Inns of Court

The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales. There are four Inns of Court – Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, Inner Temple and Middle Temple. All barristers must belong to one of them, they have disciplinary functions over their members. The Inns provide libraries, dining facilities and professional accommodation; each has a church or chapel attached to it and is a self-contained precinct where barristers traditionally train and practise, although growth in the legal profession, together with a desire to practise from more modern accommodations, caused many barristers' chambers to move outside the precincts of the Inns of Court in the late 20th century. During the 12th and early 13th centuries the law was taught in the City of London by the clergy, but a papal bull in 1218 prohibited the clergy from practising in the secular courts. As a result, law began to be taught by laymen instead of by clerics. To protect their schools from competition, first Henry II and Henry III issued proclamations prohibiting the teaching of the civil law within the City of London.

As a result, the common law lawyers moved to premises outside the City, which in time became the inns of court. In the earliest centuries of their existence, beginning with the 14th century, the Inns were any of a sizable number of buildings or precincts where lawyers traditionally lodged and carried on their profession. Over the centuries, the four Inns of Court became where barristers were trained, while the more numerous Inns of Chancery – which were affiliated to the Inns of Court – were responsible for the training of solicitors; the four Inns of Court are: The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple The Honourable Society of Gray's InnThere have been lawyers in the Temple since 1320. In 1337 the premises were divided into Inner Temple, where the lawyers resided, Middle Temple, occupied by lawyers by 1346. Lincoln's Inn, the largest, is able to trace its official records to 1422; the records of Gray's Inn begin in 1569, but teaching is thought to have begun there in the late fourteenth century.

In 1620 it was decided at a meeting of senior judges that all four inns would be equal in order of precedence. In the 16th century and earlier, students or apprentices learned their craft by attending court and sharing both accommodations and education during the legal terms. Prior to the English Civil War in 1642, this training lasted at least seven years. In the mid-18th century, the common law was first recognized as a subject for study in the universities, by 1872, bar examinations became compulsory for entry into the profession of law; the Inns played an important role in the history of the English Renaissance theatre. Notable literary figures and playwrights who resided in the Inns of Court include John Donne, Francis Beaumont, John Marston, Thomas Lodge, Thomas Campion, Abraham Fraunce, Sir Philip Sidney, Sir Thomas More, Sir Francis Bacon, George Gascoigne. Plays written and performed in the Inns of Court include Gorboduc, Gismund of Salerne, The Misfortunes of Arthur. An example of a famous masque put on by the Inns was James Shirley’s The Triumph of Peace.

Shakespeare’s The Comedy of Errors and Twelfth Night were performed at the Inns, although written for commercial theatre. Since at least 1584, members of the Inns of Court have rallied to the defence of the realm during times of crisis; that tradition continues to this day, in that 10 Stone Buildings in Lincoln's Inn has been the permanent home of the Inns of Court & City Yeomanry since the building was freed up by the abolition of the Clerks of Chancery in 1842. Each of the four Inns of Court has three ordinary grades of membership: students and masters of the bench or "benchers"; the benchers constitute the governing body for each Inn and appoint new members from among existing barrister members. As a rule, any barrister member of the inn is eligible for appointment. In practice, appointments are made of senior members of the Bar QCs, or High Court judges or those who carry out work on behalf of the Inn, be it on committees or through the training of students and other junior members; the senior bencher of each inn is the treasurer, a position, held for one year only.

Each inn also has at least one royal bencher. They may appoint honorary benchers, from academics, the world of politics and overseas judiciary; the Inns of Court no longer provide all the education and training needed by prospective barristers, who must pass the Bar Professional Training Course, but do provide supplementary education during the'Bar School' year and the early years of practice. All prospective Bar School students must be a member of one of the four Inns, must attend twelve'qualifying sessions' before being eligible to qualify as a barrister. Qualifying sessions traditionally comprise formal dinners followed by law-related talks, but the inns offer training weekends that may count for several sessions' worth of attendance; the Inns still retain the sole right to call qualified students to the bar, associated with a graduation ceremony. Prospective students may choose which Inn to apply to for membership, but can only apply to one Inn for scholarships, it makes no long-term difference.


Gossypieae is a tribe of the flowering plant subfamily Malvoideae. It includes related plants, it is distinguished from the Hibisceae on the basis of embryo structure and its unique possession of glands able to synthesize the pigment gossypol. The following genera are recognised; the Germplasm Resources Information Network differs in additionally including the genus Alyogyne and excluding the genus Thepparatia. Cephalohibiscus Ulbr. Cienfuegosia Cav. Gossypioides Skovst. Ex J. B. Hutch. Gossypium L. Hampea Schltdl. Kokia Lewton Lebronnecia Fosberg Thepparatia Phuph. Thespesia Sol. ex Corrêa

Pneumonia (album)

Pneumonia is the third and final studio album by the alternative country band Whiskeytown, released on May 22, 2001 on Lost Highway Records. The album is noted for its troubled history which saw the band lose its record deal in the midst of the merger between Polygram and Universal Music Group, the volatile band fell apart as a result; the album sat on the shelf for nearly two years and it was said that over 100 songs were recorded during the 3 years. It was bootlegged and gained a reputation as a great "lost" record from fans, before getting released by Lost Highway Records as something of an appetizer for Ryan Adams' 2001 album Gold. Adams chose the album title Pneumonia for symbolic reasons, he felt it reflected the album's themes of succumbing to love. Plus, he saw the recording of the album as Whiskeytown "falling into this slow and sleepy finality". By early 1999, Whiskeytown band members Ryan Adams, Caitlin Cary, Mike Daly had started recording their follow-up to Strangers Almanac at an abandoned church in Woodstock, New York, called Dreamland Studios.

Ethan Johns, son of legendary producer Glyn Johns, was tapped to produce the album. Planned to be a double-album entitled Happy Go Bye Bye, the music recorded was intended to be a departure from the band's previous alt-country sound, prominently featuring Adams on piano, with classic pop arrangements featuring strings and horns. Notably, Mike Daly co-wrote seven songs on the album with Adams. Adams envisioned this collective effort to be in the vein of "those Woodstock albums, like The Band made in the'60s." After recording, the album was mixed by Outpost Recordings house producer Scott Litt, best known for his work with R. E. M, but the band was unhappy with Litt's mix, so when the album was prepped for release by Lost Highway Records nearly two years Adams and Ethan Johns remixed it. Adams and Johns sought a classic Rolling Stones/Beatles sound with their mix, with little to no compression, trimmed the album to 14 songs. During the merger between Polygram and Universal, which put the album's release in limbo, the band decided to call it quits.

Said Adams at the time: "The decision was made for us just by time and circumstance, I respect things that happen like that. By the time we went to make Pneumonia, there were only three surviving members. Everybody kind of pooled thoughts together for that album, when it didn't come out, it was kind of like we reached an end that's inevitable, we all knew it in the back of our minds." In a 2001 interview with Magnet magazine, Mike Daly was more candid: “If Pneumonia had come out when it was supposed to back in 1999, there would still be a Whiskeytown today.” Caitlin Cary agreed to a certain extent: “I suppose it’s possible that we might still be together, but Whiskeytown seemed to have something of a half-life. We never worked hard. We toured hard, but the way you make it in this industry is, besides being talented and driven, you have to play the game. Kiss a lot of ass along the way, and Ryan was never good at any of that stuff.” In 2001, Lost Highway Records announced it would release a five-song EP of Pneumonia outtakes entitled Deserters, but those plans were scrapped.

One leftover song from the sessions did, see the light of day on the 2003 Lost Highway rarities collection Lost & Found, Vol. 1. All tracks are written by Ryan Adams. Ryan Adams — Guitars, piano & harmonica Caitlin Cary — Fiddle & backing vocals Mike Daly — Guitars, pedal steel, lap steel, mandocello, keyboards & backing vocals Brad Rice — Guitars Jennifer CondosBass Mike Santoro — Bass Richard Causon — Keyboards James Iha - Guitars & Backing vocals Tommy StinsonGuitar & dobro James Jumbo Aumonier — Celeste Ethan Johns — Drums, mandolin, keyboards, percussion & guitars Produced by Ethan Johns Engineered by Trina Shoemaker Mixed & engineered by Ethan Johns Recorded at Dreamland Studios & House Of Blues Studios Mixed at The Sound Factory Orchestral recording on "Paper Moon" by Glyn Johns at Capitol Studios Horns & Woodwinds on "The Ballad of Carol Lynn", "Easy Hearts", "Mirror, Mirror" recorded by Al Schmitt at Capitol Studios Orchestral and Woodwind Arrangement by Randy Brion Mastered by Doug Sax & Robert Hadley at the Mastering Lab, Hollywood, CA