Days Inn is a hotel chain headquartered in the United States. It was founded in 1970 by Cecil B. Day, with the first location opening in Tybee Island, Georgia; the brand is now a part of the Wyndham Hotels & Resorts, based in Parsippany, New Jersey, which used to be a part of Cendant. Days Inn includes locations worldwide. Founder Cecil B. Day, before creating Days Inn, had worked in real estate in Atlanta, where he built and developed apartment complexes, he owned several locations of the fast food chains Jiffy Drive-In and Carrols in Atlanta. Day sold his holdings to Phipps Land Company for $14 million in 1969, the largest real estate transaction in the state of Georgia at the time. Day founded Days Inn on Tybee Island, Georgia in 1970, he proposed the idea as a means of using a piece of land he owned on the island. When the first Days Inn opened, Day could not find maid service, so he had his children make up the rooms' beds. A truck that delivered furniture was too heavy for the bridge onto the island, so Day's mother hauled furniture onto the island in her station wagon.
Despite the criticism that Day faced from friends for wanting to start a new lodging option on a "no-name island" with a flagging tourist economy, the first Days Inn was 100 percent occupied by April 1970. The first property featured a price of $8 per room. Within 1970, Day opened the second location, in Georgia; the property was constructed during a heavy rainstorm, one family stayed at the property a week before it was completed, at Day's insistence. Through the 1970s hotel guests could take home a paperback Bible from their guest rooms for free. Days Inn of America Inc. began franchising hotels in 1972 and within eight years created a system of more than 300 hotels in the United States and Canada. Stanley S. Tollman and Monty D. Hundley via the Tollman-Hundley Hotel Group became the largest franchisees in the 1980s, bought Days Inn of America, they took it into bankruptcy in 1991. They sold it to Hospitality Franchise Systems in 1991. Tollman and Hundley were indicted on federal bank fraud and tax fraud charges that they had not disclosed all assets in the process.
Tollman fled to London in 2002. In 2008 Tollman agreed to a plea deal that would allow him to return home in exchange for more than $100 million. Starting with the second location in Forsyth, many Days Inns featured a restaurant and gift shop combination called Tasty World. Day refused to sell alcohol at Tasty World restaurants. Day did not drink alcohol, decided to target families with the brand. Day noted that his refusal was criticized by bankers, who felt that including a bar would increase profits. Forsyth and many properties after it featured on-site gasoline pumps to sell unbranded fuel to motel guests. Day, a devout Christian offered a network of chaplains to provide ministry at each motel. Days Inn was one of the first hotel chains to offer discounts to senior citizens, it was among the first to locate its properties along suburban and rural exits on the Interstate Highway System, as opposed to more urban locations. In the UK, the top four motorway services operators have Days Inn hotels.
Days Inn and Moto Hospitality have experimented with two hotels at Winchester Services. Roadchef have Days Inn Hotels at most of their sites. Welcome Break brought the Days Inn brand to the UK under licence from the US company, it is now at each service station that has a hotel, Welcome Break run a couple of non-motorway hotels, one in Milton Keynes. Extra Services has Days Inn hotels at most of their sites, they are operated by Welcome Break. The hotel brands of Days Inn include: Days Inn and Days Inn & Suites – Full- or limited-service; some properties are only rooms. Days Hotel: full-service variant found in high-traffic and large cities. Days Suites: all-suites variant. Days Lodge: a short lived chain of lodges. Days Park: for recreational vehicles and motor homes. Daystop: a budget chain started in 1990 in Lakeville, Minnesota. Day, Cecil Burke, Jr.. Day by Day: The story of Cecil B. Day and his simple formula for success. New York: Jonathan David Publishers Inc. ISBN 0-8246-0425-3. Jakle, John A..
The Motel in America. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5383-4. Official website
Roman roads were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. They provided efficient means for the overland movement of armies and civilians, the inland carriage of official communications and trade goods. Roman roads were of several kinds, ranging from small local roads to broad, long-distance highways built to connect cities, major towns and military bases; these major roads were stone-paved and metaled, cambered for drainage, were flanked by footpaths and drainage ditches. They were laid along surveyed courses, some were cut through hills, or conducted over rivers and ravines on bridgework. Sections could be supported over marshy ground on piled foundations. At the peak of Rome's development, no fewer than 29 great military highways radiated from the capital, the late Empire's 113 provinces were interconnected by 372 great roads; the whole comprised more than 400,000 kilometres of roads, of which over 80,500 kilometres were stone-paved.
In Gaul alone, no less than 21,000 kilometres of roadways are said to have been improved, in Britain at least 4,000 kilometres. The courses of many Roman roads survived for millennia. Livy mentions some of the most familiar roads near Rome, the milestones on them, at times long before the first paved road—the Appian Way. Unless these allusions are just simple anachronisms, the roads referred to were at the time little more than levelled earthen tracks. Thus, the Via Gabina is mentioned in about 500 BC. In the Itinerary of Antoninus, the description of the road system, after the death of Julius Caesar and during the tenure of Augustus, is as follows: "With the exception of some outlying portions, such as Britain north of the Wall and certain provinces east of the Euphrates, the whole Empire was penetrated by these itinera. There is hardly a district to which we might expect a Roman official to be sent, on service either civil or military, where we do not find roads, they reach the Wall in Britain.
A road map of the empire reveals that it was laced with a dense network of prepared viae. Beyond its borders there were no paved roads. There were, for instance, some pre-Roman ancient trackways in Britain, such as the Ridgeway and the Icknield Way. For specific roads, see Roman road locations below; the Laws of the Twelve Tables, dated to about 450 BC, required that any public road be 8 Roman feet wide where straight and twice that width where curved. These were the minimum widths for a via. Actual practices varied from this standard; the Tables command Romans to build public roads and give wayfarers the right to pass over private land where the road is in disrepair. Building roads that would not need frequent repair therefore became an ideological objective, as well as building them as straight as possible in order to build the narrowest roads possible, thus save on material. Roman law defined the right to use a road as liability; the ius eundi established a claim to use an footpath, across private land.
A via combined both types of servitutes, provided it was of the proper width, determined by an arbiter. The default width was the latitudo legitima of 8 feet. Roman law and tradition forbade the use of vehicles except in certain cases. Married women and government officials on business could ride; the Lex Iulia Municipalis restricted commercial carts to night-time access in the city within the walls and within a mile outside the walls. Roman roads varied from simple corduroy roads to paved roads using deep roadbeds of tamped rubble as an underlying layer to ensure that they kept dry, as the water would flow out from between the stones and fragments of rubble, instead of becoming mud in clay soils. According to Ulpian, there were three types of roads: Viae publicae, praetoriae or militares Viae privatae, glareae or agrariae Viae vicinales The first type of road included public high or main roads and maintained at the public expense, with their soil vested in the state; such roads led either to a town, or to a public river, or to another public road.
Siculus Flaccus, who lived under Trajan, calls them viae publicae regalesque, describes their characteristics as follows: They are placed under curatores, repaired by redemptores at the public expense. These roads bear the names of their constructors. Roman roads were named after the censor who had ordered their reconstruction; the same person served afterwards as c
Knights Inn is a full-limited service hotel chain owned by Red Lion Hotels Corporation and based in Denver, Colorado. Knights Inns used to be built with all-exterior corridors and medieval-inspired architecture, but the chain no longer applies those features to new properties. Knights Inn started in Columbus, Ohio when its first location opened in 1974; the Columbus-based Cardinal Industries, Inc. former manufacturer of prefabricated buildings such as apartments and motels, developed the chain. The chain utilized extensive landscaping and Tudor architecture, all properties featured only one story; the buildings were prefabricated, were shipped on trucks to their sites. Knights Inn introduced Arborgate Inn, a "no-frills" brand featuring fewer amenities and more modern architecture, along with a higher-end variant called Knights Stop. Knights Inn filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 1989, one year after the introduction of Arborgate Inn. Hospitality Management Systems acquired the Knights Inn franchise and management contract rights from Cardinal Industries in 1991.
At this point, many properties had begun re-branding to other companies, most notably Motel 6, Days Inn. HMS sued the owners of properties re-branded from Knights Inn and forced them to alter the appearances of their buildings. Cendant purchased Knights Inn in 1995. At this same time, the sister brands were discontinued. In 2004, Cendant merged the Villager Inn brand, which it had acquired, into the Knights Inn division. Cendant spun off its hotel properties as Wyndham Worldwide in 2006. In November 2007, there were 225 properties open in the United States and Canada. On April 4, 2018, Wyndham Worldwide announced it was selling Knights Inn to Red Lion Hotels Corporation, a transaction which closed on May 14, 2018; as part of the ownership transition, the brand was removed from the Wyndham Rewards loyalty program as of May 2, 2018 and will become part of Red Lion's Hello Rewards loyalty program. List of hotels List of motels Official website
A caravan is a group of people traveling together on a trade expedition. Caravans were used in desert areas and throughout the Silk Road, where traveling in groups aided in defense against bandits as well as helping to improve economies of scale in trade. In historical times, caravans connecting East Asia and Europe carried luxurious and lucrative goods, such as silks or jewelry. Caravans were a lucrative target for bandits; the profits from a undertaken journey could be enormous, comparable to the European spice trade. The luxurious goods brought by caravans attracted many rulers along important trade routes to construct caravanserais. Caravanserais were roadside stations which supported the flow of commerce and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa, southeastern Europe along the Silk Road. Caravanserais provided water for human and animal consumption and ritual ablutions. Sometimes they had elaborate baths, they kept fodder for animals and had shops for travelers where they could acquire new supplies.
In addition, some shops bought goods from the traveling merchants. However, the volume a caravan could transport was limited by Classical or Medieval standards. For example, a caravan of 500 camels could only transport as much as a third or half of the goods carried by a regular Byzantine merchant sailing ship. Present-day caravans in less-developed areas of the world still transport important goods through badly passable areas, such as seeds required for agriculture in arid regions. An example are the camel trains traversing the southern edges of the Sahara Desert. Convoy Camel train Wagon train Central American migrant caravans of 2017–18 Kevin Shillington, "Tuareg: Takedda and trans-Saharan trade" in: Encyclopaedia of African History, Fitzroy Dearborn, 2004, ISBN 1-57958-245-1 T. Lewicki, "The Role of the Sahara and Saharians in Relationships between North and South", in: UNESCO General History of Africa: Volume 3, University of California Press, 1994, ISBN 92-3-601709-6 Fernand Braudel, The Perspective of the World, vol III of Civilization and Capitalism 1984 Antiquity and Middle AgesThe Trans-Saharan Gold Trade 7th-14th Century.
12, No. 12-22, 1931, pp. 101–115 Ernest Will, « Marchands et chefs de caravanes à Palmyre », vol.34, No. 34-3-4, 1957, pp. 262–277 17th centuryRené Caillié Journal d'un voyage à Temboctou et à Jenné, dans l'Afrique centrale, précédé d'observations faites chez les Maures Braknas, les Nalous et autres peuples. Avec une carte itinéraire, et des remarques géographiques, par M. Jomard, membre de l'institut. Imprimé à Paris en mars 1830, par l'imprimerie royale, en trois un atlas. Une réédition en fac-similé a été réalisée par les éditions Anthropos en 1965. Downloadable version modern edition: Voyage à Tombouctou. 2 vols. Paris: La Découverte, 1996 ISBN 2-7071-2586-520th centuryLattimore, Owen The Desert Road to Turkestan. London, Methuen and Co. Caravan logistics and organization is discussed in Chap. VIII, "Camel-Men All" Tuladhar, Kamal Ratna. Caravan to Lhasa: A Merchant of Kathmandu in Traditional Tibet. Kathmandu: Lijala & Tisa. ISBN 99946-58-91-3. Contemporary caravansJulien Brachet, « Le négoce caravanier au Sahara central: histoire, évolution des pratiques et enjeux chez les Touaregs Kel Aïr », Les Cahiers d'outre-mer, No.
226-227, 2004, pp. 117–136 Michel Museur, « Un exemple spécifique d'économie caravanière: l'échange sel-mil », Journal des africanistes, vol.47, No. 2, 1977, pp. 49–80 M'hammad Sabour and Knut S. Vikør, Ethnic Encounter and Culture Change, Bergen, 1997, Google Cache Last Retrieved Jan. 2005. Media related to Caravans at Wikimedia Commons
The Exeter Inn is an inn in Exeter, New Hampshire, United States. Located on Front Street on the campus of Phillips Exeter Academy, the Georgian style complex was built in 1932 and mirrors the school's architectural motif. Guests, which include many parents of Academy students, enjoy its walking distance proximity to historic downtown Exeter. A previous Exeter Inn had been located on Water Street; the hotel, which hosts events for New Hampshire primary candidates, is home to the Epoch Restaurant and Bar. The Exeter Inn was built in 1932 with a donation to Phillips Exeter from the wife and daughter of engineer and academy alumnus William Boyce Thompson; the land on which the inn sits was purchased by the academy's class of 1890 from alumnus William P. Chadwick in 1890. For the first 75 years of its existence, the inn belonged to Phillips Exeter Academy, until it was transferred to the leasing company Someplace Different on October 31, 1997; the inn will be returned to the academy in 75 years after the contract was signed, or in 2072.
In 2007 new owners undertook a sweeping renovation that changed the 46-room inn's entrances and decor. The Exeter Inn official website
A motel or motor lodge is a hotel designed for motorists and has a parking area for motor vehicles. Entering dictionaries after World War II, the word motel, coined as a portmanteau contraction of "motor hotel", originates from the Milestone Mo-Tel of San Luis Obispo, built in 1925; the term referred to a type of hotel consisting of a single building of connected rooms whose doors faced a parking lot and in some circumstances, a common area or a series of small cabins with common parking. Motels are individually owned, though motel chains do exist; as large highway systems began to be developed in the 1920s, long-distance road journeys became more common, the need for inexpensive accessible overnight accommodation sites close to the main routes led to the growth of the motel concept. Motels peaked in popularity in the 1960s with rising car travel, only to decline in response to competition from the newer chain hotels that became commonplace at highway interchanges as traffic was bypassed onto newly constructed freeways.
Several historic motels are listed on the US National Register of Historic Places. Motels differ from hotels in their location along highways, as opposed to the urban cores favored by hotels, their orientation to the outside. Motels by definition include a parking lot, while older hotels were not built with automobile parking in mind; because of their low-rise construction, the number of rooms which would fit on any given amount of land was low compared to the high-rise urban hotels which had grown around train stations. This was not an issue in an era where the major highways became the main street in every town along the way and inexpensive land at the edge of town could be developed with motels, car dealerships, fuel stations, lumber yards, amusement parks, roadside diners, drive-in restaurants and countless other small roadside businesses; the automobile brought mobility and the motel could appear anywhere on the vast network of two-lane highways. Motels are constructed in an "I"-, "L"-, or "U"-shaped layout that includes guest rooms.
A motel was single-story with rooms opening directly onto a parking lot, making it easy to unload suitcases from a vehicle. A second story, if present, would face onto a balcony served by multiple stairwells; the post-war motels in the early 1950s to late 1960s, sought more visual distinction featuring eye-catching colorful neon signs which employed themes from popular culture, ranging from Western imagery of cowboys and Indians to contemporary images of spaceships and atomic era iconography. U. S. Route 66 is the most popular example of the "neon era". Many of these signs remain in use to this day. In some motels, a handful of rooms would be larger and contain kitchenettes or apartment-like amenities. Rooms with connecting doors commonly appeared in both hotels and motels. A few motels would offer "honeymoon suites" with extra amenities such as whirlpool baths; the first campgrounds for automobile tourists were constructed in the late 1910s. Before that, tourists who couldn't afford to stay in a hotel either slept in their cars or pitched their tents in fields alongside the road.
These were called auto camps. The modern campgrounds of the 1920s and 1930s provided running water, picnic grounds, restroom facilities. Auto camps predated motels by a few years, established in the 1920s as primitive municipal camp sites where travelers pitched their own tents; as demand increased, for-profit commercial camps displaced public camp grounds. Until the first travel trailers became available in the 1930s, auto tourists adapted their cars by adding beds, makeshift kitchens and roof decks; the next step up from the travel trailer was the cabin camp, a primitive but permanent group of structures. During the Great Depression, landholders whose property fronted onto highways built cabins to convert unprofitable land to income; the buildings for a roadside motel or cabin court were quick and simple to construct, with plans and instructions available in how-to and builder's magazines. Expansion of highway networks continued unabated through the depression as governments attempted to create employment but the roadside cabin camps were primitive just auto camps with small cabins instead of tents.
The 1935 City Directory for San Diego, lists "motel"-type accommodations under tourist camps. One could stay in the Depression-era cabin camps for less than a dollar per night but small comforts were few and far between. Travelers in search of modern amenities soon would find them at cottage courts and tourist courts; the price was higher but the cabins had electricity, indoor bathrooms, a private garage or carport. They were arranged in a U-shape; these camps were part of a larger complex containing a filling station, a café, sometimes a convenience store. Facilities like the Rising Sun Auto Camp in Glacier National Park and Blue Bonnet Court in Texas were "mom-and-pop" facilities on the outskirts of towns that were as quirky as their owners. Auto camps continued in popularity thr
Yazd also known as Yezd, is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran. The city is located 270 km southeast of Esfahan. At the 2011 census, the population was 529,673, it is 15th largest city in Iran. Since 2017, the historical city of Yazd is recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO; because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd has a unique Persian architecture. It is nicknamed the "City of Windcatchers" from its many examples, it is very well known for its Zoroastrian fire temples, ab anbars, yakhchals, Persian handicrafts, handwoven cloth, silk weaving, Persian Cotton Candy, its time-honored confectioneries. Yazd is known as City of Bicycles, because of its old history of bike riders, the highest amount of bicycle per capita in Iran, it is reported that bicycle culture is entered and developed from Yazd, in contacting with the European visitors and tourists in the last century. The name is derived from a Sassanid ruler of Persia; the city was a Zoroastrian center during Sassanid times.
The word yazd means God. After the Arab conquest of Iran, many Zoroastrians migrated to Yazd from neighboring provinces. By paying a levy, Yazd was allowed to remain Zoroastrian after its conquest, Islam only became the dominant religion in the city; because of its remote desert location and the difficulty of access, Yazd remained immune to large battles and the destruction and ravages of war. For instance, it was a haven for those fleeing from destruction in other parts of Persian Empire during the Mongol invasion. In 1272 it was visited by Marco Polo. In the book The Travels of Marco Polo, he described Yazd in the following way: It is a good and noble city, has a great amount of trade, they weave there quantities of a certain silk tissue known as Yasdi, which merchants carry into many quarters to dispose of. When you leave this city to travel further, you ride for seven days over great plains, finding harbour to receive you at three places only. There are many fine woods producing dates upon the way, such as one can ride through.
There are wild asses, handsome creatures. At the end of those seven marches over the plain, you come to a fine kingdom, called Kerman. Yazd served as the capital of the Muzaffarid Dynasty in the fourteenth century, was unsuccessfully besieged in 1350–1351 by the Injuids under Shaikh Abu Ishaq; the Friday mosque, arguably the city's greatest architectural landmark, as well as other important buildings, date to this period. During the Qajar dynasty it was ruled by the Bakhtiari Khans. Under the rule of the Safavid, some people migrated from Yazd and settled in an area, today on the Iran-Afghanistan border; the settlement, named Yazdi, was located in what is now Farah City in the province of the same name in Afghanistan. Today, people from this area speak with an accent similar to that of the people of Yazd. One of the notable things about Yazd is its family-centered culture. According to official statistics from Iran's National Organization for Civil Registration, Yazd is among the three cities with the lowest divorce rates in Iran.
The majority of the people of Yazd are Persians, they speak Persian with Yazdi accent different from Persian accent of Tehran. The majority of people in Yazd are Muslims. There is a sizable population of Zoroastrians in the city. In 2013, Sepanta Niknam was elected to the city council of Yazd and became the first Zoroastrian councillor in Iran. There was once a large Jewish-Yazdi community, after the creation of Israel, many have moved there for varying reasons. Former president of Israel Moshe Katsav is an example; the Pir-e-Naraki sanctuary is one the important pilgrimage destinations for Zoroastrians where an annual congregation is held and frequent visits are made during the year. The story of the last Persian prince to come to Yazd before the arrival of Islam adds to its importance; such a transformation has occurred several times. Several other city traditions are the Muslim parades and gatherings, which are processions called azadari held to commemorate the events experienced by the main Islamic martyrs and other important figures.
These huge public gatherings created a series of spaces which, since most are near important urban monuments, are used at other times as hubs from which visitors can tour the main spots in the city. According to the Iranian Census of 2011 the population of Yazd is 486,152 people from 168,528 families, which includes 297,546 men and 285,136 women. Yazd is an important centre of Persian architecture; because of its climate, it has one of the largest networks of qanats in the world, Yazdi qanat makers are considered the most skilled in Iran. To deal with the hot summers, many old buildings in Yazd have magnificent wind towers and large underground areas; the city is home to prime examples of yakhchals, which were used to store ice retrieved from glaciers in the nearby mountains. Yazd is one of the largest cities built entirely out of adobe. Yazd's heritage as a center of Zoroastrianism is important. There is a Tower of Silence on the outskirts, the city has an ateshkadeh which holds a fire, kept alight continuously since 470 AD.
Zoroastrians make up a significant minority of the population, around 2