Steven Howard "Steve" Antin is an American actor, stunt performer, screenwriter and director. Antin was born in the son of British Jewish immigrants, he is the brother of fellow actor Neil Antin, Pussycat Dolls founder Robin Antin, celebrity hairstylist Jonathan Antin. Antin was a co-lead in the 1982 film The Last American Virgin, played Troy, the bad-guy preppie jock in Richard Donner's The Goonies, he played one of the rapists in the Academy Award-winning film The Accused. Antin starred alongside David Warner in the independent film Drive. Antin played the titular "Jessie" in Rick Springfield's "Jessie's Girl" video, his screenplay Inside Monkey Zetterland was turned into a film featuring many respected independent performers. In the late 1990s he made several appearances in gay-oriented films including It's My Party, co-starring Eric Roberts and comedian Margaret Cho. Antin himself came out publicly. Antin enjoyed a successful career as a stunt performer in dozens of films. Antin has turned to working as a successful screenwriter, writing such films as Gloria and Chasing Papi.
He created and produced the television series Young Americans for The WB. In the late 2000s, Antin turned to directing, he has directed several music videos, such as Girlicious' "Like Me" and Destinee & Paris's "FairyTale", in 2006, the feature film Glass House: The Good Mother starring Angie Harmon, produced by Billy Pollina. He is one of the executive producers and creators of The CW's 2007 reality series which seeks to find the next member for the hit pop group, the Pussycat Dolls. Antin is gay, was once the boyfriend of David Geffen, they were together for a little more than one year. Antin directed the 2010 film Burlesque; the Last American Virgin The Goonies Penitentiary III The Accused Survival Quest Drive Inside Monkey Zetterland Steve Antin at AllMovie Steve Antin on IMDb
Patricia Arquette is an American actress. She made her feature film debut as Kristen Parker in A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors, her other notable films include True Romance, Ed Wood, Flirting with Disaster, Lost Highway, The Hi-Lo Country, Bringing Out the Dead and Fast Food Nation. For her performance in the coming-of-age drama film Boyhood, filmed from 2002 until 2014, Arquette received widespread critical praise and won the Academy Award, BAFTA Award, Critics' Choice Award, Golden Globe Award, Independent Spirit Award, Satellite Award, Screen Actors Guild Award, along with many other critics prizes, for Best Supporting Actress. On television, she played the character Allison DuBois—based on the author and medium Allison DuBois, who claims to have psychic abilities—in the supernatural drama series Medium, she won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series in 2005, from two nominations she received for the role, in addition to three Golden Globe Award and Screen Actors Guild Award nominations.
Arquette appeared in the CSI franchise as Avery Ryan, the Deputy Director of the FBI, starring in CSI: Cyber. She went on to star as Joyce Mitchell in the Showtime miniseries Escape at Dannemora, winning the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film, as Dee Dee Blanchard in the Hulu anthology series The Act. Arquette was born in Chicago, Illinois, in 1968 to Lewis Arquette, an actor, Brenda Olivia "Mardi", involved in the arts and worked as a therapist. Through her father, Patricia is distantly related to explorer Meriwether Lewis. Arquette's father had converted from Catholicism to Islam. Arquette's mother was Jewish, her ancestors emigrated from Poland and Russia, her father's family's surname was "Arcouet", his paternal line was of French-Canadian descent. Her paternal grandfather was comedian Cliff Arquette. Patricia's siblings became actors: Rosanna, Richmond and David; when she was a child, her parents offered to get her braces for her teeth. For a time her family lived on a commune in Virginia.
She has said they became poorer the longer they lived there and she believes that experience enlarged her empathy. Their father was an alcoholic, their mother violently abusive; when Arquette was seven, the family relocated to Chicago. They settled in Los Angeles, California. Arquette grew up Catholic and attended Catholic school, has said that when she was a teenager, she had wanted to be a nun. At the age of fourteen, Arquette ran away from home after learning her father was having an affair—she settled with her sister, Rosanna Arquette, in Los Angeles, she has described her father as a working actor for industrial films and voiceovers – he was best known for his role as J. D. Pickett in the TV series The Waltons. Before pursuing a career in acting, Arquette had wanted to be a midwife, she put this career prospect aside in an attempt to gain acting jobs and gained success in the industry. In 1987, Arquette's first starring roles included pregnant teenager Stacy in the television film Daddy, boarding school student Zero in Pretty Smart, Kristen Parker in A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors, alongside Robert Englund as Freddy Krueger and Heather Langenkamp as Nancy Thompson.
She reprised her role as Kristen in the music video to Dokken's Dream Warriors. She was asked to reprise her role in the sequel, A Nightmare on Elm Street 4: The Dream Master, but she declined the offer in order to do other projects, she gave up the role of Tralala in Last Exit to Brooklyn due to her pregnancy with her son Enzo. In 1988, Arquette played the daughter of Tess Harper in Far North, her roles in the early 1990s were in low budget and independent films, including Prayer of the Rollerboys, The Indian Runner, the directorial debut of Sean Penn. In 1992, she won a CableACE Award for Best Lead Actress in a Mini-Series for her portrayal of a deaf girl with epilepsy in Wildflower, directed by Diane Keaton and starring Reese Witherspoon. In her early career, Arquette received the most recognition for her role as Alabama Whitman, a free-spirited, kind-hearted prostitute in Tony Scott's True Romance; the film was a moderate box office success but became a cultural landmark because of Quentin Tarantino's screenplay, which preceded Pulp Fiction, although some critics were deterred by the graphic violence.
In one scene, Arquette puts up a fierce physical struggle in a fight with James Gandolfini which her character wins. Arquette's performance received unanimous praise from critics. Janet Maslin of The New York Times premarked that Arquette played her role with "surprising sweetness", while Peter Travers remarked that "Arquette delivers sensationally". TV Guide noted that the film blends and recycles elements from the story of Bonnie and Clyde and Terrence Malick's "love on the run" film Badlands, it gave True Romance overall a favourable review for having "enough energy and verve to create something fresh and infectiously entertaining". Richard Corliss of Time Magazine made similar statements and likened the film to the earlier, seminal Bonnie and Clyde. Arquette next appeared in the television film Betrayed by Love, the well-received biopic Ed Wood, directed by Tim Burton and starring Johnny Depp, where she portrayed his girlfriend, her next role was as Laura Bowman in John Boorman's Beyond Rangoon, which dre
The coast known as the coastline or seashore, is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake. A precise line that can be called a coastline cannot be determined due to the Coastline paradox; the term coastal zone is a region where interaction of the land processes occurs. Both the terms coast and coastal are used to describe a geographic location or region. Edinburgh for example is a city on the coast of Great Britain. A pelagic coast refers to a coast which fronts the open ocean, as opposed to a more sheltered coast in a gulf or bay. A shore, on the other hand, can refer to parts of land adjoining any large body of water, including oceans and lakes; the somewhat related term "" refers to the land alongside or sloping down to a river or body of water smaller than a lake. "Bank" is used in some parts of the world to refer to an artificial ridge of earth intended to retain the water of a river or pond. While many scientific experts might agree on a common definition of the term "coast", the delineation of the extents of a coast differ according to jurisdiction, with many scientific and government authorities in various countries differing for economic and social policy reasons.
According to the UN atlas, 44% of people live within 150 kilometres of the sea. Tides determine the range over which sediment is deposited or eroded. Areas with high tidal ranges allow waves to reach farther up the shore, areas with lower tidal ranges produce deposition at a smaller elevation interval; the tidal range is influenced by the shape of the coastline. Tides do not cause erosion by themselves. Waves erode coastline. Coastlines with longer shores have more room for the waves to disperse their energy, while coasts with cliffs and short shore faces give little room for the wave energy to be dispersed. In these areas the wave energy breaking against the cliffs is higher, air and water are compressed into cracks in the rock, forcing the rock apart, breaking it down. Sediment deposited by waves comes from eroded cliff faces and is moved along the coastline by the waves; this forms an cliffed coast. Sediment deposited by rivers is the dominant influence on the amount of sediment located on a coastline.
Today riverine deposition at the coast is blocked by dams and other human regulatory devices, which remove the sediment from the stream by causing it to be deposited inland. Like the ocean which shapes them, coasts are a dynamic environment with constant change; the Earth's natural processes sea level rises and various weather phenomena, have resulted in the erosion and reshaping of coasts as well as flooding and creation of continental shelves and drowned river valleys. The coast and its adjacent areas on and off shore are an important part of a local ecosystem: the mixture of fresh water and salt water in estuaries provides many nutrients for marine life. Salt marshes and beaches support a diversity of plants and insects crucial to the food chain; the high level of biodiversity creates a high level of biological activity, which has attracted human activity for thousands of years. More and more of the world's people live in coastal regions. Many major cities have port facilities; some landlocked places have achieved port status by building canals.
The coast is a frontier that nations have defended against military invaders and illegal migrants. Fixed coastal defenses have long been erected in many nations and coastal countries have a navy and some form of coast guard. Coasts those with beaches and warm water, attract tourists. In many island nations such as those of the Mediterranean, South Pacific and Caribbean, tourism is central to the economy. Coasts offer recreational activities such as swimming, surfing and sunbathing. Growth management can be a challenge for coastal local authorities who struggle to provide the infrastructure required by new residents. Coasts face many human-induced environmental impacts; the human influence on climate change is thought to contribute to an accelerated trend in sea level rise which threatens coastal habitats. Pollution can occur from a number of sources: industrial debris. Fishing has declined due to habitat degradation, trawling and climate change. Since the growth of global fishing enterprises after the 1950s, intensive fishing has spread from a few concentrated areas to encompass nearly all fisheries.
The scraping of the ocean floor in bottom dragging is devastating to coral and other long-lived species that do not recover quickly. This destruction alters the functioning of the ecosystem and can permanently alter species composition and biodiversity. Bycatch, the capture of unintended species in the course of fishing, is returned to the ocean only to die from injuries or exposure. Bycatch represents about a quarter of all marine catch. In the case of shrimp capture, the bycatch is five times larger, it is believed that melting Arctic ice will cause sea levels to rise and flood coas
Katherine Marie Helmond was an American film and television actress and director. Over her five decades of television acting, she was known for her starring role as ditzy matriarch Jessica Tate on the sitcom Soap and her co-starring role as feisty mother Mona Robinson on Who's the Boss?. She played Doris Sherman on Coach and Lois Whelan on Everybody Loves Raymond, she appeared as a guest on several talk and variety shows. Helmond had supporting roles in films such as Alfred Hitchcock's Family Plot and Terry Gilliam's Brazil, she voiced Lizzie in the Cars film trilogy by Disney/Pixar between 2006 and 2017. Helmond was born on July 5, 1929, in Galveston, the only child of Thelma and Joseph P. Helmond, she was raised by both devout Roman Catholics. She appeared in school plays. For a semester she attended Bob Jones University in Greenville, South Carolina, appeared in its film Wine of Morning. After her stage debut in As You Like It, Helmond began working in New York City in 1955, she ran a summer theatre in the Catskills for three seasons and taught acting in university theatre programs.
She did not achieve a high profile until the 1970s. She acted on stage, earning a Tony award nomination for her performance on Broadway in Eugene O'Neill's The Great God Brown, her other appearances in Broadway productions included roles in. Helmond appeared in such feature films as Family Plot, Time Bandits and Brazil, in which she played the mother of Jonathan Pryce's character. In 1983, she studied at the American Film Institute's Directing Workshop, she picked up Emmy nominations for her role as Mona Robinson in Who's the Boss and as Lois Whelan in Everybody Loves Raymond. She received acclaim for her stage performance in Eve Ensler's The Vagina Monologues. Helmond appeared in The Legend of Lizzie Borden as the title character's sister, she appeared in an episode of the short-lived 1976 CBS adventure series, Spencer's Pilots, starring Gene Evans. Helmond gained prominence as Jessica Tate, the ditzy matriarch of the Tate family in Soap on ABC. From 1984 to 1992, she played the role of Mona Robinson on the ABC sitcom Who's the Boss?.
From 1995 to 1997, she starred in the ABC sitcom Coach as Doris Sherman, eccentric owner of the fictional Orlando Breakers professional football team. From 1996 to 2004, she had a recurring role on Everybody Loves Raymond as Lois Whelan. On July 25, 2010, she guest-starred on A&E Network's The Glades and as Caroline Bellefleur on HBO's True Blood. Helmond was nominated for Broadway's 1973 Tony Award as Best Supporting or Featured Actress for Eugene O'Neill's The Great God Brown, she was nominated for an Emmy for her role on Soap four times in a row as Best Actress in a Comedy Series. In 1988 and 1989, she was nominated as Best Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series for her role on Who's the Boss?. In 2002, she was nominated as Guest Actress in a Comedy Series for her role in Everybody Loves Raymond, she was nominated for Emmy awards seven times. She had won two Golden Globe awards for Who's the Boss? and Soap. In 1957, Helmond married George N. Martin. After their divorce in 1962, she married David Christian.
She and her husband had a history as students of Zen. Helmond died on February 23, 2019 from complications of Alzheimer's disease at her home in Los Angeles aged 89, her death was announced a week later. Katherine Helmond on IMDb Katherine Helmond at the Internet Broadway Database Katherine Helmond at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Katherine Helmond at The Interviews: An Oral History of Television
LaserDisc is a home video format and the first commercial optical disc storage medium licensed and marketed as MCA DiscoVision in the United States in 1978. Although the format was capable of offering higher-quality video and audio than its consumer rivals, VHS and Betamax videotape, LaserDisc never managed to gain widespread use in North America due to high costs for the players and video titles themselves and the inability to record TV programs, though it did gain some traction in that region to become somewhat popular in the 1990s, it was not a popular format in Australasia. By contrast, the format was much more popular in Japan and in the more affluent regions of Southeast Asia, such as Hong Kong and Malaysia, was the prevalent rental video medium in Hong Kong during the 1990s, its superior video and audio quality made it a popular choice among videophiles and film enthusiasts during its lifespan. The technologies and concepts behind LaserDisc were the foundation for optical disc formats including Compact Disc, DVD and Blu-ray.
Optical video recording technology, using a transparent disc, was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958. The Gregg patents were purchased by MCA in 1968. By 1969, Philips had developed a videodisc in reflective mode, which has advantages over the transparent mode. MCA and Philips decided to combine their efforts and first publicly demonstrated the video disc in 1972. LaserDisc was first available on the market, in Atlanta, Georgia, on December 11, 1978, two years after the introduction of the VHS VCR, four years before the introduction of the CD. Licensed and marketed as MCA DiscoVision in 1978, the technology was referred to internally as Optical Videodisc System, Reflective Optical Videodisc, Laser Optical Videodisc, Disco-Vision, with the first players referring to the format as "Video Long Play". Pioneer Electronics purchased the majority stake in the format and marketed it as both LaserVision and LaserDisc in 1980, with some releases unofficially referring to the medium as "Laser Videodisc".
Philips produced the players. The Philips-MCA cooperation was not successful, discontinued after a few years. Several of the scientists responsible for the early research founded Optical Disc Corporation. In 1979, the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago opened its "Newspaper" exhibit which used interactive LaserDiscs to allow visitors to search for the front page of any Chicago Tribune newspaper; this was a early example of public access to electronically stored information in a museum. In 1984, Sony introduced a LaserDisc format that could store any form of digital data, as a data storage device similar to CD-ROM, with a large capacity 3.28 GiB, comparable to the DVD-ROM format. The first LaserDisc title marketed in North America was the MCA DiscoVision release of Jaws on December 15, 1978; the last title released in North America was Paramount's Bringing Out the Dead on October 3, 2000. A dozen or so more titles continued to be released in Japan until September 21, 2001, with the last Japanese released movie was the Hong Kong film Tokyo Raiders from Golden Harvest.
Production of LaserDisc players continued until January 2009, when Pioneer stopped making them. It was estimated that in 1998, LaserDisc players were in 2% of U. S. households. By comparison, in 1999, players were in 10% of Japanese households. LaserDisc was released on June 10, 1981 in Japan, a total of 3.6 million LaserDisc players were sold there. A total of 16.8 million LaserDisc players were sold worldwide, of which 9.5 million were sold by Pioneer. By 2001, LaserDisc was replaced by DVD in the North American retail marketplace, as software was no longer being produced. Players were still exported to North America from Japan until the end of 2001; the format has retained some popularity among American collectors, to a greater degree in Japan, where the format was better supported and more prevalent during its life. In Europe, LaserDisc always remained an obscure format, it was chosen by the British Broadcasting Corporation for the BBC Domesday Project in the mid-1980s, a school-based project to commemorate 900 years since the original Domesday Book in England.
From 1991 until the late 1990s, the BBC used LaserDisc technology to play out their channel idents. Pioneer ceased production of LaserDisc players on January 14, 2009; the standard home video LaserDisc was 30 cm in diameter and made up of two single-sided aluminum discs layered in plastic. Although appearing similar to compact discs or DVDs, LaserDiscs used analog video stored in the composite domain with analog FM stereo sound and PCM digital audio; the LaserDisc at its most fundamental level was still recorded as a series of pits and lands much like CDs, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs are today. However, while the encoding is of a binary nature, the information is encoded as analog pulse-width modulation with a 50% duty cycle, where the information is contained in the lengths and spacing of the pits. In true digital media the pits, or their edges, directly represent 1s and 0s of a binary digital information stream. Early LaserDiscs featured in 1978 were analog but the format evolved to incorporate digital stereo sound in CD format, multi-channel formats such as Dolby Digita
Robin Antin is an American dancer, choreographer and clothing designer entrepreneur. In 1995 she founded the modern burlesque troupe the Pussycat Dolls. By 2005, she diversified into various media including a pop recording group with international hits, a Las Vegas nightclub venue and floorshow, various merchandise, a reality television series. Since she has gone on to create other girl groups, including Girlicious, the Paradiso Girls, G. R. L; as a choreographer, Antin worked with entertainers such as Paris Hilton, artists such as Anastacia, the Offspring and No Doubt. Additionally, she was responsible for the dance ensembles in various films, she is the sister of celebrity hair stylist Jonathan Antin, director Steve Antin and actor Neil Antin. She appeared in an episode of her brother Jonathan's show Blow Out. On January 2, 2010, Tony Selznick, Paula Abdul presented choreography agent Julie McDonald with an award for being a pioneer of dance representation and a friend and agent to many choreographers for over 25 years.
The award was presented at The Carnival: Choreographer's Ball 11th Anniversary Show. She was a judge on the Lifetime reality television show Abby's Ultimate Dance Competition in Season 1. Based in Las Vegas, it features a rotating cast of dancers around vocalist Jamie Preston. Current members include Amanda Nowak, Colby Lemmo and Alicia Blair. Former "Dolls" include lead vocalist and pop star Nicole Scherzinger, Rachel Sterling, an original member of the burlesque troupe, Kelly Levesque, Laura Goulet, Michelle "Jersey" Maniscalco, Desiree Davis, Alicia Vela-Bailey, Jen, Victoria, Marcea, Claude Racine, Natasha Vernase, Adriane Harper, Jessica Lea, Beverly Sizemore, Laura Diane, Ashley Gates, Bridget Nicole, Jennifer Affronti, Sheila Joy, Cindy Leos, Laurel Anderson, Angela Case, Meredith "Sevin" Kerr, Gina Katon and Jamie Lee Ruiz from Pussycat Dolls Present: Girlicious; the Pussycat Dolls Burlesque Revue was founded in 2008 with Jamie Lee Ruiz, alongside Michelle "Jersey" Maniscalco, Jessi Peralta, Stephanie Moseley, Courtney Parker, Fransesca Ramirez, Molly D'Amour, Jenny Robinson.
Dani Levine, Katarzyna "Kasia Moss" Moś, Vanessa Curry, guest dancer Chantal Hunt and Allarie Long. Alongside lead singer, Jaime Preston and dancers Tarin Pratt and Erica Kiehl Jenkins, guest vocalist, former Paradiso Girls member, Lauren Bennett were introduced; the Pussycat Dolls Burlesque Saloon at Planet Hollywood, Las Vegas features Sophia Monica as lead vocalist. Current members include Sheila Joy, Megan Bostwick, Daymara Sabat, Colby Lemmo, Lauren Venandos, Emily Istre, Noelle Naone Brechler, Jenny Driebe, Kaelee Jones. In 2012, Antin launched The Pussycat Doll Dollhouse in the historic Keating Hotel in San Diego. In 2015, Robin launched the Australian Pussycat Doll Burlesque Revue in Melbourne, Australia at Crown Casino in The Therapy Nightclub. After becoming Goss's agent, Antin cast the Dirty Virgins, a Vegas-based girl former dance group consisting of Tala Marie, Emily Istre, Amber William, Monteece Mask and new dancer include Veronica Collazo Marrero, Kaelee Jones, Teresa Antonette, Ashley Belle, Angela Acosta, Anna Sambeck to accompany Goss for his show.
Along with them, she cast Angela Jude. From a style point of view they are much like the original concept of the Pussycat Dolls. Girlicious was an American girl group consisting of Nichole Cordova, Natalie Mejia, Chrystina Sayers and Tiffanie Anderson. In 2009, Anderson left the group and in 2011, Mejia and Sayers confirmed their departure. In October 2011, Cordova announced the band's hiatus. Cordova confirmed her departure in April 2013 when she became a member of and was featured on The X Factor USA Season 3 with the new group Girls United, which she was kicked out of in 2014; the second album of Girlicious, named Rebuilt, was released on November 2010 in Canada. The group was formed on the reality television show Pussycat Dolls Present: Girlicious. Although Antin intended to include only three members in the group, as stated in the first episode, she announced in the season finale that all four girls would be a part of Girlicious; the Paradiso Girls were a girl group consisting of five members from different countries.
They were signed to will.i.am Music Group/Interscope Records. Their debut single "Patron Tequila" featuring Lil' Jon and Eve was released on May 12, 2009, a music video was shortly released afterwards, their debut album Crazy Horse was expected to be released in July 2010. Bennett went on to join Antin's next girl group formation in G. R. L. G. R. L. is a girl group consisting of Lauren Bennett, Natasha Slayton, Jazzy Mejia, Girlicious' Natalie Mejia's younger sister. It consisted of five members; the group was planned to be the new line up of the Pussycat Dolls following their disbandment in 2010. Robin rebranded them as a new group to serve as the "next generation" of the Dolls, their managers were Adam Leber. On June 16, 2013 they released their first single, "Vacation", as a B-side track on Britney Spears' single "Ooh La La", a song from the film The Smurfs 2. D
Sundance Film Festival
The Sundance Film Festival, a program of the Sundance Institute, takes place annually in Park City, the largest independent film festival in the United States with more than 46,660 attending in 2016. It is held in Salt Lake City, Utah, as well as at the Sundance Resort, it is a showcase for new work from international independent filmmakers. The festival consists of competitive sections for American and international dramatic and documentary films, both feature films and short films, a group of out-of-competition sections, including NEXT, New Frontier, Midnight and Documentary Premieres; the 2019 Sundance Film Festival began January 24 and ran through February 3. Sundance began in Salt Lake City in August 1978, as the Utah/US Film Festival in an effort to attract more filmmakers to Utah, it was founded by John Earle. The 1978 festival featured films such as Deliverance, A Streetcar Named Desire, Midnight Cowboy, Mean Streets, The Sweet Smell of Success. With chairman Robert Redford, the help of Utah Governor Scott M. Matheson, the goal of the festival was to showcase American-made films, highlight the potential of independent film, to increase visibility for filmmaking in Utah.
At the time, the main focus of the event was to conduct a competition for independent American films, present a series of retrospective films and filmmaker panel discussions, to celebrate the Frank Capra Award. The festival highlighted the work of regional filmmakers who worked outside the Hollywood system; the jury of the 1978 festival was headed by Gary Allison, included Verna Fields, Linwood G. Dunn, Katharine Ross, Charles E. Sellier Jr. Mark Rydell, Anthea Sylbert. In 1979, Sterling Van Wagenen left to head up the first-year pilot program of what was to become the Sundance Institute, James W. Ure took over as executive director, followed by Cirina Hampton Catania as executive director. More than 60 films were screened at the festival that year, panels featured many well-known Hollywood filmmakers; that year, the first Frank Capra Award went to Jimmy Stewart. The festival made a profit for the first time. In 1980, Catania left the festival to pursue a production career in Hollywood. Several factors helped propel the growth of Utah/US Film Festival.
First was the involvement of actor and Utah resident Robert Redford, who became the festival's inaugural chairman. By having Redford's name associated with the festival, it received great attention. Secondly, the country was hungry for more venues that would celebrate American-made films as the only other festival doing so at the time was the USA Film Festival in Dallas. Response in Hollywood was unprecedented, as major studios did all they could to contribute their resources. In 1981, the festival moved to Park City and changed the dates from September to January; the move from late summer to midwinter was done by the executive director Susan Barrell with the cooperation of Hollywood director Sydney Pollack, who suggested that running a film festival in a ski resort during winter would draw more attention from Hollywood. It was called the US Video Festival. In 1984, the now well-established Sundance Institute, headed by Sterling Van Wagenen, took over management of the US Film Festival. Gary Beer and Van Wagenen spearheaded production of the inaugural US Film Festival presented by Sundance Institute, which included Program Director Tony Safford and Administrative Director Jenny Walz Selby.
The branding and marketing transition from the US Film Festival to the Sundance Film Festival was managed under the direction of Colleen Allen, Allen Advertising Inc. by appointment of Robert Redford. In 1991, the festival was renamed the Sundance Film Festival, after Redford's character the Sundance Kid from the film Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. UK-based publisher C21 Media first revealed in October 2010 that Robert Redford was planning to bring the Sundance Film Festival to London, in March the following year, Redford announced that Sundance London would be held at The O2, in London from 26–29 April 2012. In a press statement, Redford said, "We are excited to partner with AEG Europe to bring a particular slice of American culture to life in the inspired setting of The O2, in this city of such rich cultural history, it is our mutual goal to bring to the UK, the best in current American independent cinema, to introduce the artists responsible for it, in essence help build a picture of our country, broadly reflective of the diversity of voices not always seen in our cultural exports."The majority of the film screenings, including the festival's premieres, would be held within the Cineworld cinema at The O2 entertainment district.
The 2013 Sundance London Festival was held 25–28 April 2013, sponsored by car-maker Jaguar. Sundance London 2014 took place on 25–27 April 2014 at the O2 arena; the Sundance London 2015 Festival was cancelled in an announcement on 16 January 2015. Sundance London returned to London from 2–5 June 2016 and again 1–4 June 2017, both at Picturehouse Cinema in London's West End. Inaugurated in 2014, Sundance Film Festival: Hong Kong took place from 22 September to 2 October 2016 and is scheduled again for 21 September to 1 October 2017, it is held at The Metroplex in Kowloon Bay each year. From 2006 through 2008, Sundance Institute collaborated with the Brooklyn Academy of Music on a special series of film screenings, panel discussions, special events bringing the institute's activities and the festival's programming to New York City. M