmarus glacialis "Fulmarus glacialis". Avibase. "Northern fulmar media". Internet Bird Collection. Northern fulmar photo gallery at VIREO Audio recordings of Northern fulmar on Xeno-canto
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power