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Instant messaging

Instant messaging technology is a type of online chat that offers real-time text transmission over the Internet. A LAN messenger operates in a similar way over a local area network. Short messages are transmitted between two parties, when each user chooses to complete a thought and select "send"; some IM applications can use push technology to provide real-time text, which transmits messages character by character, as they are composed. More advanced instant messaging can add file transfer, clickable hyperlinks, Voice over IP, or video chat. Non-IM types of chat include multicast transmission referred to as "chat rooms", where participants might be anonymous or might be known to each other. Instant messaging systems tend to facilitate connections between specified known users. Depending on the IM protocol, the technical architecture can be client-server. By 2010, instant messaging over the Web was in sharp decline, in favor of messaging features on social networks; the most popular IM platforms, such as AIM, closed in 2017, Windows Live Messenger was merged into Skype.

Today, most instant messaging takes place on messaging apps which by 2014 had more users than social networks. Instant messaging is a set of communication technologies used for text-based communication between two or more participants over the Internet or other types of networks. IM–chat happens in real-time. Of importance is that online chat and instant messaging differ from other technologies such as email due to the perceived quasi-synchrony of the communications by the users; some systems permit messages to be sent to users not then'logged on', thus removing some differences between IM and email. IM allows effective and efficient communication, allowing immediate receipt of acknowledgment or reply; however IM is not supported by transaction control. In many cases, instant messaging includes added features which can make it more popular. For example, users may see each other via webcams, or talk directly for free over the Internet using a microphone and headphones or loudspeakers. Many applications allow file transfers, although they are limited in the permissible file-size.

It is possible to save a text conversation for reference. Instant messages are logged in a local message history, making it similar to the persistent nature of emails. Though the term dates from the 1990s, instant messaging predates the Internet, first appearing on multi-user operating systems like Compatible Time-Sharing System and Multiplexed Information and Computing Service in the mid-1960s; some of these systems were used as notification systems for services like printing, but were used to facilitate communication with other users logged into the same machine. As networks developed, the protocols spread with the networks; some of these used a peer-to-peer protocol. The Zephyr Notification Service was invented at MIT's Project Athena in the 1980s to allow service providers to locate and send messages to users. Parallel to instant messaging were early online chat facilities, the earliest of, Talkomatic on the PLATO system, which allowed 5 people to chat on a 512x512 plasma display. During the bulletin board system phenomenon that peaked during the 1980s, some systems incorporated chat features which were similar to instant messaging.

The first such general-availability commercial online chat service was the CompuServe CB Simulator in 1980, created by CompuServe executive Alexander "Sandy" Trevor in Columbus, Ohio. Early instant messaging programs were real-time text, where characters appeared as they were typed; this includes the Unix "talk" command line program, popular in the 1980s and early 1990s. Some BBS chat programs used a similar interface. Modern implementations of real-time text exist in instant messengers, such as AOL's Real-Time IM as an optional feature. In the latter half of the 1980s and into the early 1990s, the Quantum Link online service for Commodore 64 computers offered user-to-user messages between concurrently connected customers, which they called "On-Line Messages", "FlashMail." Quantum Link became America Online and made AOL Instant Messenger. While the Quantum Link client software ran on a Commodore 64, using only the Commodore's PETSCII text-graphics, the screen was visually divided into sections and OLMs would appear as a yellow bar saying "Message From:" and the name of the sender along with the message across the top of whatever the user was doing, presented a list of options for responding.

As such, it could be considered a type of graphical user interface, albeit much more primitive than the Unix and Macintosh based GUI IM software. OLMs were what Q-Link called "Plus Services" meaning they charged an extra per-minute fee on top of the monthly Q-Link access costs. Modern, Internet-wide, GUI-based messaging clients as they are known today, began to take off in the mid-1990s with PowWow, ICQ, AOL Instant Messenger. Similar functionality

Kenny Shiels

Kenny Shiels is a Northern Irish football player and manager, the manager of the Northern Ireland women's national team. He spent all of his playing career at different levels in the Irish Football League. Shiels moved into coaching with the Northern Ireland national football team and English league side Tranmere Rovers, he moved to Scottish Premier League club Kilmarnock in 2010 to assist manager Mixu Paatelainen. Shiels was promoted to manager in 2011. Kilmarnock won the Scottish League Cup in his first season in charge, but he was sacked in June 2013 after he had been punished by the Scottish Football Association for making controversial comments. Shiels was appointed manager of Scottish Championship club Greenock Morton in December 2013, resigned in May 2014. After a spell with BEC Tero Sasana, Shiels managed League of Ireland club Derry City for three years, he was appointed manager of the Northern Ireland women's national team in May 2019. Shiels spent his entire playing career in Northern Irish football, both in the Irish Football League and at lower levels.

Beginning at minor club Bridgend United, he subsequently appeared for Tobermore United, Distillery, Tobermore United again, Ballymena United, Tobermore United for a third time, Harland & Wolff Welders and Carrick Rangers. Shiels third spell at Tobermore United was as player-manager and whilst in charge at the club Shiels won the prestigious North West Senior Cup in the 1989–90 season, as well as the North West Intermediate Cup in 1988–89 and 1989–90. Shiels got his first league appointment in 1992 when he took charge of Carrick Rangers, his first Irish League side. "King Kenny", as he became known at Taylors Avenue, proved a success at the club, winning the County Antrim Shield and securing a mid-table finish for the struggling seaside club. Shiels left Carrickfergus in December 1994 to take charge of Coleraine; the 1994–95 season ended in relegation for Coleraine after the unitary Irish League split into a new two division set-up, Coleraine placed in the eight team First Division below the Premier Division).

The season was only three games old when Shiels, who had managed the club for only thirteen games in total, was sacked by a group of club directors. Two days he was asked to return for a single match and following this the board decided to endorse Shiels' management for the rest of the season. Securely in charge, Shiels led the club to an 8–0 drubbing of Newry Town in the next match, the second of what proved to be a twenty match unbeaten league run. With his younger brother Sammy Shiels, who had played under Kenny Shiels' management at Carrick, leading the line in scoring 25 league goals, Coleraine won the title, thus promotion, a full fifteen points ahead of runners-up Ballymena United; the club would win the inaugural Irish News Cup, a competition for Irish League and League of Ireland clubs in North-West Ireland, that same season. The following season began with the Ulster Cup and Coleraine underlined their credentials by winning this competition, they carried their form into the league, with Shiels' men sitting top of the league after eight matches.

The club remained in the hunt for the league title until the end of the season when they were pipped for the honours by Crusaders. This was to be the high-water mark of Shiels' time at Coleraine as the club began to slip back into a more mid-table position, despite some comparatively heavy investment in playing staff. During the 1999–2000 season, things came to a head when the club lost consecutive matches to Limavady United in the Gold Cup and Linfield in the league, causing Shiels to tender his resignation. According to the official club website Shiels was manager of Moyola Park from January 1999 to December 2000, although these dates overlap in part with his time at Coleraine. Nonetheless Shiels was in charge of the club and signed a youthful Ivan Sproule for them. Shiels next appointment was at Ballymena United, where he was confirmed in the managerial chair on 2 January 2001; the club were battling relegation and Shiels was unable to prevent the club from dropping down at the end of the season.

Shiels responded by making a number of big name signings, including Tommy Wright, Paul Beesley and Liberian international Leon Browne, but none of them proved a success and the club finished in fifth place. The club improved in the 2002–03 season, although they managed only second place in the First Division, as well as the Ulster Cup and the Country Antrim Shield; the league position was enough to ensure promotion, although the club had led the table until near the end when Dungannon Swifts took over at the top. With Nigel Jemson added to the side Shiels' Braidmen proved a hit in the top flight, finishing sixth and qualifying for the Intertoto Cup. Shiels again signed some big names, bringing in Rory Hamill, Gary Smyth, Gordon Simms and Tim McCann but the club failed to make any headway, he was sacked as manager on 4 May 2005. Shiels took charge of Larne for the 2005–06 season and took the club to two cup semi-finals, but his full-time job with the IFA meant that he was unable to devote his time to the club and so he stood down at the end of the season.

Alongside his club jobs, Shiels was employed by the Irish Football Association to manage the Northern Ireland national under-17 football team, a role he retained, until 2007, when new senior manager Nigel Worthington brought in his own men at youth levels. Shiels took charge of Larne for the 2005–06 season and took the club to two cup semi-finals, but his full-time job with the IFA meant that he was unable to devote his time to the club and so he stood

The Wackiest Wagon Train in the West

The Wackiest Wagon Train in the West is a 1976 American Western comedy film directed by Jack Arnold. The film stars Bob Denver as Dusty, the bumbling assistant to Wagonmaster Callahan featured in the syndicated series Dusty's Trail; the film itself consists of four episodes of Dusty's Trail edited together: "Tomahawk Territory", "Horse of Another Color", "There Is Nothing Like a Dame", "The Not So Magnificent Seven". A stagecoach and covered wagon heading west across the plains become separated from their wagon train thanks to Dusty, a bumbling assistant to Wagonmaster Callahan. Lost in the wilderness, seven hapless souls must now make their way to California on their own using what brains they have or haven't got. First, the characters meet Indians. There is a "necktie party" looking to hang Dusty as a horse thief. Third, a couple of cattle rustlers want to "get friendly" with some willing females, and a "shootout" takes place, with Dusty dressed up as Bat Masterson in a ghost town setting. Each of the six main characters are derivative of those of Gilligan's Island, a previous series, created by Sherwood Schwartz, trying unsuccessfully to sell a Gilligan's Island revival for several years.

Dusty was based on Bob Denver's Gilligan. Tucker's role as the wagonmaster was based on The Skipper played by Alan Hale, Jr; the millionaire Brookhavens were the same characters as the Howells from Gilligan's Island. Music hall singer Lulu was an adaptation of Ginger Grant, the movie star played by Tina Louise Girl-next-door Betsy replaced farm-girl Mary Ann Summers Andy filled the role of the savant Professor Other elements of the series are reproduced/recycled: the Gilligan's Island shipwreck, following what was meant to be a "three hour tour," is now replaced with a wagon being lost in the wilderness after getting separated from a wagon train. Head Hunters are now replaced by American Indians, who bear resemblance to the Hekawi, a fictional tribe from Forrest Tucker's previous series, F Troop; the Wackiest Wagon Train in the West was released on VHS by JTC, Inc. Front Row Video, Inc. and Direct Source Special. The film has been released on Region 1 DVD by numerous companies including Tango Entertainment, Digiview and St. Clair Vision.

These releases by numerous budget labels were due to the fact that the copyrights on most episodes of Dusty's Trail were never properly claimed, making the series one of the last television series to enter the public domain before the Copyright Act of 1976 took effect. As the film was sourced from this series, the film itself is in the public domain; the Wackiest Wagon Train in the West on IMDb The Wackiest Wagon Train in the West at the TCM Movie Database

Doris Ruby

Doris Ruby was a 24-year-old dancer from Sunnyside, Queens who died in the 1951 Miami Airlines C-46 crash. She was a popular nightclub entertainer, she opened at the Apollo Theatre in Harlem in late April 1951. Ruby appeared with Fran Warren and Danny Thomas at the Latin Casino in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in early May, she teamed with Betty Reilly at the Capri in Atlantic Beach, New York in mid-June. She was romantically linked to brother of Danny Thomas, at this time. Ruby was booked to dance at the Vagabond Club, on Biscayne Boulevard, in Miami, the week after her death, she had most appeared at the Cafe Society in New York City. She appeared on WJZ prior to preparing for her fatal flight to Florida. WJZ had broadcast from Howie's Restaurant on the Avenue of the Americas between 52nd and 53rd Streets in Manhattan, she had been in Hanson's Drug Store, 51st Street and 7th Avenue, only a few hours prior to boarding the plane. This was a popular celebrity hangout. Gregg Sherwood and best friend of Ruby, tried to discourage her from flying the night before her death.

Sherwood told Ruby that if she had ten days before her Miami opening she could get a cancellation on a better airline. 56 people died on the nonscheduled airliner which crashed in New Jersey. The American Guild of Variety Artists held a benefit for Ruby's family, who were destitute following her death, she was their main support. Walter Winchell reported that Ruby might have flown to Florida earlier if the last night club she appeared in had paid her on time. AGVA, the actors' union, paid her out of the owners' bond; this occurred belatedly, a week after she made flying plans


In mathematics, an n-sphere is a topological space, homeomorphic to the set of points in -dimensional Euclidean space, that are situated at a constant distance r of a fixed point, called the center. It is the generalization of an ordinary sphere in the ordinary three-dimensional space; the "radius" of a sphere is the constant distance of its points to the center. When the sphere has unit radius, it is usual to call it the unit n-sphere or the n-sphere for brevity. In terms of the standard norm, the n-sphere is defined as S n =, an n-sphere of radius r can be defined as S n =; the 0-sphere is a pair of points on the line at unit distance from the origin, the 1-sphere is a circle in the plane, the 2-sphere is an ordinary sphere within 3-dimensional space. The dimension of n-sphere is n, must not be confused with the dimension of the Euclidean space in which it is embedded. An n-sphere is the boundary of an - dimensional ball. In particular: the pair of points at the ends of a line segment is a 0-sphere, a circle, the one-dimensional circumference of a disk, is a 1-sphere, the two-dimensional surface of a ball in three-dimensional space is a 2-sphere simply called a sphere, the three-dimensional boundary of a 4-ball in four-dimensional Euclidean is a 3-sphere known as a glome.

The n – 1 dimensional boundary of a n-ball is a general n-sphere, sometimes called a "glone". For n ≥ 2, the n-spheres that are differential manifolds can be characterized as the connected n-dimensional manifolds of constant, positive curvature; the n-spheres admit several other topological descriptions: for example, they can be constructed by gluing two n-dimensional Euclidean spaces together, by identifying the boundary of an n-cube with a point, or by forming the suspension of an -sphere. For any natural number n, an n-sphere of radius r is defined as the set of points in -dimensional Euclidean space that are at distance r from some fixed point c, where r may be any positive real number and where c may be any point in -dimensional space. In particular: a 0-sphere is a pair of points, is the boundary of a line segment. A 1-sphere is a circle of radius r centered at c, is the boundary of a disk. A 2-sphere is an ordinary 3-dimensional sphere in 3-dimensional Euclidean space, is the boundary of an ordinary ball.

A 3-sphere is a sphere in 4-dimensional Euclidean space. The set of points in -space, that define an n-sphere, S n, is represented by the equation: r 2 = ∑ i = 1 n + 1 2 where c= is a center point, r is the radius; the above n-sphere is an example of an n-manifold. The volume form ω of an n-sphere of radius r is given by ω = 1 r ∑ j = 1 n + 1 j − 1 x j d x 1 ∧ ⋯ ∧ d x j − 1 ∧ d x j + 1 ∧ ⋯ ∧ d x n + 1 = ∗ d r where ∗ is the Hodge star operator; as a result, d r ∧ ω = d x 1 ∧ ⋯ ∧ d x n + 1. The space enclosed by an n-sphere is called an -ball. An -ball is closed if it includes the n-sphere, it is open if it does not include the n-sphere. Specifically: A 1-ball, a line segment, is the interior of a 0-sphere. A 2-ball, a disk, is the interior of a circle. A 3-ball, an ordinary ball, is the interior of a sphere. A 4-ball is the interior of etc.. Topologically, an n-sphere can be constructed as a one-point compactification of n-dimensional Euclidean space; the n-sphere can be described as Sn = Rn ∪, n-dimensional Euclidean space plus a single point representing infinity in all directi

Sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilisation

The ancient Indus Valley Civilization of South Asia, including current day Pakistan and Northwest India, was prominent in infrastructure, hydraulic engineering, had many water supply and sanitation devices that were the first of their kind. Most houses of Indus Valley were made from mud bricks or clay bricks; the urban areas of the Indus Valley civilization included private baths. Sewage was disposed through underground drains built with laid bricks, a sophisticated water management system with numerous reservoirs was established. In the drainage systems, drains from houses were connected to wider public drains. Many of the buildings at Mohenjo-daro had two or more stories. Water from the roof and upper storey bathrooms was carried through enclosed terracotta pipes or open chutes that emptied out onto the street drains; the earliest evidence of urban sanitation was seen in Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, the discovered Rakhigarhi. This urban plan included. Within the city, individual homes or groups of homes obtained water from wells.

From a room that appears to have been set aside for bathing, waste water was directed to covered drains, which lined the major streets. Devices such as shadoofs and sakias were used to lift water to ground level. Ruins like Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan and Dholavira in Gujarat in India had settlements with some of the ancient world's most sophisticated sewage systems, they included drainage channels, rainwater harvesting, street ducts. Stepwells have been used in the Indian subcontinent. A number of courtyard houses had both a washing platform and a dedicated toilet / waste disposal hole; the toilet holes would be flushed by emptying jar of water, drawn from the house's central well, through a clay brick pipe and into a shared brick drain, that would feed into an adjacent soakpit. The soakpits would be periodically emptied of their solid matter to be used as fertilizer. Most houses had private wells. City walls functioned as a barrier against floods; the urban areas of the Indus Valley provided public and private baths, sewage was disposed through underground drains built with laid bricks, a sophisticated water management system with numerous reservoirs was established.

In the drainage systems, drains from houses were connected to wider public drains. Mohenjo-daro, located in Sindh, Pakistan is one of the best excavated and studied settlements from this civilization; the Great Bath might be the first of its kind in the pre-historic period. This ancient town had more than 700 wells, most houses in Mohenjo-Daro had at least one private well. Dholavira, located in Gujarat, had a series of water storing tanks and step wells, its water management system has been called "unique". Dholavira had at least five baths, the size of one is comparable with the Great Bath of Mohenjo-daro; the Indus Valley Civilization in Asia shows early evidence of public water sanitation. The system the Indus developed and managed included a number of advanced features. A typical example is the Indus city of Lothal. In Lothal all houses had their own private toilet, connected to a covered sewer network constructed of brickwork held together with a gypsum-based mortar that emptied either into the surrounding water bodies or alternatively into cesspits, the latter of which were emptied and cleaned.

Harappa Harappan architecture History of water supply and sanitation Sanitation in Ancient Rome