The Grandes Écoles of France are higher education establishments that are outside the main framework of the French public university system. The Grandes Écoles are selective and prestigious institutions. Most Grandes Écoles select students for admission as graduates of bachelor degree programs, while others select students at the third year of undergraduate-level study, based chiefly on the student's national ranking in competitive written and oral exams. Candidates for the national exams have completed two years of dedicated preparatory classes for admission. Grandes écoles differ from public universities in France, which have a legal obligation to accept in the first year of undergraduate studies all candidates of the region who hold a corresponding baccalauréat.. Grande écoles do not have large student bodies: most give admission to few hundred students each year. Arts et Métiers ParisTech has the largest student population, with 6,000 students. Studying in some grandes écoles after passing the competitive exams is considered part of public service.
Students pay low or no fees, are paid monthly stipends by some institutions. They are committed to ten years of public service; the business schools charge higher fees. Economically disadvantaged students in grandes écoles may have access to grants and subsidies, just as they would at a public university; the phrase'Grande École' originated in 1794 after the French Revolution, when the National Convention created the École normale supérieure, the mathematician Gaspard Monge and Lazare Carnot created the École centrale des travaux publics and the abbot Henri Grégoire created the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers. The model was the military academy at Mézières, of which Monge was an alumnus; the system of competitive entry was a means to open up higher education to more candidates based on merit. Some schools included in the category have roots in the 17th and 18th century and are older than the phrase'Grande École', dated 1794, their forerunners were schools aimed at graduating civil servants, such as technical officers, mine supervisors and road engineers, shipbuilding engineers.
Five military engineering academies and graduate schools of artillery were established in the 17th century in France, such as the école de l'artillerie de Douai and the école du génie de Mézières, wherein mathematics and sciences were a major part of the curriculum taught by first-rank scientists such as Pierre-Simon Laplace, Charles Étienne Louis Camus, Étienne Bézout, Sylvestre-François Lacroix, Siméon Denis Poisson, Gaspard Monge. In 1802 Napoleon created the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint Cyr, considered a Grande École, although it trains only army officers. During the 19th century, a number of higher education Grandes écoles were established to support industry and commerce, such as École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne in 1816, Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Paris, L'institut des sciences et industries du vivant et de l'environnement in 1826, École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures in 1829. Between 1832 and 1870, the Central School of Arts and Manufactures produced 3,000 engineers, served as a model for most of the industrialized countries.
Until 1864, a quarter of its students came from abroad. Conversely, the quality of French technicians astonished southeastern Europe, the Near East, Belgium; the system of grandes écoles expanded, enriched in 1826 by the Ecole des Eaux et Forêts at Nancy, the Ecole des Arts Industriels at Lille in 1854, the Ecole Centrale Lyonnaise in 1857, the National Institute of Agronomy, reconstituted in 1876 after a fruitless attempt between 1848 and 1855. The training of the lower grades of staff, who might today be called ‘production engineers’, was assured to an greater extent by the development of Ecoles d’Arts et métiers, of which the first was established at Châlons-sur-Marne in 1806 and the second at Angers in 1811, with a third at Aix-en-Provence in 1841; each had room for 300 pupils. There is no doubt that in the 1860s France had the best system of higher technical and scientific education in Europe. During the latter part of the 19th century and in the 20th century, more Grandes écoles were established for education in businesses as well as newer fields of science and technology, including Rouen Business School in 1871, Sciences Po Paris in 1872, École nationale supérieure des télécommunications, Hautes Études Commerciales, Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Economiques et Commerciales École supérieure d'électricité and Supaero.
Since France has had a unique dual higher education system, with small and middle-sized specialized graduate schools operating alongside the traditional university system. Some fields of study are nearly exclusive to one part of this dual system, such as medicine in universités only, o
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille
The École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille was founded in 1894 as the Institut de chimie de Lille. It is part of the Community of Institutions Lille Nord de France, it is located on the technology campus of the University of Lille. It delivers engineering and research curricula in the following chemistry area: Sustainable Chemistry and processes for next generation chemistry, Formulation Chemistry, Materials science/metallurgy. Master's degrees are joint program curricula with University of Lille faculties and/or École centrale de Lille. Master's degree in Chemistry and Engineering Formulation - joint degree with University of Lille Master's degree in Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry Master's degree in Catalysis and Processes - joint program with École centrale de Lille. Master's degree in Advanced Materials - joint degree with University of Lille Master's degree in Engineering of the polymer systems - joint degree with University of Lille Master's degree in Chemistry, environment - joint degree with University of Lille Research is associated with the Institut des molécules et de la matière condensée de Lille of the Université Lille Nord de France and is supported through the following laboratories: Unité de catalyse et de chimie du solide de Lille, jointly operated with University of Lille and École centrale de Lille.
École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille
Established in 1997 upon the initiative of Jean Jacques Rey - founder of the event. Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Rennes, 4L Trophy is a humanitarian rally that only student can join with Renault 4 cars, its objective is to drive across the Moroccan desert to provide children with school supplies. The 16th event of the rally happened from February 14 to February 24, 2013, its thousands of participants delivered close to 80 ton of school furniture in Morocco after driving 6000 km from departure sites in Bordeaux and Paris. 2017 marked the 20th anniversary of the 4L trophy counting 2'900 participants from 15 different nationalities. The objective of the event is schooling 3000 Moroccan children, why each team aims at delivering 50 kg of school equipment; each year more than 50 tons of school supplies are brought in Morocco. One part is given to the Moroccan League for the Protection of Children in Fez and the other part is distributed in schools along the route. There is a strong relationship, developed between the raid and different association, for instance with the association "Enfant du désert".
This association has been created to encourage education for kids living in this poor region of Morocco. Each year and students meet in the camping area and students gives the results of their materials rising to the association and play with the children. There is an official list of; the main elements that are expected are school and sports materials but medication. According to the raid organization, “Enfant du désert” got €33.665 from the participants and Deloitte and 20000 children will benefit this year from equipments that have been gathered by participants to the raid. Another partnership with “Rire médecin” has been created in 2013 for the first time. Students were asked to give money and to support some actions for this association that aims to support children who are in hospital by providing them with games, activities and so on. Participants to the Raid have been asked to wear a clown red nose; this video has been promoted by different media to advertise this association and raise funds.
Every day, the aim is to win the day's stage using a map of Morocco and a compass. The ranking is based on the teams' ability to drive in the desert and to reach the checkpoints as required; the aim is not to be the fastest team but to be able to reach the meeting point by doing as few kilometers as possible. And desert implies a lot of challenges. First of all, there is, of course, no road in the desert; the main obstacle for participants is called "oued" in Arab. These oued require a lot of ability to go through without trouble. Moreover, the car, a 4L Renault is not the best car to go through that kind of troubles. Visibility is weak in the desert because of sand raised by other cars. Respecting the environment is a concern of 4L Trophy; the partnership with CO2 Solidarity aims at making up for CO2 emissions by funding a program for environmental protection in order to improve the living conditions of Moroccan people. The participation in the "Clean Desert" operation involves meticulous cleaning of bivouacs and rehabilitation of tracks.
All Road Books are printed on recycled paper. The partnership between the 4L Trophy organization and the financial advising firm Deloitte lead to the creation of the Deloitte-4l- Eco Challenge in 2008; this challenge consists in awarding the best action imagined by students participating to the 4L Trophy. For instance, in 2011, the Deloitte-4L-Eco challenge was awarded to a team from the Rouen Engineering school for installing a solar water pump in a village with no domestic water. Ten pre-selected teams receive €500 and the final winner receive €2500; the projects are chosen by the level of their social added value and ecological added. As it has got more and more popular, 4L Trophy has started to attract more and more media and is now covered by national media as well as local ones and video show. 4L trophy is followed by national media as for instance the Figaro but by specialist media as for example Turbo that dedicates an article to this event each year. The most important media partners on the raid are: -France Bleu Radio which report the result and some events on a daily basis during the raid.
-Turbo, the most popular car TV show in France that send a team to film the raid and broadcast it. -The raid has its own press service that sends news and photos to journalists that are not following the raid. For the first time last year, they created the 4L TV, an online TV channel, upload news and pictures every evening. Moreover, during the raid, they organized a broadcast on Dailymotion direct from the desert, in Merzouga; this media coverage as a big impact for the organization “4L Trophy” as well as for its participants since firms are more to sponsor a car if they hope to get some positive return for the stickers on it. Financing the project is a hard part of the 4L Trophy for students; every team rely on private funds to finance their project. The cost of participating to the raid can be evaluated between €5500 and €10000; the main spending factors are the inscription, which cost €3300, buying and preparing the car, that will cost between €1500 and €4000. The main way to raise fund is by sponsoring.
The idea behind, that one may “buy” one part of the car and put its logo on this space. The firm can hope to get a positive return from that because 4L Trophy is quite popular in France and well covered by media. In exchange, the firm will give money or advantages, it is the case between technicians and team. Technicians agree to prepare the car and get
Agrocampus Ouest is a French higher education institution of university-level, grande école-type. Its official name is Institut supérieur des sciences agronomiques, horticoles et du paysage, it operates under the supervision of the French Ministry of Agriculture. It trains agricultural sciences engineers and research scientists, it has one in Rennes and the other in Angers. Agrocampus Ouest was created in 2008, as the merger of two institutions: Institut National d'Horticulture et de Paysage in Angers. Agrocampus Rennes in Rennes, its head office is located in Rennes, has a second campus in Angers. Agrocampus Ouest trains engineers, 4 specializations being available: agricultural sciences engineer horticulture sciences engineer landscape sciences engineer food industry sciences engineerDepending on the chosen specialization, trainings are held in one or the other campus. Agrocampus Ouest offers 16 Master's degrees and 9 Bachelor's degrees in life sciences. Moreover, Agrocampus Ouest has 6 doctoral schools: Life-Agro-Health Plants, health Materials science Human sciences and society Mathematics, telecommunications, signal, electronics Law, management, environment and territories The institution has 80 acamedic partnerships across the world.
According to its website, Agrocampus Ouest has: 14 research units in partnership with the INRA research institute 398 associated researchers. According to the 2011 ranking published by the L'Etudiant and L'Expansion, Agrocampus Ouest is the third French grande école for agricultural sciences, ex-æquo with l'ENSA de Toulouse. List of agricultural universities
École de l'air
The École de l'Air is a military school and grande école training line officers in the French Air Force. It is located at Salon-de-Provence Air Base in France. In 1922, the École du génie of Versailles, was entrusted with the mission to train all officers and aircrew in aeronautics; the École militaire et d’application de l’Aéronautique was set up in 1925. The officer cadets from the non-commissioned officers' corps and young officers from the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr and École Polytechnique attended training at Versailles for two years. For pilots, their training continued at Avord and Cazaux, where they trained in aerial combat and bombing. President Albert Lebrun created the École de l'Air by Presidential decree in 1933; the school's first class began training November 4, 1935. The school's motto, Faire Face is a tribute to Capitaine Georges Guynemer, a World War I fighter ace In 1937, the school moved into still-unfinished buildings in Salon, Bouches-du-Rhône; the outbreak of World War II forced the school to relocate several times from 1939 to 1945, to sites including Bordeaux and Marrakech.
It was not until 1946. The school received the Legion of Honor and the Croix de Guerre from President Vincent Auriol in 1947. Other specialized schools joined the École de l'Air, including the École du commissariat de l'Air, which trains administrative and financial officers, in 1953, the Cours Spécial de l'École de l'Air, which trains exchange cadets from French-speaking African countries, in 1973. In 1969, the École de l'Air began an exchange program with the United States Air Force Academy, for eight cadets per school each year; the school first accepted women in 1976. Since 2008, The École de l'Air proposes two mastères spécialisés courses in aviation safety aircraft airworthiness and aerospace project management in partnership with the École nationale de l'aviation civile and the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace. In 2015, The École de l'air launched a MOOC titled Compréhension de l’Arme Aérienne on France Université Numérique's platform. Stéphane Abrial, French General, the previous Commander of Allied Command Transformation Caroline Aigle, first woman fighter pilot in the French Air Force Patrick Baudry, retired Lieutenant Colonel in the French Air Force and a former CNES astronaut Jean-Loup Chrétien, former CNES spationaut Olivier Dassault, French politician serving as a deputy in the French National Assembly Léopold Eyharts, ESA astronaut Jean-Pierre Haigneré, French Air Force officer and a former CNES spationaut Fleury Marius, French aviator Francis Pollet, Director of the Institut Polytechnique des Sciences Avancées Jacques Rosay, Vice President Chief Test Pilot of the aircraft manufacturer Airbus Michel Tognini, French test pilot, brigadier general in the French Air Force, a former CNES and ESA astronaut
École européenne de chimie, polymères et matériaux
The École européenne de chimie, polymères et matériaux of Strasbourg is a public engineering school in the city of Strasbourg, in Alsace, France. It was founded in 1948, is located on the Cronenbourg Campus of the University of Strasbourg; each year 90 students graduate from the school with a diplôme d'ingénieur. It is a National School of Engineers, part of the University of Strasbourg and a member of the Fédération Gay-Lussac, which recruits from the common polytechnic entrance examination, it is part of the Alsace Tech network of nine engineering schools in Alsace. The ECPM offers its students three specialties: polymers or materials. 1919 - Creation of the chemical institute by the professors T. Muller and H. Gault. Lectures are taught rue Goethe in Strasbourg. 1948 - Creation at the same place of the Ecole nationale supérieure de chimie by the professor H. Forestier. 1962 - The Ecole de chimie has place in new premises on the campus central de l'Esplanade. The first practical sessions from the ENSCS in analytical chemistry begin at the start of the school year 1962.
1968 - The ENSCS becomes a public organization. 1981 - The professor M. Daire introduces the European teaching program. 1986 - The ENSCS becomes Ecole Européenne des hautes études des industries chimiques de Strasbourg 1995 - The EHICS, the Ecole d'application des hauts Polymères and the Magistère matériaux de l'université de Strasbourg-I group together and form the Ecole de chimie, Polymères et Matériaux. 1998-1999 - The ECPM moves to new premises on the University's Cronenbourg campus. 2006 - Strasbourg becomes business cluster of the French chemistry. 2009 - The université Louis Pasteur and the other universities of Strasbourg are joined and form l'Université de Strasbourg 2011 - Opening of the new Classe préparatoire intégrée internationale - CHEM. I. ST. At the start of the school year 2011. → To enter the First year: - The school recruit with the «Concours Communs Polytechniques» or the DEUG. - The admission could be done by an interview with a License 3 in Chemistry or in Physics at the university, a DUT for example, in Chemistry, physical measurements optional materials or chemical engineering.
- For international students, they must have a Bachelor of an equivalent foreign degree. - After 2 years in CPI classes at Rennes, Clermont-Ferrand or in Strasbourg. → To enter the Second year, students can have access at the ECPM having an interview, with a Master M1 in Physics with a speciality in Polymers or materials. → Admission to the CP2i class in the ECPM, after the Baccalaureate, or an equivalent foreign degree for the international students. There is no competitive exam. There are interviews to evaluate the motivations with the people in charge of the Chem. I. St programme. 50 students are selected every year. There are nearly 20% international students; this class allows the students to gain admission to a school of the Fédération Gay Lussac after two years. These 2 years consist of studying engineer's trades in the domain of chemistry. There are 5 CPIs in France: Rennes, Clermont-Ferrand, Lille and Strasbourg at the ECPM The last one was opened at the start of the 2011-12 school year in Strasbourg.
The speciality of this school is that it welcomes a large number of international students, as well as that 20% of the courses are delivered in English and 10% are delivered in German. There are 50 students in each year. To gain admission to the CP2I: French students register on Admission Post-Bac and follow the steps. Students are selected on the basis of a 20-minute interview. International students submit their dossiers directly to the school. International students are selected on the basis of their academic record and an interview. General presentation of CPI-CHEM. I. ST: A strong scientific program: a major part of chemistry and maths during the 2 years with a total, for the first year, of around 700 hours of scientific lesson. We must add Lab Work of this scientific formation, with a total of 102 hours for the first year; the CPI-CHEM. I. ST base of more practical work than in an intensive foundation degree, with high-quality laboratory; the program includes group work to develop the communication, the creativity around scientists projects.
Moreover, in 2016, a "videxo" program was created. During, the "videxo" student solves a science problem on a board and in the same time someone films him to send the video to the teachers; the goal of this is to promote self-confidence and the scientist reflexion which are important qualities for the future engineer. An international program in a multicultural environment: many students with different cultures and two foreign languages to learn. At the beginning of the formation, students can participate in an English language session for one week in order to learn the fundamentals of the scientific English. Insertions travels are organised in England; the students will participate in lab work in a foreign university. Most of the time the foreign students come from China; the speciality is chosen in the second year. Students have four possibilities: Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: With this speciality, students attain a high level in synthesis and characterization of organic chemistry. Analytical Chemistry: Students are trained in techniques of analysis within the context of quality control.
Polymers: Students are trained to become fle