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Inner Hebrides

The Inner Hebrides is an archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland, to the south east of the Outer Hebrides. Together these two island chains form the Hebrides; the Inner Hebrides comprise 35 inhabited islands as well as 44 uninhabited islands with an area greater than 30 hectares. Skye and Mull are the three largest, have the highest populations; the main commercial activities are tourism, crofting and whisky distilling. In modern times the Inner Hebrides have formed part of two separate local government jurisdictions, one to the north and the other to the south. Together, the islands have an area of about 4,130 km2, had a population of 18,948 in 2011; the population density is therefore about 4.6 per km2. There are various important prehistoric structures, many of which pre-date the first written references to the islands by Roman and Greek authors. In the historic period the earliest known settlers were Picts to the north and Gaels in the southern kingdom of Dál Riada prior to the islands becoming part of the Suðreyjar kingdom of the Norse, who ruled for over 400 years until sovereignty was transferred to Scotland by the Treaty of Perth in 1266.

Control of the islands was held by various clan chiefs, principally the MacLeans, MacLeods and MacDonalds. The Highland Clearances of the 19th century had a devastating effect on many communities and it is only in recent years that population levels have ceased to decline. Sea transport is crucial and a variety of ferry services operate to mainland Scotland and between the islands; the Gaelic language remains strong in some areas. The islands form a disparate archipelago; the largest islands are, from south to north, Jura, Mull, Rùm and Skye. Skye is the largest and most populous of all with an area of 1,656 km2 and a population of just over 10,000; the southern group are in Argyll, an area corresponding with the heartlands of the ancient kingdom of Dál Riata and incorporated into the modern unitary council area of Argyll and Bute. The northern islands were part of the county of Inverness-shire and are now in the Highland Council area; the ten largest islands are as follows. The geology and geomorphology of the islands is varied.

Some, such as Skye and Mull, are mountainous, whilst others like Tiree are low-lying. The highest mountains are the Cuillins of Skye. Much of the coastline is a fertile low-lying dune pastureland. Many of the islands are swept by strong tides, the Corryvreckan tide race between Scarba and Jura is one of the largest whirlpools in the world. There are various smaller archipelagoes including the Ascrib Islands, Crowlin Islands, Slate Islands, Small Isles, Summer Isles and Treshnish Islands; the inhabited islands of the Inner Hebrides had a population of 18,257 at the 2001 census, this had grown to 18,948 in 2011. During the same period Scottish island populations as a whole grew by 4% to 103,702. There are a further 44 uninhabited Inner Hebrides with an area greater than 74 acres. Records for the last date of settlement for the smaller islands are incomplete, but most of them were inhabited at some point during the Neolithic, Iron Age, Early Historic or Norse periods. In common with the other main island chains of Scotland, many of the smaller and more remote islands were abandoned during the 19th and 20th centuries, in some cases after continuous habitation since prehistoric times.

These islands had been perceived as self-sufficient agricultural economies, but a view developed among both islanders and outsiders that the more remote islands lacked the essential services of a modern industrial economy. However, the populations of the larger islands grew overall by more than 12% from 1981 to 2001; the main commercial activities are tourism, crofting and whisky distilling. Overall, the area is reliant on primary industries and the public sector. However, the islands are well placed to exploit renewable energy onshore and offshore wind; some of the islands have development trusts. The influence of the Atlantic Ocean and the North Atlantic Current creates a mild oceanic climate. Temperatures are cool, averaging 6.5 °C in January and 15.4 °C in July at Duntulm on the Trotternish peninsula of Skye. Snow lies at sea level and frosts are fewer than on the mainland. Winds are a limiting factor for vegetation: a speed of 128 km/h has been recorded. Rainfall is high at between 1300 and 2000 mm per annum, the mountains and hills are wetter still.

Tiree is one of the sunniest places in the country and had 300 days of sunshine in 1975. Trotternish has 200 hours of bright sunshine in May, the sunniest month; the Hebrides were settled in the Mesolithic era and have a diversity of prehistoric sites. A flint arrowhead found in a field near Bridgend, Islay has been dated to 10,800 BC; this find. Burnt hazelnut shells and microscopic charcoal found at Farm Fields, Kinloch on Rùm indicate a settlement of some kind an

Andrew D. Huberman

Andrew D. Huberman is an American neuroscientist and tenured professor in the Department of Neurobiology at the Stanford University School of Medicine, he has made numerous important contributions to the fields of brain development, brain plasticity, neural regeneration and repair. A large amount of that work focused on the visual system, including the mechanisms that control light-mediated activation of the circadian and autonomic arousal centers in the brain, as well as the brain control over conscious vision or sight. Huberman was awarded the McKnight Foundation Neuroscience Scholar Award, a Biomedical Scholar Award from the Pew Charitable Trusts, he is the recipient of the 2017 ARVO Cogan Award for making major contributions to the fields of vision science and efforts to regenerate the visual system and cure blindness. He is or has served on as an elected member of the Editorial Boards for Current Biology; the Journal of Neuroscience, The Journal of Comparative Neurology, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, Cell Reports, Neural Development and is a member of Faculty 1000.

From 1998–2000, Huberman worked in the laboratory of Irving Zucker and with Marc Breedlove, at University of California, Berkeley, as part of a team that defined how early androgen exposure impacts development, he performed the first experiments defining the structure of binocular visual pathways that set the circadian clock in the hypothalamus. From 2000-2004, working as a Ph. D. student in the laboratory of Barbara Chapman at the Center for Neuroscience at the University of California, Davis, he discovered that neural activity and axon guidance molecules work in concert to ensure proper wiring of binocular maps in the brain. Huberman was a Helen Hay Whitney Postdoctoral Fellow researcher in the laboratory of Ben A. Barres from 2005-2010. Dr. Huberman was an Assistant Professor of Neurobiology and Neuroscience at University of California, San Diego from 2011–2015, where his group pioneered the use of genetic tools for the study of the visual system function and disease. Among the Huberman Lab's discoveries was the finding that specific types of retinal neurons degenerate early in Glaucoma a common blinding disease that depletes sight in > 70 million people worldwide and for which there is no cure.

After moving to Stanford in 2016, Huberman discovered and published the use of non-invasive methods such as visual stimulation can enhance regeneration of damaged retinal neurons, leading to partial recovery from blindness when the stimulation is paired with specific forms of gene therapy. The work was covered extensively in the popular press, including TIME Magazine and Scientific American and is part of the National Eye Institute’s Audacious Goals Initiative to restore vision to the blind; the Huberman Lab extended those findings to develop a human clinical trial using virtual reality technology to stimulate regeneration and plasticity of damaged retinal and other visual system neurons. In 2017, the Huberman Lab created a state-of-the-art virtual reality platform for probing the neural mechanisms underlying pathologic fear and anxiety; that work involved collecting 360-degree video of common fear inducing scenarios such as heights and claustrophobia as well as atypical fear inducing situations such as swimming with Great White Sharks.

The Huberman VR platform is aimed at making discoveries that will lead to developing new tools for humans to adjust their state in order to promote adaptive coping with stress. In May, 2018, the Huberman Laboratory published an Article in the journal Nature reporting their discovery of two new mammalian brain circuits: one that promotes fear and paralysis, another that promotes “courageous”/confrontational reaction, to visually-evoked threats; that discovery prompted the now ongoing exploration of how these brain regions may be involved in humans suffering from anxiety-related disorders such as phobias and generalized anxiety. Starting in 2019, Dr. Huberman initiated a series of short, daily Neuroscience Education posts to Instagram, in order to share exciting discoveries in the field as they relate to human health and disease. McKnight Foundation Scholar Pew Biomedical Scholar Catalyst for a Cure Team Member ARVO Cogan Award for Contributions to Vision Science and Ophthalmology Huberman Lab Andrew D. Huberman Ph.

D. | Stanford Medicine

Alhar Bikaneri

Alhar/Alhad Bikaneri was a renowned Hindi and Urdu poet of Hasya Ras of India. His original name was Shyamlal Sharma, he was born on 17 May 1937 in a small village named Bikaner, Rewari district, India. Honored with “Hasya Ratna” he is considered as one of the most famous Hindi humour poet who used to recite poems by singing, he was considered as expert of Chandd Kavita. He was awarded & honoured with India’s some of the most prestigious Awards of Hindi humour poetry like Theetoli Award Delhi, Kaka Hathrasi Award, Akhil Bharteeya Nagrik Parishad, Yatha-Sambhav Award Ujjain, Kavya Gaurav Award Delhi, Narendra- Mohan Award, Maanas Award, Tepa Award Ujjain, Vyangya- Shri Award & Athasaas -Shikar Award. In 1996 his work was appreciated by Honorable President of India Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma. In 2000 Delhi State Government honoured him with Kaka Hathrasi Sammaan, considered as one of the most prestigious award of Hindi Humor Poetry in India. In 2004, Haryana State Govt. awarded him with Haryana Gaurav Award.

His popularity was not only limited in India but was known outside India for his work. Haryana State Sathiya Academy had declared "Aditya-Alhar Hasya Samman", in order to honour contribution in literature; this award was declared under "Sahityakar Samman Yogna". Since 2012 this award will be given every year to motivate for contribution in literature; this award carries a cash price of INR 100,000 Alhar was born on 17 May 1937 in Haryana. He was only son in family, his Father name was Sh. Chuutanlal Sharma and Mother’s name was Smt. Parvati Devi. Since childhood he was fascinated for music and stage shows, but his father always wanted him to become an Engineer. In class 10th he was passed in first division & got scholarship, he took admission in Science stream at Haryana. After second year of college, he dropped studies. In Dec 1955 he started his first job at Custodian office Haryana, he worked there for three months until Mar 1956. In April 1956 he joined Telegraph training centre at Saharanpur, but soon he fell ill with typhoid.

He recovered. On 17 June 2009, at age 72, Alhar died, he had been suffering from respiratory health problems. He was admitted to a hospital in Uttar Pradesh. In his memory every year on his birthday, various functions are organised by his family and friends. In 2010, Kavi sammelan was organised, attended by various famous poets. On the occasion "Alhar ji" was remembered & poets expressed their feelings & respect for him by dedicating there poems for Alharji. In 2011,on his 74th birthday, Haryana Chief Minister Honorable Mr. Bhoopendra Singh Hooda had released his last book " Man mast hua" at Haryana Bhawan, New delhi. In 2012,Kaka Hathrasi honouring Alhar Bikaneri with Kaka Hathrasi award. On his 75th Birthday a large gathering was organised was Akhil Bharatiya Kavi Sammelan organised at LTG Auditorium by Haryana Sahitya Academy and Chetna India of Delhi; this program was attended by Delhi Assembly Speaker, many ministers & poets was available on the occasion. About this writing skills Dr. Devendra Arya said "Alhar ji humor is like a ray of glowing light in darkness.

He is expert in expressing the pain, tears using his humor skills that the message goes to the heart of person directly with a great impact without causing any hurting". 23 Jan 1971, he recited his poem. In 1962 he started his writing career as Ghazal writer with the pen name of "Mahir Bikaneri". During that time he was working as clerk in Kashmiri gate, Delhi. One day while working one thought clicked in his mind, he looked around in office & wrote his first humour poem "Afsar Ji ki Amar Kahani". When he narrated that poem in office, it had created a magic. Everyone liked & appreciated it much. In 1967; those days he was much impressed & motivated with writing work of "Shri Kaka Hathrasi". In that motivation he wrote few humour poems also. One day he was sharing his poems to one of his friend "Shayar Razaa Amrohi". After listening those poems Amrohiji suggested him to write for Hindi Humor Poetry; this appreciation was the beginning. But final turning point in his poetic career was the book Kaka Ki Phuljhariya.

After reading this book, he decided to stop writing serious songs & Ghazals & entered to the world of humorous poems. He changed start writing for Hindi Humour poetry. After this, his long journey of humorous poetry was started, he gave special contribution to Hindi Poetry & literature. He did his first Kavi sammelan in 1967 at Delhi, in front of Dada Bhawani Prasad Mishr. There he narrated. After listening poem Dada was much impressed with Alharji, he gave his blessing to him & motivated him to keep going on this journey of Humor Poems. In 1968 one evening, his one friend Krish Swarup, took him to house of Shri. Gopal Prasad Vyas; those days Vyasji was residing at Bhagirath Palace Delhi. Alhar was excited to present his poems in front of Vyas ji; when he finished his poem, Vyas ji commented him to first study & get in-depth knowledge of literature. He asked him to study the complete Literature, written by him & analyse it. After complete learning start & create something new of his own. If able to do that only come back to him again.

This conversation had strong impact on Alhar. Again life was giving him challenge. Either take the challenge or stop writing, he accepted this challenge. For next two complete years he studied literature & improved hi