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Inquisition

The Inquisition, in historical ecclesiastical parlance referred to as the "Holy Inquisition", was a group of institutions within the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat heresy. The Inquisition started in 12th-century France to combat religious dissent, in particular the Cathars and the Waldensians. Other groups investigated included the Spiritual Franciscans, the Hussites and the Beguines. Beginning in the 1250s, inquisitors were chosen from members of the Dominican Order, replacing the earlier practice of using local clergy as judges; the term Medieval Inquisition covers these courts up to mid-15th century. During the Late Middle Ages and the early Renaissance, the concept and scope of the Inquisition expanded in response to the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation, it expanded to other European countries, resulting in the Spanish Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition. The Spanish and Portuguese operated inquisitorial courts throughout their empires in Africa and the Americas.

The Spanish and Portuguese inquisitions focused on the issue of Jewish anusim and Muslim converts to Catholicism because these minority groups were more numerous in Spain and Portugal than in many other parts of Europe, because they were considered suspect due to the assumption that they had secretly reverted to their previous religions. With the exception of the Papal States, the institution of the Inquisition was abolished in the early 19th century, after the Napoleonic Wars in Europe and the Spanish American wars of independence in the Americas; the institution survived as part of the Roman Curia, but in 1908 it was renamed the "Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office". In 1965 it became the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith; the term Inquisition comes from the Medieval Latin word "inquisitio", which referred to any court process, based on Roman law, which had come back into use during the late medieval period. Today, the English term "Inquisition" can apply to any one of several institutions that worked against heretics within the judicial system of the Roman Catholic Church.

Although the term Inquisition is applied to ecclesiastical courts of the Catholic Church, it has several different usages: an ecclesiastical tribunal, the institution of the Catholic Church for combating heresy, a number of historical expurgation movements against heresy, or the trial of an individual accused of heresy. The Inquisition, as a church-court, had no jurisdiction over Jews as such; the Inquisition was concerned only with the heretical behaviour of Catholic adherents or converts. The overwhelming majority of sentences seem to have consisted of penances like wearing a cross sewn on one's clothes, going on pilgrimage, etc; when a suspect was convicted of unrepentant heresy, the inquisitorial tribunal was required by law to hand the person over to secular authorities for final sentencing, at which point a magistrate would determine the penalty, burning at the stake although the penalty varied based on local law. The laws were inclusive of proscriptions against certain religious crimes, the punishments included death by burning, although the penalty was banishment or imprisonment for life, commuted after a few years.

Thus the inquisitors knew what would be the fate of anyone so remanded. The 1578 edition of the Directorium Inquisitorum spelled out the purpose of inquisitorial penalties:... quoniam punitio non refertur primo & per se in correctionem & bonum eius qui punitur, sed in bonum publicum ut alij terreantur, & a malis committendis avocentur. Before 1100, the Catholic Church suppressed what they believed to be heresy through a system of ecclesiastical proscription or imprisonment, but without using torture, resorting to executions; such punishments were opposed by a number of clergymen and theologians, although some countries punished heresy with the death penalty. In the 12th century, to counter the spread of Catharism, prosecution of heretics became more frequent; the Church charged councils composed of archbishops with establishing inquisitions. The first Inquisition was temporarily established in Languedoc in 1184; the murder of Pope Innocent's papal legate Pierre de Castelnau in 1208 sparked the Albigensian Crusade.

The Inquisition was permanently established in 1229, run by the Dominicans in Rome and at Carcassonne in Languedoc. Historians use the term "Medieval Inquisition" to describe the various inquisitions that started around 1184, including the Episcopal Inquisition and the Papal Inquisition; these inquisitions responded to large popular movements throughout Europe considered apostate or heretical to Christianity, in particular the Cathars in southern France and the Waldensians in both southern France and northern Italy. Other Inquisitions followed after these first inquisition movements; the legal basis for some inquisitorial activity came from Pope Innocent IV's papal bull Ad extirpanda of 1252, which explicitly authorized the use of torture by the Inquisition for eliciting confessions from heretics. However, Nicholas Eyme

2C-I

2C-I is a psychedelic phenethylamine of the 2C family. It was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin and described in his 1991 book PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story; the drug is used recreationally for its psychedelic and entactogenic effects and is sometimes confused for its more potent chemical cousin 25I-NBOMe, nicknamed "Smiles," in the media. In the early 2000s, 2C-I was sold in Dutch smart shops. According to the US Drug Enforcement Administration, 2C-I is taken orally or snorted in a powder form. In December 2003, the European Council issued a binding order compelling all EU member states to ban 2C-I within three months; as of October 31, 2016, 2C-I is a controlled substance in Canada. 2C-I is a schedule. A schedule 9 drug is outlined in the Poisons Act 1964 as "Substances which may be abused or misused, the manufacture, sale or use of which should be prohibited by law except when required for medical or scientific research, or for analytical, teaching or training purposes with approval of the CEO".

Sveriges riksdag added 2C-I to schedule I as a narcotic on March 16, 2004, published by the Medical Products Agency in their regulation LVFS 2004:3. In the United Kingdom, 2C-I is controlled as a Class A substance; as of July 9, 2012, in the United States 2C-I is a Schedule I substance under the Synthetic Drug Abuse Prevention Act of 2012, making possession and manufacture illegal. A previous bill, introduced in March 2011, that would have done the same passed the House of Representatives, but was not passed by the Senate. DOI Recreational drug use Erowid 2C-I Vault Una experiencia con 2C-I de los Shulgin 2C-I Entry in PiHKAL 2C-I Entry in PiHKAL • info

Bhalobasha Aaj Kal

Bhalobasha Aaj Kal is a Dhallywood romantic comedy film directed by P A Kajol and produced by Jaaz Multimedia. The film features Shakib Mahiya Mahi in lead roles, it is the first collaboration between Khan and Jaaz Multimedia and the first between Khan and Mahiya Mahi. Filming began on 2 February 2013, was wrapped up by June 2013; the film was released on Eid al-Fitr on 9 August 2013. Upon release, the film declared as a superhit at box office. Was highest-grossing film of Jaaz Multimedia production till Shikari released. Shakib Khan as Rana Mahiya Mahi as Dana Ali Raz as Haidar Kabila as Mama Misha Sawdagor as Police officer Jamil Rehana Joli Shiba Shanu The soundtrack of Bhalobasha Aaj Kal composed by Shafik Tuhin, Imon Shah And Ahmed Imtiaz Bulbul. with lyrics penned by Kabir Bokul, Ahmed Imtiaj Bulbul, Shafik Tuhin and Abdul Aziz. The first look of Bhalobasa Aaj Kal was revealed on 10 July 2013. A Forty-two seconds promo teaser was released on 17 July 2013. Bhalobasha Aaj Kal on IMDb Bhalobasa Aaj Kal at Bangladesh Movie Database