Henry Louis Gehrig, nicknamed "the Iron Horse", was an American baseball first baseman who played his entire professional career in Major League Baseball for the New York Yankees, from 1923 until 1939. Gehrig was renowned for his prowess as a hitter and for his durability, which earned him his nickname "the Iron Horse." He was an All-Star seven consecutive times, a Triple Crown winner once, an American League Most Valuable Player twice, a member of six World Series champion teams. He had a career.340 batting average.632 slugging average, a.447 on base average. He hit 493 home had 1,995 runs batted in. In 1939, he was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame and was the first MLB player to have his uniform number retired by a team. A native of New York City and a student at Columbia University, Gehrig signed with the Yankees in 1923, he set several major-league records during his career, including the most career grand slams and most consecutive games played, a record that stood for 56 years and was long considered unbreakable until surpassed by Cal Ripken, Jr. in 1995.
Gehrig's consecutive game streak ended on May 2, 1939, when he voluntarily took himself out of the lineup, stunning both players and fans, after his performance on the field became hampered by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, an incurable neuromuscular illness now referred to in North America as "Lou Gehrig's disease." The disease forced him to retire at age 36, was the cause of his death two years later. The pathos of his farewell from baseball was capped off by his iconic 1939 "Luckiest Man on the Face of the Earth" speech at Yankee Stadium. In 1969, the Baseball Writers' Association voted Gehrig the greatest first baseman of all time, he was the leading vote-getter on the Major League Baseball All-Century Team chosen by fans in 1999. A monument in Gehrig's honor dedicated by the Yankees in 1941 resides in Monument Park at Yankee Stadium; the Lou Gehrig Memorial Award is given annually to the MLB player who best exhibits Gehrig's integrity and character. Gehrig was born in 1903 at 309 East 94th Street in the Yorkville neighborhood of Manhattan.
He was the second of four children of Christina Foch and Heinrich Gehrig. His father was a sheet-metal worker by trade, unemployed due to alcoholism, his mother, a maid, was the main breadwinner and disciplinarian in the family, his two sisters measles. From an early age, Gehrig helped his mother with work, doing tasks such as folding laundry and picking up supplies from the local stores. Gehrig spoke German during his childhood. In 1910, he lived with his parents at 2266 Amsterdam Avenue in Washington Heights. In 1920, the family resided on 8th Avenue in Manhattan, his name was anglicized to Henry Louis Gehrig and he was known as "Lou" so he would not be confused with his identically named father, known as Henry. Gehrig first garnered national attention for his baseball ability while playing in a game at Cubs Park on June 26, 1920, his New York School of Commerce team was playing a team from Chicago's Lane Tech High School in front of a crowd of more than 10,000 spectators. With his team leading 8–6 in the top of the ninth inning, Gehrig hit a grand slam out of the major league park, an unheard-of feat for a 17-year-old.
Gehrig attended PS 132 in the Washington Heights section of Manhattan went to Commerce High School, graduating in 1921. He studied at Columbia University for two years, before leaving to pursue a career in professional baseball, he went to Columbia on a football scholarship, where he was preparing to pursue a degree in engineering. Before his first semester began, New York Giants manager John McGraw advised him to play summer professional baseball under an assumed name, Henry Lewis, despite the fact that it could jeopardize his collegiate sports eligibility. After he played a dozen games for the Hartford Senators in the Eastern League, he was discovered and banned from collegiate sports his freshman year. In 1922, Gehrig returned to collegiate sports as a fullback for the Columbia Lions football program. In 1923, he played first base and pitched for the Columbia baseball team. At Columbia, he was a member of Phi Delta Theta fraternity. On April 18, 1923, the same day Yankee Stadium opened for the first time and Babe Ruth inaugurated the new stadium with a home run against the Boston Red Sox, Columbia pitcher Gehrig struck out 17 Williams College batters to set a team record, though Columbia lost the game.
Only a handful of collegians were at South Field that day, but more significant was the presence of Yankee scout Paul Krichell, trailing Gehrig for some time. Gehrig's pitching did not impress him. During the time Krichell observed him, Gehrig had hit some of the longest home runs seen on various eastern campuses, including a 450-foot home run on April 28 at Columbia's South Field, which landed at 116th Street and Broadway, he signed a contract with the Yankees on April 30. He returned to the minor-league Hartford Senators to play parts of two seasons, 1923 and 1924, batting.344 and hitting 61 home runs in 193 games, the only time Gehrig had played any level of baseball – sandlot, high school, collegiate or pro – for a team based outside New York City. Gehrig joined the New York Yankees midway through the 1923 season and made his major-league debut as a pinch hitter at age 19 on June 15, 1923. Gehrig wor
1915 World Series
In the 1915 World Series, the Boston Red Sox beat the Philadelphia Phillies four games to one. In their only World Series before 1950, the Phillies won Game 1 before being swept the rest of the way, it was 65 years. The Red Sox pitching was so strong in the 1915 series that the young Babe Ruth was not used on the mound and only made a single pinch-hitting appearance. Arrangements for the Series were made on October 2, 1915, in a meeting of the team owners, league presidents and the National Commission at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in midtown Manhattan, New York City. Red Sox owner Joseph Lannin lost the coin toss for home field advantage, Phillies owner William F. Baker chose to have the first two games of the Series in Philadelphia; the league presidents selected the umpires, it was announced that J. G. Taylor Spink would be one of the official scorers. One controversy surrounded the allocation of tickets to the Red Sox' Royal Rooters fan club; each visiting team was allocated 200 tickets, but the Red Sox requested an additional 400 on behalf of their supporters.
The Phillies' Baker Bowl sat only 20,000, their above-cited owner, William Baker, refused to allocate additional tickets for visiting fans. The matter was resolved by National Commission chairman Garry Herrmann, who gave the Red Sox tickets from the Commission's own Series allocation; the Phillies won Game 1, 3–1, although The New York Times reporter Hugh Fullerton wrote of the future 300+ game-winning Hall of Famer, " Alexander pitched a bad game of ball. He had little or nothing" in his review of the game, headed "Nothing but luck saved the Phillies." The Times reported that a crowd of 10,000 gathered in Manhattan's Times Square to view a real-time mechanical recreation of the game on a giant scoreboard sponsored by the newspaper. The Phillies were not to win another postseason game until 1977, nor another World Series game until 1980; the Red Sox swept Games 2–5, all by one run, by identical scores of 2–1 in Games 2–4. In Game 2, Woodrow Wilson became the first U. S. President to attend a World Series game.
This was the second straight year that a Boston team beat a Philadelphia team in the World Series after the Braves had swept the Athletics the year before. Unlike the 1913 Series, where the home team won only one of the five games, home field was very much an advantage in the 1915 October classic. Fenway Park, paradoxically the Braves' home field in their 1914 Series sweep of the A's while Braves Field was still being built, had been the home of the Red Sox for four seasons and was functional in 1915. Beyond the added revenue, the long ball was affected by this arrangement, as follows: In the top of the third inning of Game 3 at Boston, with two out, one run in and two runners in scoring position, Phillies' slugger "Cactus" Gavvy Cravath hit a line drive to deep left field, caught for a harmless inning-ending out in the spacious Braves Field outfield. In Fenway or Philadelphia's Baker Bowl, it might have been a home run or at least an extra-base hit which might have turned the Series around.
The Phillies had packed some extra outfield seats into their already-small bandbox of a ballfield, shortening the distance from home to the outfield wall more. This proved crucial in the decisive Game 5, in which Boston's Harry Hooper twice homered over the moved-in center field fence and Duffy Lewis followed suit. In Braves Field, those would have been extra-base hits at best. Both of Hooper's hits, including the eventual game-winner in the top of the ninth bounced over the fence and were home runs by the rules of that era although they would have been only ground-rule doubles by present-day rules. AL Boston Red Sox vs. NL Philadelphia Phillies Alexander scattered eight hits, winning 3-1, in giving the Phillies their only win in the series. Rube Foster pitched a 3-hitter, allowing no walks, helping his own cause with the game-winning RBI single in the top of the ninth. Dutch Leonard and Grover Cleveland Alexander engaged in a classic pitcher's duel, Leonard retiring the last 20 Phillies to face him, winning 2-1 on an RBI single by Duffy Lewis in the bottom of the 9th.
Ernie Shore held the Phillies scoreless until the eighth inning, winning 2-1, giving the Red Sox a 3-1 lead in the series. The Red Sox won on three home runs by two of their outfielders, two cheapies by Harry Hooper and one by Duffy Lewis; those were the only round-trippers in the first four games being pitchers' duels. The Phillies were held to a weak.182 team batting average in the 5-game set. 1915 World Series: Boston Red Sox over Philadelphia Phillies Cohen, Richard M.. The World Series: Complete Play-By-Play of Every Game, 1903–1989. New York: St. Martin's Press. Pp. 57–60. ISBN 0-312-03960-3. Reichler, Joseph; the Baseball Encyclopedia. Macmillan Publishing. P. 2123. ISBN 0-02-579010-2. 1915 World Series at WorldSeries.com 1915 World Series at Baseball Almanac 1915 World Series at Baseball-Reference.com The 1915 Post-Season Games at Retrosheet History of the World Series - 1915 at The SportingNews. Archived from the original on 2008
Boston Red Sox
The Boston Red Sox are an American professional baseball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. The Red Sox compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League East division; the Red Sox have won nine World Series championships, tied for the third-most of any MLB team, they have played in 13. Their most recent appearance and win was in 2018. In addition, they won the 1904 American League pennant, but were not able to defend their 1903 World Series championship when the New York Giants refused to participate in the 1904 World Series. Founded in 1901 as one of the American League's eight charter franchises, the Red Sox' home ballpark has been Fenway Park since 1912; the "Red Sox" name was chosen by the team owner, John I. Taylor, circa 1908, following the lead of previous teams, known as the "Boston Red Stockings", including the forerunner of the Atlanta Braves. Boston was a dominant team in the new league, defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates in the first World Series in 1903 and winning four more championships by 1918.
However, they went into one of the longest championship droughts in baseball history, dubbed the "Curse of the Bambino" after its alleged inception due to the Red Sox' sale of Babe Ruth to the rival New York Yankees two years after their world championship in 1918, an 86-year wait before the team's sixth World Championship in 2004. The team's history during that period was punctuated with some of the most memorable moments in World Series history, including Enos Slaughter's "mad dash" in 1946, the "Impossible Dream" of 1967, Carlton Fisk's home run in 1975, Bill Buckner's error in 1986. Following their victory in the 2018 World Series, they became the first team to win four World Series trophies in the 21st century, including championships in 2004, 2007, 2013 and 2018. Red Sox history has been marked by the team's intense rivalry with the Yankees, arguably the fiercest and most historic in North American professional sports; the Boston Red Sox are owned by Fenway Sports Group, which owns Liverpool F.
C. of the Premier League in England. The Red Sox are one of the top MLB teams in average road attendance, while the small capacity of Fenway Park prevents them from leading in overall attendance. From May 15, 2003 to April 10, 2013, the Red Sox sold out every home game—a total of 820 games for a major professional sports record. Both Neil Diamond's "Sweet Caroline", The Standells's "Dirty Water" have become anthems for the Red Sox; the name Red Sox, chosen by owner John I. Taylor after the 1907 season, refers to the red hose in the team uniform beginning in 1908. Sox had been adopted for the Chicago White Sox by newspapers needing a headline-friendly form of Stockings, as "Stockings Win!" in large type did not fit in a column. The team name "Red Sox" had been used as early as 1888 by a'colored' team from Norfolk, Virginia; the Spanish language media sometimes refers to the team as Medias Rojas, a translation of "red socks". The official Spanish site uses the variant "Los Red Sox"; the Red Stockings nickname was first used by a baseball team by the Cincinnati Red Stockings, who were members of the pioneering National Association of Base Ball Players.
Managed by Harry Wright, Cincinnati adopted a uniform with white knickers and red stockings and earned the famous nickname, a year or two before hiring the first professional team in 1869. When the club folded after the 1870 season, Wright was hired by Boston businessman Ivers Whitney Adams to organize a new team in Boston, he did, bringing three teammates and the "Red Stockings" nickname along; the Boston Red Stockings won four championships in the five seasons of the new National Association, the first professional league. When a new Cincinnati club was formed as a charter member of the National League in 1876, the "Red Stockings" nickname was reserved for them once again, the Boston team was referred to as the "Red Caps". Other names were sometimes used before Boston adopted the nickname "Braves" in 1912. In 1901, the upstart American League established a competing club in Boston. For seven seasons, the AL team had no official nickname, they were "Boston", "Bostonians" or "the Bostons". Their 1901–1907 jerseys, both home, road, just read "Boston", except for 1902 when they sported large letters "B" and "A" denoting "Boston" and "American."
Newspaper writers of the time used other nicknames for the club, including "Somersets", "Plymouth Rocks", "Beaneaters", the "Collinsites"", "Pilgrims." For years many sources have listed "Pilgrims" as the early Boston AL team's official nickname, but researcher Bill Nowlin has demonstrated that the name was used, if at all, during the team's early years. The origin of the nickname appears to be a poem entitled "The Pilgrims At Home" written by Edwin Fitzwilliam, sung at the 1907 home opener; this nickname was used during that season because the team had a new manager and several rookie players. John I. Taylor had said in December 1907 that the Pilgrims "sounded too much like homeless wanderers." The National League club in Boston, though called the "Red Stockings" anymore, still wore red trim. In 1907, the Nat
2015 World Series
The 2015 World Series was the championship series of Major League Baseball's 2015 season. The 111th edition of the World Series, it was a best-of-seven playoff between the National League champion New York Mets and the American League champion Kansas City Royals; the series was played between October 27 and November 1, with the Royals winning the series 4 games to 1. It was the first time since the 2010 World Series; the Royals became the first team since the Oakland Athletics in the 1989 World Series to win the World Series after losing in the previous year. It was the first World Series to feature only expansion teams and the first since the 2007 World Series to not feature the Philadelphia Phillies, St. Louis Cardinals, or San Francisco Giants as the NL champions; the Royals had home field advantage for the first two games of the series because of the AL's 6–3 victory in the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. It was the 13th World Series in which home field advantage was awarded to the league that won the All-Star Game, a practice, discontinued after the 2016 season.
The series was played in a 2–3–2 format: the Royals hosted Games 1 and 2, the Mets hosted Games 3, 4, 5. The Royals won Game 1 in extra innings; the Royals won Game 2 with a complete game by Johnny Cueto, who allowed only one unearned run and two hits. With the series shifting to New York, the Mets won Game 3 with home runs by David Wright and Curtis Granderson; the Royals came from behind to win Game 4 after an error by Daniel Murphy led to a blown save by Jeurys Familia. Game 5 went into extra innings, where bench player Christian Colón drove in the go-ahead run for the Royals, who clinched the series. Salvador Pérez was named the World Series Most Valuable Player; the Mets made their fifth appearance in the World Series after sweeping the Cubs 4–0 in the 2015 National League Championship Series. They had split their four previous appearances, winning the 1969 World Series against the Baltimore Orioles and the 1986 World Series against the Boston Red Sox, while losing the 1973 World Series against the Oakland Athletics and the 2000 World Series against the New York Yankees, their cross-town rivals.
The Mets qualified for the postseason by winning the National League East, their sixth division title. They faced the Los Angeles Dodgers in the 2015 NL Division Series. In the 2015 NLCS, Daniel Murphy led the team by hitting home runs in each game of the four-game sweep of the Chicago Cubs. By winning the NLCS, the Mets ensured that they have the most World Series appearances by an expansion franchise with five. In addition, the Mets have made World Series appearances in all but one of their six decades of existence, not appearing in any that were played during the 1990s; this was the first World Series appearance for Mets' manager Terry Collins. The Royals made their second consecutive appearance in the World Series, both under Ned Yost, fourth overall, they won the 1985 World Series against the St. Louis Cardinals, lost their two other appearances, the 1980 World Series against the Philadelphia Phillies and the 2014 World Series against the San Francisco Giants; the Royals qualified for the postseason by winning the American League Central, their seventh division title and their first since winning the AL West in 1985.
They faced the Houston Astros in the 2015 American League Division Series. They followed that up in the 2015 American League Championship Series, beating the Toronto Blue Jays in six games. By winning the ALCS, the Royals became the first team to play in consecutive World Series since the Texas Rangers played in the 2010 World Series and 2011 World Series; the series began on October 27. As the AL won the 2015 All-Star Game, the Royals had home field advantage for the series; the Mets and Royals had not played since 2013. Though the Mets boasted four starting pitchers who could throw over 95 miles per hour in Matt Harvey, Noah Syndergaard, Jacob deGrom and Steven Matz, the Royals had the best team batting average against pitches over that speed during the 2015 season. While the Mets starting pitchers had the best strikeout-to-walk ratio in the majors, the Royals, consisting of strong contact hitters, led baseball in contact rate; the Royals had a superior defensive team, finishing second in the majors in Defensive Runs Saved, while the Mets finished 21st.
The Royals bullpen, anchored by Wade Davis and Kelvin Herrera provided a strength. While the Mets hitters performed better against left-handed pitchers than right-handed pitchers, the Royals four starting pitchers, Johnny Cueto, Edinson Vólquez, Yordano Ventura, Chris Young, primary relievers, Herrera, Ryan Madson, Luke Hochevar, are right-handed; this was the first time the World Series was played by teams which both entered the league as expansion teams. The Mets joined the National League in 1962, the Royals joined the American League in 1969. Kansas City won the series, 4–1; the ceremonial first pitch was thrown out by George Brett. Matt Harvey started Game 1 for the Mets. Vólquez's father had died earlier in the day, he was not aware of his father's death. On the first pitch thrown by Harvey, Alcides Escobar hit an inside-the-park home run, the first in a World Series game since Mule Haas in the 1929 World Series, the first hit by a leadoff batter since Patsy Dougherty did it for the Boston Americans in the 1903 World Series.
In the fourth inning, Murphy recorded the Mets' first hit, scored their first run on a hit by Travis d'Arnaud. Curtis Granderson hit a home run in the fifth inning to give the Me
Forbes Field was a baseball park in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, from 1909 to June 28, 1970. It was the third home of the Pittsburgh Pirates Major League Baseball team, the first home of the Pittsburgh Steelers, the city's National Football League franchise; the stadium served as the home football field for the University of Pittsburgh "Pitt" Panthers from 1909 to 1924. The stadium was named after British general John Forbes, who fought in the French and Indian War, named the city in 1758; the US$1 million project was initiated by Pittsburgh Pirates' owner Barney Dreyfuss, with the goal of replacing his franchise's then-current home, Exposition Park. The stadium was made of steel in order to increase its lifespan; the Pirates opened Forbes Field on June 30, 1909, against the Chicago Cubs, played the final game against the Cubs on June 28, 1970. The field itself featured a large playing surface, with the batting cage placed in the deepest part of center field during games. Seating was altered multiple times throughout the stadium's life.
The Pirates won three World Series while at Forbes Field and the other original tenant, the Pittsburgh Panthers football team had five undefeated seasons before moving in 1924. Some remnants of the ballpark still stand. Fans gather on the site annually on the anniversary of Bill Mazeroski's World Series winning home run, in what author Jim O'Brien writes is "one of the most unique expressions of a love of the game to be found in a major league city". In 1903, Pittsburgh Pirates' owner Barney Dreyfuss began to look for ground to build a larger capacity replacement for the team's then-current home, Exposition Park. Dreyfuss purchased seven acres of land near the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, adjacent to Schenley Park, with assistance from his friend, industrialist Andrew Carnegie; the low-priced land was selected. Dreyfuss signed a contract to "make the ballpark... of a design that would harmonize with the other structures in the Schenley Park district." The site was labeled "Dreyfuss's Folly" due to its long distance—a 10-minute trolley ride—from downtown Pittsburgh, but the land around the park developed and criticisms were dropped.
Official Pirates' records show that Forbes Field cost US$1 million for site acquisition and construction. However, some estimates place the cost at twice that amount. Dreyfuss announced that unlike established wooden ballparks such as the Polo Grounds, he would build a three-tiered stadium out of steel and concrete to increase longevity—the first of its kind in the nation. Charles Wellford Leavitt, Jr. was contracted to design the stadium's grandstand. A civil engineer, Leavitt had founded an engineering and landscape architecture firm in 1897, he had gained experience in steel and concrete constructs while designing the Belmont and Saratoga racetracks. Based on Dreyfuss' architectural requirements, Leavitt presented a plan for Forbes Field—the only ballpark he designed. Pirates' manager Fred Clarke had input into the stadium's design, giving groundskeepers advice on the field, in addition to designing and patenting a device to spread and remove a canvas tarpaulin over the infield in case of rain.
Initial work on the land began on January 1, 1909, but ground was not broken until March 1. Nicola Building Company built the stadium in 122 days and play began less than four months after ground was broken, on June 30. Though the scoreboard was operated by hand, the ballpark featured multiple innovations such as ramps and elevators to assist fan movement throughout the park, a room for the umpires, a visiting team clubhouse similar to the Pirates'; the facade of the stadium featured "buff-colored terra cotta" spelling out "PAC" for the Pittsburgh Athletic Company. The light green steelwork contrasted with the red slate of the roof; some members of the press urged Dreyfuss to name the stadium after himself. However, the owner decided on Forbes Field, in honor of General John Forbes, who captured Fort Duquesne from the French in 1758 and rebuilt a new "Fort Pitt" at the site. In 1935, after Dreyfuss' death, there was renewed media interest in renaming the stadium "Dreyfuss Field", his widow, resisted.
However, a monument to Dreyfuss was placed in center field just in front of the wall. On June 29, 1909, the Pittsburgh Pirates defeated 8 -- 1 at Exposition Park; the two teams opened Forbes Field the following day. Fans began to arrive at one-half hours early for the 3:30 pm game. Weather conditions were reported as clear skies with a temperature around 80°. Of the crowd, the Pittsburgh Press wrote, "the ceremonies were witnessed by the largest throng that attended an event of this kind in this or any other city in the country... Forbes Field is so immense—so far beyond anything else in America in the way of a baseball park—that old experts, accustomed to judging crowds at a glance, were at a loss for reasonable figures." Records show that the first game was attended by a standing-room only crowd of 30,338. Various National League officials and owners were present for the opening pre-game ceremonies, including league president Harry Pulliam, Civil War veteran and manager of Pittsburgh's first professional baseball team Al Pratt, American League president Ban Johnson.
Pittsburgh Mayor William A. Magee threw out the stadium's ceremonial first pitch. Mayor Magee was in the second tier and threw the ball to John M. Morin, Director of Public Safety, on the field below. Morin went to the mound and threw the first pitch to the Pirate catch
The Chicago Cubs are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Cubs compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division; the team plays its home games at Wrigley Field, located on the city's North Side. The Cubs are one of two major league teams in Chicago; the Cubs, first known as the White Stockings, were a founding member of the NL in 1876, becoming the Chicago Cubs in 1903. The Cubs have appeared in a total of eleven World Series; the 1906 Cubs won 116 games, finishing 116–36 and posting a modern-era record winning percentage of.763, before losing the World Series to the Chicago White Sox by four games to two. The Cubs won back-to-back World Series championships in 1907 and 1908, becoming the first major league team to play in three consecutive World Series, the first to win it twice. Most the Cubs won the 2016 National League Championship Series and 2016 World Series, which ended a 71-year National League pennant drought and a 108-year World Series championship drought, both of which are record droughts in Major League Baseball.
The 108-year drought was the longest such occurrence in all major North American sports. Since the start of divisional play in 1969, the Cubs have appeared in the postseason nine times through the 2017 season; the Cubs are known as "the North Siders", a reference to the location of Wrigley Field within the city of Chicago, in contrast to the White Sox, whose home field is located on the South Side. The Cubs have multiple rivalries. There is a divisional rivalry with the St. Louis Cardinals, a newer rivalry with the Milwaukee Brewers and an interleague rivalry with the Chicago White Sox; the Cubs began playing in 1870 as the Chicago White Stockings, joining the National League in 1876 as a charter member. Owner William Hulbert signed multiple star players, such as pitcher Albert Spalding and infielders Ross Barnes, Deacon White, Adrian "Cap" Anson, to join the team prior to the N. L.'s first season. The White Stockings played their home games at West Side Grounds and established themselves as one of the new league's top teams.
Spalding won forty-seven games and Barnes led the league in hitting at.429 as Chicago won the first National League pennant, which at the time was the game's top prize. After back-to-back pennants in 1880 and 1881, Hulbert died, Spalding, who had retired to start Spalding sporting goods, assumed ownership of the club; the White Stockings, with Anson acting as player-manager, captured their third consecutive pennant in 1882, Anson established himself as the game's first true superstar. In 1885 and'86, after winning N. L. pennants, the White Stockings met the champions of the short-lived American Association in that era's version of a World Series. Both seasons resulted in matchups with the St. Louis Brown Stockings, with the clubs tying in 1885 and with St. Louis winning in 1886; this was the genesis of what would become one of the greatest rivalries in sports. In all, the Anson-led Chicago Base Ball Club won six National League pennants between 1876 and 1886; as a result, Chicago's club nickname transitioned, by 1890 they had become known as the Chicago Colts, or sometimes "Anson's Colts", referring to Cap's influence within the club.
Anson was the first player in history credited with collecting 3,000 career hits. After a disappointing record of 59–73 and a ninth-place finish in 1897, Anson was released by the Cubs as both a player and manager. Due to Anson's absence from the club after 22 years, local newspaper reporters started to refer to the Colts as the "Orphans". After the 1900 season, the American Base-Ball League formed as a rival professional league, incidentally the club's old White Stockings nickname would be adopted by a new American League neighbor to the south. In 1902, who by this time had revamped the roster to boast what would soon be one of the best teams of the early century, sold the club to Jim Hart; the franchise was nicknamed the Cubs by the Chicago Daily News in 1902, although not becoming the Chicago Cubs until the 1907 season. During this period, which has become known as baseball's dead-ball era, Cub infielders Joe Tinker, Johnny Evers, Frank Chance were made famous as a double-play combination by Franklin P. Adams' poem Baseball's Sad Lexicon.
The poem first appeared in the July 1910 edition of the New York Evening Mail. Mordecai "Three-Finger" Brown, Jack Taylor, Ed Reulbach, Jack Pfiester, Orval Overall were several key pitchers for the Cubs during this time period. With Chance acting as player-manager from 1905 to 1912, the Cubs won four pennants and two World Series titles over a five-year span. Although they fell to the "Hitless Wonders" White Sox in the 1906 World Series, the Cubs recorded a record 116 victories and the best winning percentage in Major League history. With the same roster, Chicago won back-to-back World Series championships in 1907 and 1908, becoming the first Major League club to play three times in the Fall Classic and the first to win it twice. However, the Cubs would not win another World Series until 2016; the next season, veteran catcher Johnny Kling left the team to become a professional pocket billiards player. Some historians think Kling's absence was significant enough to prevent the Cubs from winning a third straight title in 1909, as they finished 6 games out of first place.
When Kling returned the next year, the Cubs won the pennant again, but lost to the Philadelphia Athletics in the 1910 World Series. In 1914, adver
The Detroit Tigers are an American professional baseball team based in Detroit, Michigan. The Tigers compete in Major League Baseball as a member of the American League Central division. One of the AL's eight charter franchises, the club was founded in Detroit as a member of the minor league Western League in 1894 and is the only Western League team still in its original city, they are the oldest continuous one name, one city franchise in the AL. The Tigers have won four World Series championships, 11 AL pennants, four AL Central division championships; the Tigers won division titles in 1972, 1984, 1987 as a member of the AL East. The team plays its home games at Comerica Park in Downtown Detroit; the Tigers constructed Bennett Park at the corner of Michigan Avenue and Trumbull Avenue in Corktown and began playing there in 1896. In 1912, the team moved into Navin Field, built on the same location, it was renamed Briggs Stadium. It was renamed Tiger Stadium in 1961 and the Tigers played there until moving to Comerica Park in 2000.
The franchise was founded as a member of the reorganized Western League in 1894. They played at Boulevard Park, sometimes called League Park, it was located on East Lafayette called Champlain Street, between Helen and East Grand Boulevard, near Belle Isle. In 1895, owner George Vanderbeck decided to build Bennett Park at the corner of Michigan and Trumbull Avenues, which would remain their base of operations for the next 104 seasons; the first game at The Corner was an exhibition on April 13, 1896. The team, now called the "Tigers," beat a local semi-pro team, known as the Athletics, by a score of 30–3, they played their first Western League game at Bennett Park on April 28, 1896, defeating the Columbus Senators 17–2. At the end of the 1897 season, Rube Waddell was lent to the team to gain professional experience. After being fined, Waddell left Detroit to pitch in Canada; when the Western League renamed itself the American League for 1900, it was still a minor league, but the next year, it broke from the National Agreement and declared itself a major league competing with the National League for players and for fans in four contested cities.
For a while, there were rumors of the team relocating to Pittsburgh, but the two leagues made peace in 1903 when they signed a new National Agreement. The Tigers were established as a charter member of the now major league American League in 1901, they played their first game as a major league team at home against the Milwaukee Brewers on April 25, 1901, with an estimated 10,000 fans at Bennett Park. After entering the ninth inning behind 13–4, the team staged a dramatic comeback to win 14–13; the team finished third in the eight-team league. In 1905, the team acquired 18-year-old Ty Cobb, a fearless player with a mean streak, who came to be regarded as one of the greatest players of all time; the addition of Cobb to an talented team that included Sam Crawford, Hughie Jennings, Bill Donovan and George Mullin yielded results. Behind the hitting of outfielders Ty Cobb and Sam Crawford, the pitching of Bill Donovan and Ed Killian, the Tigers went 92–58 to win the AL pennant in 1907 by 1.5 games over the Philadelphia Athletics.
They moved on to their first World Series appearance against the Chicago Cubs. Game 1 ended in a rare 3–3 tie, called due to darkness after 12 innings; the Tigers scored only three runs in the succeeding four games, never scoring more than one run in a game, lost the Series, 4–0. The Tigers won the AL by just a half-game over the 90–64 Cleveland Naps with a 90–63 record. Cobb hit.324, while Sam Crawford hit.311 with 7 home runs, enough to lead the league in the "dead ball" era. The Cubs, would defeat the Tigers again in the 1908 World Series, this time in five games; this would be the Cubs' last World Championship until 2016. In 1909, Detroit posted a 98 -- 54 season. Ty Cobb won the batting triple crown in 1909, hitting.377 with 107 RBIs. He led the league with 76 stolen bases. George Mullin was the pitching hero, going 29–8 with a 2.22 ERA, while fellow pitcher Ed Willett went 21–10. Mullin's 11–0 start in 1909 was a Tiger record for 104 years being broken by Max Scherzer's 13–0 start in 2013, it was hoped that a new opponent in the 1909 Series, the Pittsburgh Pirates, would yield different results.
The Tigers performed better in the Fall Classic, taking Pittsburgh to seven games, but they were blown out 8–0 in the decisive game at Bennett Park. The Tigers dropped to third place in the American League in 1910 with an 86–68 record, they posted 89 wins in 1911 to finish second, but were still well behind a powerhouse Philadelphia Athletics team that won 101 games. The team sunk to a dismal sixth place in both 1913 seasons. A bright spot in 1912 was George Mullin pitching the franchise's first no-hitter in a 7–0 win over the St. Louis Browns on July 4, his 32nd birthday. Cobb went into the stands in a May 15, 1912, game to attack a fan, abusing him, was suspended; the Tigers protested the suspension by fielding a team of replacement players and some coaches, lost 24–2, to the Philadelphia Athletics. During this five-season stretch, Cobb posted batting averages of.383.420.409.390 and.368, winning the AL batting title every year. In 1915, the Tigers won a then-club record 100 games, but narrowly lost the AL pennant to the Boston Red Sox, who won 101 games.
The 1915 Tigers were led by an outfield consisting of Ty Cobb, Sam Crawford, Bobby Vea