Electronics comprises the physics, engineering and applications that deal with the emission and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. The identification of the electron in 1897, along with the invention of the vacuum tube, which could amplify and rectify small electrical signals, inaugurated the field of electronics and the electron age. Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, diodes, integrated circuits and sensors, associated passive electrical components, interconnection technologies. Electronic devices contain circuitry consisting or of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; the nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible. Electronics is used in information processing, telecommunication, signal processing; the ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information-processing possible. Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards, electronics packaging technology, other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed electronic components into a regular working system, called an electronic system.
An electronic system may be a component of a standalone device. Electrical and electromechanical science and technology deals with the generation, switching and conversion of electrical energy to and from other energy forms; this distinction started around 1906 with the invention by Lee De Forest of the triode, which made electrical amplification of weak radio signals and audio signals possible with a non-mechanical device. Until 1950 this field was called "radio technology" because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmitters and vacuum tubes; as of 2018 most electronic devices use semiconductor components to perform electron control. The study of semiconductor devices and related technology is considered a branch of solid-state physics, whereas the design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical problems come under electronics engineering; this article focuses on engineering aspects of electronics. Digital electronics Analogue electronics Microelectronics Circuit design Integrated circuits Power electronics Optoelectronics Semiconductor devices Embedded systems An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic system used to affect the electrons or their associated fields in a manner consistent with the intended function of the electronic system.
Components are intended to be connected together by being soldered to a printed circuit board, to create an electronic circuit with a particular function. Components may be packaged singly, or in more complex groups as integrated circuits; some common electronic components are capacitors, resistors, transistors, etc. Components are categorized as active or passive. Vacuum tubes were among the earliest electronic components, they were solely responsible for the electronics revolution of the first half of the twentieth century. They allowed for vastly more complicated systems and gave us radio, phonographs, long-distance telephony and much more, they played a leading role in the field of microwave and high power transmission as well as television receivers until the middle of the 1980s. Since that time, solid-state devices have all but taken over. Vacuum tubes are still used in some specialist applications such as high power RF amplifiers, cathode ray tubes, specialist audio equipment, guitar amplifiers and some microwave devices.
In April 1955, the IBM 608 was the first IBM product to use transistor circuits without any vacuum tubes and is believed to be the first all-transistorized calculator to be manufactured for the commercial market. The 608 contained more than 3,000 germanium transistors. Thomas J. Watson Jr. ordered all future IBM products to use transistors in their design. From that time on transistors were exclusively used for computer logic and peripherals. Circuits and components can be divided into two groups: digital. A particular device may consist of circuitry that has a mix of the two types. Most analog electronic appliances, such as radio receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few types of basic circuits. Analog circuits use a continuous range of voltage or current as opposed to discrete levels as in digital circuits; the number of different analog circuits so far devised is huge because a'circuit' can be defined as anything from a single component, to systems containing thousands of components.
Analog circuits are sometimes called linear circuits although many non-linear effects are used in analog circuits such as mixers, etc. Good examples of analog circuits include vacuum tube and transistor amplifiers, operational amplifiers and oscillators. One finds modern circuits that are analog; these days analog circuitry may use digital or microprocessor techniques to improve performance. This type of circuit is called "mixed signal" rather than analog or digital. Sometimes it may be difficult to differentiate between analog and digital circuits as they have elements of both linear and non-linear
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles. At its core, systems engineering utilizes systems thinking principles to organize this body of knowledge; the individual outcome of such efforts, an engineered system, can be defined as a combination of components that work in synergy to collectively perform a useful function. Issues such as requirements engineering, logistics, coordination of different teams and evaluation, maintainability and many other disciplines necessary for successful system development, design and ultimate decommission become more difficult when dealing with large or complex projects. Systems engineering deals with work-processes, optimization methods, risk management tools in such projects, it overlaps technical and human-centered disciplines such as industrial engineering, mechanical engineering, manufacturing engineering, control engineering, software engineering, electrical engineering, organizational studies, civil engineering and project management.
Systems engineering ensures that all aspects of a project or system are considered, integrated into a whole. The systems engineering process is a discovery process, quite unlike a manufacturing process. A manufacturing process is focused on repetitive activities that achieve high quality outputs with minimum cost and time; the systems engineering process must begin by discovering the real problems that need to be resolved, identifying the most probable or highest impact failures that can occur – systems engineering involves finding solutions to these problems. The term systems engineering can be traced back to Bell Telephone Laboratories in the 1940s; the need to identify and manipulate the properties of a system as a whole, which in complex engineering projects may differ from the sum of the parts' properties, motivated various industries those developing systems for the U. S. Military; when it was no longer possible to rely on design evolution to improve upon a system and the existing tools were not sufficient to meet growing demands, new methods began to be developed that addressed the complexity directly.
The continuing evolution of systems engineering comprises the development and identification of new methods and modeling techniques. These methods aid in a better comprehension of the design and developmental control of engineering systems as they grow more complex. Popular tools that are used in the systems engineering context were developed during these times, including USL, UML, QFD, IDEF0. In 1990, a professional society for systems engineering, the National Council on Systems Engineering, was founded by representatives from a number of U. S. corporations and organizations. NCOSE was created to address the need for improvements in systems engineering practices and education; as a result of growing involvement from systems engineers outside of the U. S. the name of the organization was changed to the International Council on Systems Engineering in 1995. Schools in several countries offer graduate programs in systems engineering, continuing education options are available for practicing engineers.
Systems engineering signifies only an approach and, more a discipline in engineering. The aim of education in systems engineering is to formalize various approaches and in doing so, identify new methods and research opportunities similar to that which occurs in other fields of engineering; as an approach, systems engineering is interdisciplinary in flavour. The traditional scope of engineering embraces the conception, development and operation of physical systems. Systems engineering, as conceived, falls within this scope. "Systems engineering", in this sense of the term, refers to the building of engineering concepts. The use of the term "systems engineer" has evolved over time to embrace a wider, more holistic concept of "systems" and of engineering processes; this evolution of the definition has been a subject of ongoing controversy, the term continues to apply to both the narrower and broader scope. Traditional systems engineering was seen as a branch of engineering in the classical sense, that is, as applied only to physical systems, such as spacecraft and aircraft.
More systems engineering has evolved to a take on a broader meaning when humans were seen as an essential component of a system. Checkland, for example, captures the broader meaning of systems engineering by stating that'engineering' "can be read in its general sense. Enterprise Systems Engineering pertains to the view of enterprises, that is, organizations or combinations of organizations, as systems. Service Systems Engineering has to do with the engineering of service systems. Checkland defines a service system as a system, conceived as serving another system. Most civil infrastructure systems are service systems. Systems engineering focuses on analyzing and eliciting customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem, the system lifecycle; this includes understanding all of the stakeholders involved. Oliver et al. claim that the systems engineerin
University of Toulouse
The University of Toulouse is a university in France, established by papal bull in 1229, making it one of the earliest universities to emerge in Europe. Since the closing of the university in 1793 due to the French Revolution, the University of Toulouse no longer exists as a single institution. However, there have been several independent "successor" universities inheriting the name; the current consortium of French universities, grandes écoles and other institutions of higher education and research in Toulouse and the surrounding region is known as Université fédérale de Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées. The formation of l'Université de Toulouse was imposed on Count Raymond VII as a part of the Treaty of Paris in 1229 ending the crusade against the Albigensians; as he was suspected of sympathizing with the heretics, Raymond VII had to finance the teaching of theology. Bishop Foulques de Toulouse was among the founders of the University. Among its first lecturers were Jean de Roland of Cremona. Other faculties were added later.
The University was located in the center of the city, together with the ancestors of student residences, the colleges. In 1969, l'Université de Toulouse split into three separate universities and numerous specialised institutions of higher education; the present-day Université de Toulouse was founded on 27 March 2007. It no longer represents a single university, as it is now the collective entity which federates the universities and specialised institutions of higher education. With more than 100,000 students, Midi-Pyrénées is the fifth-largest university area in France, it is a Research and Higher Education Cluster consisting of: Université Toulouse 1 Capitole – UT1 Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès – UT2J Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier – UT3 Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse – INPT École Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Toulouse – INP-ENSAT École Nationale Supérieure d’Électrotechnique, d’Électronique, d’Informatique, d’Hydraulique et des Télécommunications – INP-ENSEEIHT École Nationale Supérieure des Ingénieurs en Arts Chimiques et Technologiques – INP-ENSIACET École Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tarbes – INP-ENIT École Nationale de la Météorologie.
Biology, Health & Biotechnologies Sciences for Ecology, Agronomy & Bioengineery Geosciences, Astrophysics & Space Sciences Mathematics, Informatics & Telecommunications Toulouse Doctoral School Electrical, Electronic Engineering & Telecommunications Systems Physics, Chemistry & Materials Sciences Mechanics, Civil & Process Engineering Aeronautics & Astronautics Behavior, Education, Cognition Art, Languages, Information & Communication Time, Societies & Cultures Legal & Political Sciences Management Sciences Toulouse School of Economics Jean Tirole, professor of economics, Economics Nobel Prize 2014 Paul Seabright, professor of economics Jean-Jacques Laffont, economist Raymond Aron, philosopher and political scientist Paul Fauconnet, sociologist Jean Jaurès, politician Maurice Hauriou and dean of the law faculty from 1906 to 1926 Pierre Laromiguière, philosopher Adrianus Turnebus, classical scholar Professor Ange Nzihou is a 2010 Presidential Green Chemistry Academic Award Recipient Patrice Hardel is the Roissy-Charles de Gaulle Airport Managing Director François Hussenot (22 March 1912 – 16 May 1951, graduated in 1935 from ISAE aeronautical engineer credited with the invention of one of the early forms of the flight data recorder Jean Botti is Chief Technical Officer of EADS since 2006.
Thomas Pesquet, European Space Agency astronaut Marcel Dassault was a French aircraft industrialist. He founded the company Dassault Aviation. Selman Riza and politician. Paul Sabatier, Dean of the Faculty of Science at the University of Toulouse in 1905, Nobel Prize in Chemistry jointly with fellow
Paul Sabatier University
Paul Sabatier University is a French university, in the Academy of Toulouse. It is one of the several successor universities of the University of Toulouse. Toulouse III was named after winner of the 1912 Nobel prize in chemistry. In 1969, it was established on the foundations of the old Toulouse university, itself founded in 1229; the Université Paul Sabatier, an educational leader in France’s Midi-Pyrénées region, offers a broad array of programs in the sciences, technology and athletics. Space, earth sciences, climate Computer science and electronics Life sciences Water, process engineering, chemistry Materials, solid state physics, astrophysics Major fields of study include sciences and athletics; the university offers the Licence programs in eight areas: Mathematics, Computer Science and their applications. The university offers master's programs in six areas: Systems Modeling. A number of bilingual programs have been designed to appeal to international students — among them a Joint European Master in Space Science and Technology, a European Master’s in materials for energy storage and conversion, an international Master’s in micro and nanotechnologies for wireless communications, a new Master's in Management International of Air Transport and Tourism and a French Master’s in agri-food innovations for sustainable agriculture and better products.
The university accepts doctoral candidates in all of the areas described above. Medicine: medical degree, specialities, doctorate Pharmacy: degree in pharmacy, diplôme d’études supérieures, DNO Dentistry: degree in dental surgery, certificat d’études supérieures, DES, doctorate Arboretum de Jouéou Jardin botanique Henri Gaussen Guy Bertrand, chemistry professor at the University of California, San Diego Pierre Cohen, member of the National Assembly of France List of public universities in France by academy Official website
Institut national de la recherche agronomique
The Institut national de la recherche agronomique is a French public research institute dedicated to agricultural science. It was founded in 1946 and is a Public Scientific and Technical Research Establishment under the joint authority of the Ministries of Research and Agriculture. INRA leads projects of targeted research for a sustainable agriculture, a safeguarded environment and a healthy and high quality food. Based on the number of publications in agricultural sciences/crops and animal sciences, INRA is the first institute for agricultural research in Europe, the second in the world, it belongs to the top 1% most cited research institutes. INRA main tasks are: to disseminate knowledge. INRA is a research institute with 1,840 researchers, 1,756 research engineers and 4,694 lab workers/field workers/administrative staff. In addition, 510 PhD students are trained, 2,552 interns are employed every year. INRA is composed of 13 scientific departments: Environment and Agronomy Biology and crop breeding Plant health and environment Ecology of forests and aquatic environments Animal genetics Animal physiology and animal production systems Animal health Characterization and processing of agricultural products Microbiology and food processing Human nutrition Sciences for action and development Social sciences and food, territories and environment Applied mathematics and computer sciencesMoreover, INRA provides tools and support to the scientific community: databases, environmental research observatories, genetic resources centers, experimental platforms, etc.
In 2014, INRA has 17 regional centres in France, including in the French overseas territories. Most laboratories and facilities located in Paris region are to be moved to the Paris-Saclay research-intensive cluster. INRA develops partnerships with: universities and French top schools in agricultural/veterinary sciences French research institutes of fundamental and targeted research. Notably, CNRS and INSERM are INRA first two partners. French research institutes of agricultural applied research the main agricultural research institutes in the world, it has scientific collaborations and exchanges with many countries in Europe and Asia. Nearly half of the publications are co-authored by foreign scientists. INRA maintains a collection of vines at Domaine de Vassal, in Marseillan near Sète, a site where phylloxera cannot survive. Gouais blanc can be found there. Researches on vine cultivation are conducted in Gruissan. INRA owns the Château Couhins wine-producing estate near Bordeaux. Many wine grapes have been created at INRA stations including Ederena.
INRA was a member of the consortium for the genome sequencing of Vitis vinifera in 2007. Animal Agronomy Agroecology Biotechnology CIRADVeterinary Research Official website
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed with minimal human assistance. Automation or automatic control is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks and stabilization of ships and other applications and vehicles with minimal or reduced human intervention; some processes have been automated, while others are semi-automated. Automation covers applications ranging from a household thermostat controlling a boiler, to a large industrial control system with tens of thousands of input measurements and output control signals. In control complexity it can range from simple on-off control to multi-variable high level algorithms. In the simplest type of an automatic control loop, a controller compares a measured value of a process with a desired set value, processes the resulting error signal to change some input to the process, in such a way that the process stays at its set point despite disturbances.
This closed-loop control is an application of negative feedback to a system. The mathematical basis of control theory was begun in the 18th century, advanced in the 20th. Automation has been achieved by various means including mechanical, pneumatic, electronic devices and computers in combination. Complicated systems, such as modern factories and ships use all these combined techniques; the benefit of automation include labor savings, savings in electricity costs, savings in material costs, improvements to quality and precision. The World Bank's World Development Report 2019 shows evidence that the new industries and jobs in the technological sector outweigh the economic effects of workers being displaced by automation; the term automation, inspired by the earlier word automatic, was not used before 1947, when Ford established an automation department. It was during this time that industry was adopting feedback controllers, which were introduced in the 1930s. Fundamentally, there are two types of control loop.
In open loop control the control action from the controller is independent of the "process output". A good example of this is a central heating boiler controlled only by a timer, so that heat is applied for a constant time, regardless of the temperature of the building.. In closed loop control, the control action from the controller is dependent on the process output. In the case of the boiler analogy this would include a thermostat to monitor the building temperature, thereby feed back a signal to ensure the controller maintains the building at the temperature set on the thermostat. A closed loop controller therefore has a feedback loop which ensures the controller exerts a control action to give a process output the same as the "Reference input" or "set point". For this reason, closed loop controllers are called feedback controllers; the definition of a closed loop control system according to the British Standard Institution is'a control system possessing monitoring feedback, the deviation signal formed as a result of this feedback being used to control the action of a final control element in such a way as to tend to reduce the deviation to zero.'
A Feedback Control System is a system which tends to maintain a prescribed relationship of one system variable to another by comparing functions of these variables and using the difference as a means of control. The advanced type of automation that revolutionized manufacturing, aircraft and other industries, is feedback control, continuous and involves taking measurements using a sensor and making calculated adjustments to keep the measured variable within a set range; the theoretical basis of closed loop automation is control theory. One of the simplest types of control is on-off control. An example is the thermostat used on household appliances which either opens or closes an electrical contact. Sequence control, in which a programmed sequence of discrete operations is performed based on system logic that involves system states. An elevator control system is an example of sequence control. A proportional–integral–derivative controller is a control loop feedback mechanism used in industrial control systems.
In a PID loop, the controller continuously calculates an error value e as the difference between a desired setpoint and a measured process variable and applies a correction based on proportional and derivative terms which give their name to the controller type. The theoretical understanding and application dates from the 1920s, they are implemented in nearly all analogue control systems. Sequential control may be either to a fixed sequence or to a logical one that will perform different actions depending on various system states. An example of an adjustable but otherwise fixed sequence is a timer on a lawn sprinkler. States refer to the various conditions that can occur in a sequence scenario of the system. An example is an elevator, which uses logic based on the system state to perform certain actions in response to its state and operator input. For example, if th
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua