District Council of Yankalilla
The District Council of Yankalilla is a local government area centred on the town of Yankalilla on the Fleurieu Peninsula in South Australia. It was created on 23 October 1856, when the District Council of Yankalilla and Myponga was divided into two, it absorbed two other councils: the District Council of Myponga on 5 January 1888, one of a number of amalgamations mandated under the District Councils Act 1887, the District Council of Rapid Bay on 12 May 1932. The district has a rich history, as one of the earliest South Australian coastal settlements, a wide range of agricultural activities having taken place. Today the district remains agricultural in nature, supplemented by forestry; the Fleurieu Peninsula was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna people, who met with the Ramindjeri and other peoples for trade and exchanges. Aboriginal myth credits the formation of the land forms of the Fleurieu Peninsula to the travels of Tjilbruke as he grieved carrying the body of his nephew from the Sturt River to Cape Jervis.
Evidence of Megafauna, including bones attributed to Diprotodon, Maesopus – the giant kangaroo and Thylacoleo – a marsupial lion, were discovered in the 1890s. A Diprotodon leg bone was found in a swamp in the 1890s and conjecture surrounds the possibility that the animals were hunted by local aboriginal groups; the Fleurieu Peninsula was first mapped by Europeans in 1802 with both the French Nicholas Baudin and the English Matthew Flinders travelling the coastline, with Baudin giving Fleurieu Peninsula its name. William Light was the first to land on the mainland, at Rapid Bay in 1836, declared the area "rich beyond expectation", his report resulted in the early intensive settlement of the area and the District was considered for the site of the new settlement of South Australia, before further surveying showed the site of Adelaide to be superior. Governor Hindmarsh recorded the aboriginal pronunciation of "Yoongalilla", as applied to the District and noted this in dispatches of 1837. Other legends as to the origin of the name exist, with some claims that the area was named after an American "Yankie" whaler, whose kind frequented the area at the time.
There is little evidence for most of these theories however. In 1911, the town was proclaimed Yankalilla, to become the name of the district. Whalers and sealers became the first Europeans to establish semi-permanently in the district in the early 19th century, with a whaling station established at Fisheries Beach, but a combination of ship wrecks, decreasing whale numbers and the petroleum industry forced its closure in 1855. Farming land in the District was surveyed for purchase in 1838, with land released in 1840 and communities established at Myponga, Second Valley, Rapid Bay and at Yankalilla. Sheep and wheat were the first produce, with a variety of other crops grown including milling and the extraction of tannins from wattle bark prevalent in the district. Second Valley and Yankalilla all had jetties constructed to serve the increasing demand for export. In 1852 the South Australian Government proclaimed an Act of Parliament appointing District Councils to administer local affairs; the District Council of Yankalilla was constituted on 5 April 1854.
The district has remained an important one to the state, transforming from the early days of European settlement as a vital connection for resources, to an integral part of South Australia's tourism interests and links between main land and Kangaroo Island. A number of industries have come and gone in the district, including whaling and sealing, but agriculture now remains the staple source of the areas economy. In the past, a number of products were farmed, including sheep, wheat, flax, oats and barley, as well as the aforementioned flour milling, timber milling and mining. Dairy farming has become a major part of the districts economy, along with cereal crops and sheep, is the districts main source of economy. More recent developments include the trials of vineyards in the district, as well as land based aquaculture and sustainable forestry. Tourism plays a minor role in the area, with its close proximity to Adelaide drawing large crowds to the seaside towns during summer; the District Council includes the following localities - Back Valley, Bald Hills, Cape Jervis, Deep Creek, Hay Flat, Inman Valley, Mount Compass, Myponga Beach, Pages Flat, Rapid Bay, Second Valley, Sellicks Hill, Torrens Vale, Waitpinga, Wattle Flat, Willow Creek, Wirrina Cove and Yankalilla.
Mayor: Glen Rowlands CEO: Nigel Morris Councillors: Janet Jones Simon Rothwell Peter O'Neil David Olsson Rachel Preston Bruce Spilsbury Leonie Fitzgerald Rick Williams Council meets once a month on the third Tuesday of the month, commencing at 4.00pm List of parks and gardens in rural South Australia Lady Bay, South Australia LGA page for District Council of Yankalilla Official council site
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape them. Geologists study geology, although backgrounds in physics, chemistry and other sciences are useful. Field work is an important component of geology, although many subdisciplines incorporate laboratory work. Geologists work in the energy and mining sectors searching for natural resources such as petroleum, natural gas and base metals, they are in the forefront of preventing and mitigating damage from natural hazards and disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes and landslides. Their studies are used to warn the general public of the occurrence of these events. Geologists are important contributors to climate change discussions. James Hutton is viewed as the first modern geologist. In 1785 he presented a paper entitled Theory of the Earth to the Royal Society of Edinburgh. In his paper, he explained his theory that the Earth must be much older than had been supposed to allow enough time for mountains to be eroded and for sediments to form new rocks at the bottom of the sea, which in turn were raised up to become dry land.
Hutton published a two-volume version of his ideas in 1795. Followers of Hutton were known as Plutonists because they believed that some rocks were formed by vulcanism, the deposition of lava from volcanoes, as opposed to the Neptunists, led by Abraham Werner, who believed that all rocks had settled out of a large ocean whose level dropped over time; the first geological map of the United States was produced in 1809 by William Maclure. In 1807, Maclure commenced the self-imposed task of making a geological survey of the United States; every state in the Union was traversed and mapped by him. The results of his unaided labors were submitted to the American Philosophical Society in a memoir entitled Observations on the Geology of the United States explanatory of a Geological Map, published in the Society's Transactions, together with the nation's first geological map; this antedates William Smith's geological map of England by six years, although it was constructed using a different classification of rocks.
Sir Charles Lyell first published his famous book, Principles of Geology, in 1830. This book, which influenced the thought of Charles Darwin promoted the doctrine of uniformitarianism; this theory states that slow geological processes have occurred throughout the Earth's history and are still occurring today. In contrast, catastrophism is the theory that Earth's features formed in single, catastrophic events and remained unchanged thereafter. Though Hutton believed in uniformitarianism, the idea was not accepted at the time. For an aspiring geologist, training includes significant coursework in physics and chemistry, in addition to classes offered through the geology department. Most geologists need skills in GIS and other mapping techniques. Geology students spend portions of the year the summer though sometimes during a January term and working under field conditions with faculty members. Many non-geologists take geology courses or have expertise in geology that they find valuable to their fields.
Geologists may concentrate their studies or research in one or more of the following disciplines: Economic geology: the study of ore genesis, the mechanisms of ore creation, geostatistics. Engineering geology: application of the geologic sciences to engineering practice for the purpose of assuring that the geologic factors affecting the location, construction and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and adequately provided for. Geochemistry: the applied branch deals with the study of the chemical makeup and behaviour of rocks, the study of the behaviour of their minerals. Geochronology: the study of isotope geology toward determining the date within the past of rock formation, metamorphism and geological events. Geomorphology: the study of landforms and the processes that create them Hydrogeology: the study of the origin and movement of groundwater water in a subsurface geological system. Igneous petrology: the study of igneous processes such as igneous differentiation, fractional crystallization and volcanological phenomena.
Isotope geology: the case of the isotopic composition of rocks to determine the processes of rock and planetary formation. Metamorphic petrology: the study of the effects of metamorphism on minerals and rocks. Marine geology: the study of the seafloor. Marine geology has strong ties to physical plate tectonics. Palaeoclimatology: the application of geological science to determine the climatic conditions present in the Earth's atmosphere within the Earth's history. Palaeontology: the classification and taxonomy of fossils within the geological record and the construction of a palaeontological history of the Earth. Pe
An ice sheet known as a continental glacier, is a mass of glacial ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km2. The only current ice sheets are in Greenland. Ice sheets are bigger than ice shelves or alpine glaciers. Masses of ice covering less than 50,000 km2 are termed an ice cap. An ice cap will feed a series of glaciers around its periphery. Although the surface is cold, the base of an ice sheet is warmer due to geothermal heat. In places, melting occurs and the melt-water lubricates the ice sheet so that it flows more rapidly; this process produces fast-flowing channels in the ice sheet — these are ice streams. The present-day polar ice sheets are young in geological terms; the Antarctic Ice Sheet first formed as a small ice cap in the early Oligocene, but retreating and advancing many times until the Pliocene, when it came to occupy all of Antarctica. The Greenland ice sheet did not develop at all until the late Pliocene, but developed rapidly with the first continental glaciation.
This had the unusual effect of allowing fossils of plants that once grew on present-day Greenland to be much better preserved than with the forming Antarctic ice sheet. The Antarctic ice sheet is the largest single mass of ice on Earth, it covers an area of 14 million km2 and contains 30 million km3 of ice. Around 90% of the Earth's ice mass is in Antarctica, which, if melted, would cause sea levels to rise by 58 meters; the continent-wide average surface temperature trend of Antarctica is positive and significant at >0.05 °C/decade since 1957. The Antarctic ice sheet is divided by the Transantarctic Mountains into two unequal sections called the East Antarctic ice sheet and the smaller West Antarctic Ice Sheet; the EAIS rests on a major land mass but the bed of the WAIS is, in places, more than 2,500 metres below sea level. It would be seabed; the WAIS is classified as a marine-based ice sheet, meaning that its bed lies below sea level and its edges flow into floating ice shelves. The WAIS is bounded by the Ross Ice Shelf, the Ronne Ice Shelf, outlet glaciers that drain into the Amundsen Sea.
The Greenland ice sheet occupies about 82% of the surface of Greenland, if melted would cause sea levels to rise by 7.2 metres. Estimated changes in the mass of Greenland's ice sheet suggest it is melting at a rate of about 239 cubic kilometres per year; these measurements came from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite, launched in 2002, as reported by BBC News in August 2006. Ice movement is dominated by the motion of glaciers, whose activity is determined by a number of processes, their motion is the result of cyclic surges interspersed with longer periods of inactivity, on both hourly and centennial time scales. The Greenland, the Antarctic, ice sheets have been losing mass because losses by ablation including outlet glaciers exceed accumulation of snowfall. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, loss of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass contributed about 0.21 ± 0.35 and 0.21 ± 0.07 mm/year to sea level rise between 1993 and 2003. The IPCC projects that ice mass loss from melting of the Greenland ice sheet will continue to outpace accumulation of snowfall.
Accumulation of snowfall on the Antarctic ice sheet is projected to outpace losses from melting. However, in the words of the IPCC, "Dynamical processes related to ice flow not included in current models but suggested by recent observations could increase the vulnerability of the ice sheets to warming, increasing future sea level rise. Understanding of these processes is limited and there is no consensus on their magnitude." More research work is therefore required to improve the reliability of predictions of ice-sheet response on global warming. In 2018, scientists discovered channels between the East and West Antarctic ice sheets that may allow melted ice to flow more to the sea; the effects on ice sheets due to increasing temperature may accelerate, but as documented by the IPCC the effects are not projected and in the case of the Antarctic, may trigger an accumulation of additional ice mass. If an ice sheet were ablated down to bare ground, less light from the sun would be reflected back into space and more would be absorbed by the land.
The Greenland Ice Sheet covers 84% of the island and the Antarctic Ice Sheet covers 98% of the continent. Due to the significant thickness of these ice sheets, global warming analysis focuses on the loss of ice mass from the ice sheets increasing sea level rise, not on a reduction in the surface area of the ice sheets. Müller, Jonas. Ice Sheets: Dynamics and Environmental Concerns. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science. ISBN 978-1-61942-367-1. United Nations Environment Programme: Global Outlook for Ice and Snow http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/environment/ice_sheets.html
Lands administrative divisions of Australia
Lands administrative divisions of Australia are the cadastral divisions of Australia for the purposes of identification of land to ensure security of land ownership. Most states term these divisions as counties, parishes and other terms; the eastern states of Queensland, New South Wales and Tasmania were divided into counties and parishes in the 19th century, although the Tasmanian counties were renamed land districts in the 20th century. Parts of South Australia and Western Australia were divided into counties, there were five counties in a small part of the Northern Territory; however South Australia has subdivisions of hundreds instead of parishes, along with the Northern Territory, part of South Australia when the hundreds were proclaimed. There were formerly hundreds in Tasmania. There have been at least 600 counties, 544 hundreds and at least 15,692 parishes in Australia, but there are none of these units for most of the sparsely inhabited central and western parts of the country. Counties in Australia have no administrative or political function, unlike those in England, the United States or Canada.
Australia instead uses local government areas, including shires, districts and municipalities according to the state, as the second-level subdivision. Some other states were divided into land divisions and land districts. Below these are groups of land parcels known as registered plans or title plans. Queensland has registered plans. Land can be identified using the number of this plan of subdivision held with the lands department, rather than with a named unit such as a parish. Within these are individual land parcels such as lots; the various cadastral units appear on certificates of title, which are given volume and folio numbers. Detailed maps of these divisions have been required since the introduction of the Torrens title system of a central register of land holdings in South Australia in 1858, which spread to the other colonies. While cadastral data since the 1980s has been digitalised, there remain many old maps showing these divisions held in collections of Australian libraries such as the National Library of Australia, as well as in state libraries.
Counties were used since the earliest British settlement in Australia, with the County of Cumberland proclaimed by Captain Phillip on 4 June 1788. In 1804 Governor King divided Van Diemen's Land into two counties; the parishes date to the surveys conducted after 1825, with the instructions given to Governor Brisbane on 23 Jun 1825 to divide the colony into counties and parishes. At this time there were five counties proclaimed in New South Wales: Cumberland, Camden and Northumberland; the Nineteen Counties in south-eastern New South Wales were the limits of location of the colony in a period after 1829, with the area outside them divided into districts, also into counties and parishes. Counties were established soon after the foundation of other Australian colonies. Many of the counties have English names the names of counties in England, such as Devon, Dorset and Kent Counties in Tasmania. Less some have Aboriginal names such as the County of Yungnulgra in New South Wales, County of Croajingolong in Victoria.
The use of counties and parishes was popular in Australia in the 19th century, with many maps of Australian colonies showing these divisions, towns and cities listed in their county. Legal cases referenced counties, many genealogical records for Australia in the 19th century list the county and parish for location of birth and marriages; the 1911 Britannica describes Australian towns and cities as being in their respective county, including most of the capital cities: Melbourne, County of Bourke. However it is not mentioned that Perth was located in the County of Perth, as by this time county names were infrequently used in Western Australia, where they did not cover all of the settled areas, unlike the other states. Instead the system of land divisions and land districts was used, with most of Perth located in the land districts of Swan and Cockburn Sound, all in the South West Land Division of Western Australia. Counties and parishes are still referenced in property law, in industrial relations instruments, for example in a New South Wales award, which excludes people from the County of Yancowinna.
Similar award examples exist in the other states and territories that have been subdivided into counties. The County of Yancowinna is the only part of New South Wales, in a different time zone to the rest of the state, as mentioned in the Australian Standard Time Act of 1987. Counties are used on paperwork for mortgage securities in banks. Parishes and counties are mentioned in definitions of electoral districts. Counties have since gone out of use in Australia, are used or known by most of the population today. Part of the reason is that counties are based on the size of land, rather than population, so in a large country
Division of Mayo
The Division of Mayo is an Australian electoral division located to the east and south of Adelaide, South Australia. Created in the state redistribution of 3 September 1984, the division is named after Helen Mayo, a social activist and the first woman elected to an Australian University Council; the 9,315 km² rural seat covers an area from the Barossa Valley in the north to Cape Jervis in the south. Taking in the Adelaide Hills, Fleurieu Peninsula and Kangaroo Island regions, its largest population centre is Mount Barker, its other population centres are Aldgate, Littlehampton, McLaren Vale, Stirling and Victor Harbor, its smaller localities include American River, Balhannah, Carrickalinga, Cherry Gardens, Crafers, Cudlee Creek, Currency Creek, Echunga, Goolwa, Hahndorf, Kersbrook, Langhorne Creek, Macclesfield, McLaren Flat, Middleton, Mount Compass, Mount Pleasant, Mount Torrens, Myponga, Norton Summit, Penneshaw, Port Elliot, Second Valley, Summertown, Willunga, Woodside and parts of Birdwood, Old Noarlunga and Upper Sturt.
At its creation in 1984, Mayo was a rural electorate that stretched from the seaside town of Victor Harbor to the Adelaide Hills, represented by the seats of Barker and Boothby. A safe Liberal seat, it began with a notional 12.3 per cent Liberal two-party margin ahead of the 1984 election. Liberal Alexander Downer and latest of the Downer family political dynasty, notionally retained Mayo for the Liberals and would hold the seat for 24 years. At the 1990 election, the Australian Democrats, who traditionally polled better in the area covered by Mayo than anywhere else in Australia, first revealed themselves as a real contender in that seat, polling a primary vote of 21.3 per cent from an increase of 11.7 per cent, coming third by just 2 per cent of the primary vote less than Labor. Then-Democrats leader Janine Haines chose to contest the neighbouring Division of Kingston at the 1990 election, obtaining a 26.4 per cent primary vote, but came third well behind the Liberals, with sitting Labor member Gordon Bilney retaining the seat.
It was speculated at the time that if the high-profile Haines had contested Mayo instead, she may have been able to defeat Downer—presumably by gaining the additional 2 percent the Democrats needed to overtake Labor for second place, defeat Downer on Labor preferences. A redistribution following the 1990 election shifted the Fleurieu Peninsula and Kangaroo Island to Barker, where they had been prior to the creation of Mayo. While this made Mayo an Hills based seat, the Liberal margin dropped 2 percent to a notionally safe 9.6 two-party margin. It was won at the next two elections on safe margins. At the 1998 election however, high-profile Democrats candidate John Schumann polled a primary vote of 22.4 per cent. He ended up with a two-candidate vote of 48.3 per cent, just 1.7 per cent short of taking the seat, making Mayo a marginal seat for the first time. However, on "traditional" two-party terms, it only edged from safe to safe Liberal. Another redistribution following the 1998 election made Mayo a notionally safe two-party Liberal seat with an extra 1 per cent added to the two-party margin.
Downer would be comfortably returned in Mayo until his political retirement. At the 2001 election, Labor returned to second place after preferences. At the 2004 election, independent candidate Brian Deegan polled a 15 per cent primary vote, overtook Labor after preferences, polled a 38.2 per cent two-candidate vote. Downer recorded his and Mayo's lowest winning two-party result at the 2007 election with a much reduced 7.1 per cent two-party margin after a 6.5 per cent two-party swing. Downer retired from politics triggering a 2008 Mayo by-election. Labor opted not to run a candidate. Jamie Briggs retained the seat for the Liberals on a 3 per cent two-candidate margin against Greens candidate Lynton Vonow, once again transforming Mayo into a marginal seat. At the 2010 election, the seat was won by the Liberals on a safe two-party margin for only the third time, before once again becoming a safe Liberal seat at the 2013 election. South Australian Senator Nick Xenophon confirmed in December 2014 that by mid-2015 the Nick Xenophon Team would announce candidates in the South Australian Liberal seats of Hindmarsh and Mayo, along with seats in all states and territories at the 2016 election, with Xenophon citing the government's ambiguity on the Collins-class submarine replacement project as motivation.
ABC psephologist Antony Green's 2016 federal election guide for South Australia stated NXT had a "strong chance of winning lower house seats and three or four Senate seats". NXT's candidate in Mayo was former Briggs staffer Rebekha Sharkie, associated with a wide range of organisations in the Adelaide Hills. Multiple seat-level opinion polls in Mayo found NXT leading the Liberals on the two-candidate vote during the 2016 election campaign. Seat-level opinion polls in the other two rural Liberal South Australian seats, both Grey and Barker found NXT leading the Liberals. Sharkie was successful in defeating Liberal incumbent Briggs in Mayo at the 2016 election with a 55 percent two-candidate vote to the Liberals' 45 percent two-candidate vote. Briggs lost over 16 percent of his primary vote from 2013, suffered a two-candidate swing of 17.2 percent. This marked the first time. Additionally, Mayo became a marginal seat in a "traditional" two-party matchup for the first time, with the Liberal two-party-preferred v
The Fleurieu Peninsula is a peninsula in the Australian state of South Australia located south of the state capital of Adelaide. It was named after Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu, the French explorer and hydrographer, by the French explorer Nicolas Baudin as he explored the south coast of Australia in 1802; the name came in official use in 1911 in response to a recommendation to the South Australian Government from the Royal Geographical Society of South Australia following a representation from Count Alphonse de Fleurieu, a great-nephew of Charles de Fleurieu, that places in South Australia discovered by but unnamed by Matthew Flinders be given the names proposed by Baudin's expedition. The Geographical Names Advisory Committee advised in 2001 that the extent of the peninsula is:that portion of land between Gulf St. Vincent and the Southern Ocean, a line from Aldinga to Middleton being the cut-off for the peninsula; this boundary has not to be gazetted at present, is intended to be the extent of the geographic feature only and is not to be applied to any industry or interest group regional identification.
Towns on the peninsula include Victor Harbor, Normanville and Rapid Bay. Districts include Hindmarsh Valley. A ferry travels between Cape Jervis, at the tip of the peninsula, Kangaroo Island. There is surfing on both the west and south facing coasts - known locally to Adelaide surfers as the Mid South Coast and the Far South Coast. Surf spots of note include Middleton on the Far South Coast. Fleurieu Fleurieu zone Fleurieu Peninsula Tourism Region Official tourism webpage
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful