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Institute of Business Administration, Karachi

The Institute of Business Administration Karachi. Founded in 1955, it is the oldest business school outside North America. IBA was established as a business school in 1955 by Pakistani government with the technical support from the Wharton School and the University of Southern California. Several prominent American professors were assigned to the IBA to develop its curriculum. In 1982, it became the first Pakistani institute to offer a four-year liberal arts undergraduate degree, it remained a constituent school within the University of Karachi until, in 1994, when its status was elevated to an independent chartered university by the Sindh Government. Since 2003, IBA has expanded from a purely graduate business school to an interdisciplinary university with undergraduate and post-graduate programs. IBA, today, is one of Pakistan's selective and highest-ranked institutes known for its business program, it is one of the two Pakistani business schools to be awarded the coveted certification by the South Asian Quality System.

IBA today has a campus with a covered area of 750,000 sq.ft and a student body of over 6,000 students. IBA has collaborations with 15 institutions worldwide, which include Babson College, Indian School of Business, S. P. Jain Institute and the Northwestern University, it counts several prominent public figures and business leaders among its alumni, including the former Pakistani President Mamnoon Hussain, former Pakistani Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz, renowned economist Mohammad Uzair, former Federal Minister for Finance and Economic Affairs Asad Umer and business leader Quentin D'Silva. It was in 1955 the Institute of Public and Business Administration was established, making it the oldest business school outside North America. Initial technical support was provided by the world famous Wharton School of Finance, University of Pennsylvania. Soon after the University of Southern California set up various facilities at the Institute and several prominent American professors were assigned to the IBA.

The course contents, the curriculum, the pedagogical tools and the assessment and testing methods were developed under the guidance of reputed scholars from these two institutions. IBA has zealously guarded the high standards and academic traditions it had inherited from Wharton and USC while adapting and adjusting them with the passage of time. In 1956 a two-year MBA morning program commenced as a constituent unit of the University of Karachi. Faculty was hired in the department of Public and Business Administration, in collaboration with the University of Pennsylvania and assisted by United States International Corporation Administration, now USAID. In 1957, a two-year MBA evening program was launched to cater to the needs of numerous working executives and managers who were interested in furthering their careers through part-time business studies, it was in 1965 the faculty of IBA, Dhaka University and Kelley School of Business jointly developed the two-year MBA program for former East Pakistan.

The first computer course, Electronic Data Processing was offered in 1966. After the complete construction of the Institute's two campuses and evening classes commenced at the main campus in 1965, at the city campus in 1967. In 1968 a two-year BBA program was introduced, followed by the launch of a three-year BBA program in 1982, which has now been upgraded to a four-year BBA program; the Faculty of Computer Science was established as the Center for Computer Studies in 1983 with the collaboration of IBM, Pakistan. It offered a PGD in System Analysis along with a two-year MBA program to overcome a shortage of software professionals in the country, it now offers BS, MS, PhD programs. It was in 1989 the PGD program was upgraded to a two-year MBA program. At the start of a new decade, a two-year MBA program was launched in collaboration with ANZ-Grindlays Bank. In 1993, two programs, a two-year MBA Executive and a three-year BBA Executive were started at the city campus. Till 1994, the University of Karachi awarded degrees to the graduates.

In that year, the Sindh Assembly elevated the Institute's status to that of a degree-awarding institution. In 1997, a three-year BBA honors program was announced to cater to the increasing role of information technology in business; the MIS program was renamed to Management Information System and Sciences program in recognition of the fact that it covers both Information Systems and Computer Sciences. The PGD evening program was offered to part-time students in 1998. In the same year, a three-year Bachelors in Computer Science honors program was announced, along with a three-year BBA program, a three-year BS program. At the start of the 21st century, in 2002, all undergraduate programs were upgraded to four-year degree programs. In the same year, Centre for Executive Education was established. In 2004 the National Talent Hunt program was launched. In 2005 PhD's in CSE, MIS and ICT were offered. In 2008, a two-year MS in Computer Science, Information technology and Software Engineering were offered along with a BS in Software Engineering and Information Technology.

In the same year the four-year BCS degree title was renamed to BS Computer Science. In 2009, IBA introduced its first weekend Executive MBA Program of 2.5 years, focusing on the needs of the mid-career professionals, serving in the Corporate Sector and Government departments. The curriculum and course material have been developed in consultation with industry experts and lead resource persons; the Center for Computer Studies was rena

Clara McLaughlin

Clara McLaughlin is an author, newspaper owner and publisher of The Florida Star and The Georgia Star in Jacksonville, United States. McLaughlin also worked as Editorial Assistant for the Journal of the National Medical Association under Dr. W. Montague Cobb and wrote the first book for black parents on child care; the Black Parents Handbook was published by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. She was the first African American female in the U. S. to become founder, major owner and CEO of a network affiliated television station. Clara McLaughlin was born in born in Brunswick and grew up in Gainesville, Florida, she started her career in journalism while in high school by writing and distributing the school’s only student newsletter. After graduating from high school, Clara attended Hampton Institute, Virginia, where she majored in music, she left Hampton and joined the U. S. Navy as a WAVE, worked as a yeoman and organist for the Navy Chapel. After receiving her honorable discharge, Clara was able to use her GI Bill to help pay for the rest of her education.

When Clara reached Howard University in Washington, D. C. she discovered that the University did not offer journalism as a major, for this reason initiated steps for students to major in journalism. Clara was, able to graduate with honors from Howard University as a journalism major and was one of the founders of the National Black Communications Society". Clara served as Co-Editor-in-Chief her first time to work on a yearbook and Editor-in-Chief her second year. With her leadership and skills, Howard University became the first HBCU to win the All American Award for a student publication. Clara worked as Editorial Assistant for the "Journal of the National Medical Association" under Dr. W. Montague Cobb and wrote the first book for black parents on child care; the Black Parents Handbook was published by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. In 1979 Clara felt that television was not giving women and minorities the proper recognition but felt working at a station would not give the authority to change such.

She, for this reason, filed a petition with the Federal Communications Commission who subsequently approved a television allocation to be dropped into Houston, designed to show women and minorities in a more positive manner. While waiting for the petition to be approved, she applied for and was able to get on the air, a CBS-affiliated television station in Longview, making her the first African American female in the U. S. to become founder, major owner and CEO of a network affiliated television station. Presently, Clara is owner and publisher of the largest and most circulated African American owned newspaper in Jacksonville and Northeast Florida – The Florida Star, she added a new publication, The Georgia Star in 2005. Clara serves as host for a weekly radio talk show, IMPACT, on WCGL-AM 1360 and was a media participant on Jacksonville’s PBS television affiliate, “Week in Review” for many years as well as two other FM stations in Jacksonville. While in Houston, as the author of"The Black Parents Handbook", she was a weekly host on childcare at the PBS, Channel 8, station in that city.

Clara has received many honors and awards, was recognized for her media trailblazer achievements in Washington, D. C. in 2012 at the national communications organization, MMTC. She received the Distinguished Alumni Award from Howard University, was inducted into the first Lincoln High School Hall of Fame, the Kool Achievers Award, SCLC’s national Drum Major for Justice Award in Atlanta and Female Entrepreneur of the year award for the U. S., held in Atlanta, Georgia. The City of Houston, Texas honored her twice with a Clara McLaughlin Day. Clara McLaughlin has been featured in many major publications, including The Wall Street Journal, USA Today, New York Times, Los Angeles Times, The Houston Chronicle, The Houston Post, The Dallas Morning News, Dallas Times Herald, Jet, Texas Women Magazine, many more, as well as featured in the book, Texas Women in History, she was featured in an episode of Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous. Since returning to Florida, she has received many other honors and awards including, MADDADS Award and the Jacksonville and Florida’s Onyx’s awards in Communications.

The Florida Star, under her leadership, was recognized by the Jacksonville City Council and presented by Councilwoman Glorious Johnson for its reach to the community. The Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office honored Clara and The Florida Star with their first Eagle Award for being Jacksonville’s ‘most factual’ medium. In 2011, Clara received the Diversity Award from the Jacksonville Business Journal, honored by Jacksonville’s Urban League and received the ‘Key to the city of Jacksonville’ as well as a proclamation from the city in 2015 under Mayor Alvin Brown; the Florida Star The Georgia Star^ http://jacksonville.com/tu-online/stories/110102/met_10849654.shtml ^ Media in Jacksonville, Florida ^ https://www.amazon.com/Clara-J.-McLaughlin/e/B001H6MGEO ^ http://www.bizjournals.com/jacksonville/print-edition/2011/05/06/mclaughlin-an-african-american-media.html

Beyond the Black

Beyond the Black is a German symphonic metal/power metal band formed in 2014 in Mannheim. Their debut album Songs of Love and Death became popular after the release, entered the German and Austrian national music charts; the band was formed in 2014 in Mannheim, Germany by Jennifer Haben, Nils Lesser, Christopher Hummels, Michael Hauser, Erwin Schmidt and Tobias Derer. They made their first appearances at the Wacken Open Air 2014 festival and on tour supporting Saxon and Hell. On 13 February 2015, the band released its debut full-length album Songs of Love and Death, which has reached 12th place in the German music charts and 21st place in the Austrian charts; the album was produced by Sascha Paeth and received positive reviews from critics. A week on February 20, the band appeared on the German Sat.1 Breakfast television with the song "In the Shadows". From 13 May 2015, the band embarked on its first tour through Germany, followed by an appearance at the Wave-Gotik-Treffen on May 23, 2015, its second album, titled Lost in Forever, was released on the 12th of February 2016 and features 13 new tracks.

The deluxe edition features an interview and an interactive menu. On July 15, 2016 the band announced that the rest of the band were parting ways; the band has continued with new members. Jennifer Haben – lead vocals Chris Hermsdörfer - lead guitar, backing vocals Tobi Lodes - rhythm guitar, backing vocals Stefan Herkenhoff - bass Kai Tschierschky - drums Nils Lesser – lead guitar Christopher Hummels – rhythm guitar, backing vocals Tobias Derer – drums Erwin Schmidt – bass Michael Hauser – keyboards Jonas Roßner - keyboards, backing vocals Timeline Promo singles "In the Shadows" "Lost in Forever" "Night Will Fade" "Forget My Name" "Heart of the Hurricane" "Million Lightyears" "Breeze" "Through the Mirror" "Songs of Love and Death" "Love Me Forever" "Written In Blood" Official website Beyond the Black's channel on YouTube

Reva Brooks

Reva Brooks was a Canadian photographer who did much of her work in and around San Miguel de Allende in Mexico. The San Francisco Museum of Art chose Reva Brooks as one of the top 50 women photographers in history. Reva Silverman was born in Toronto, Ontario in May 1913, her parents, Moritz Silverman and Jenny Kleinberg had immigrated to Canada from Poland. Moritz arrived in Toronto in 1905 and began work in the Jewish garment district on Spadina Avenue, after three years had saved enough money to send for Jenny, whom he married at once. Moritz Silverman set himself up in a tailoring and pressing shop, where Reva and her six siblings were raised. In 1935, she married the artist Frank Leonard Brooks. While they were on a trip to San Miguel de Allende she took up photography; the couple were early members of. They arrived in 1947, planning to stay for a year while Frank Brooks studied painting, stayed for fifty years. On 12 August 1950 Leonard and Reva Brooks, as well as Stirling Dickinson and five other American teachers, were deported from Mexico.

The official reason was that they did not have proper work visas but the cause may have been a falling out with the owner of a rival art school. Leonard Brooks managed to get the order lifted so they could return through his contact with General Ignacio M. Beteta, to whom he had once given advice on painting and whose brother Ramón Beteta Quintana was an influential politician at the national level. In September–October 1950, before the official opening, the Instituto Allende in San Miguel gave an exhibition of the work of local artists. Works by both Leonard and Reva Brooks were included in this show. In 1952, Reva Brooks sold one of her most famous photographs, a picture of a mother grieving over her dead child, to Edward Steichen, the curator of the Museum of Modern Art in New York, in 1955 the work was included in the MOMA's The Family of Man exhibition, one of the first major exhibitions of photography, she participated in many exhibitions in cities around the world, with her last solo show being at the Art Gallery of Ontario in 2002.

She died in San Miguel de Allende in 2004. Sources

Avesnes family

The Avesnes family played an important role during the Middle Ages. The family has its roots in the north of France. One branch produced a number of Counts of Holland during the 13th century; the family died out in the 16th century. Baldwin, the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, was as Baldwin IX Count of Flanders and as Baldwin VI Count of Hainaut. Baldwin had only daughters and was in turn succeeded by his daughters Joan and Margaret II. In 1212 Margaret II married Bouchard d'Avesnes, a prominent Hainaut nobleman; this was a love match, though it was approved by Margaret's sister Joan, who had herself married. The two sisters subsequently had a falling-out over Margaret's share of their inheritance, which led Joan to attempt to get Margaret's marriage dissolved, she alleged that the marriage was invalid, without much inspection of the facts of the case Pope Innocent III condemned the marriage, though he did not formally annul it. Bourchard and Margaret continued as a married couple, having 3 children, as their conflict with Joan grew violent and Bouchard was captured and imprisoned in 1219.

He was released in 1221 on the condition that the couple separate and that Bouchard get absolution from the pope. While he was in Rome, Joan convinced Margaret to remarry, this time to William II of Dampierre, a nobleman from Champagne. From this marriage Margaret had two sons: Count of Flanders and Guy of Dampierre; this situation caused something of a scandal, for the marriage was bigamous, violated the church's strictures on consanguinity as well. The disputes regarding the validity of the two marriages and the legitimacy of her children by each husband continued for decades, becoming entangled in the politics of the Holy Roman Empire and resulting in the long War of the Succession of Flanders and Hainault. In 1246 king Louis IX of France, acting as an arbitrator, gave the right to inherit Flanders to the Dampierre children, the rights to Hainaut to the Avesnes children; this would seem to have settled the matter. The eldest son, John I of Avesnes, uneasy about his rights, convinced William of Holland, the German king recognized by the pro-papal forces, to seize Hainaut and the parts of Flanders which were within the bounds of the empire.

William of Holland was theoretically, as king, overlord for these territories, John's brother-in-law. A civil war followed, which ended when the Avesnes forces defeated and imprisoned the Dampierres at the Battle of West-Capelle of 4 July 1253, after which John I of Avesnes was able to force Guy of Dampierre and his mother to respect the division of Louis and grant him Hainault. Margaret did not recognise herself as overcome, she instead granted Hainault to Charles of Anjou, the brother of King Louis, who had returned from the crusade. Charles took up her cause and warred with John I of Avesnes, but failed to take Valenciennes and just missed being killed in a skirmish; when Louis returned in 1254, he reaffirmed his earlier arbitration and ordered his brother to get out of the conflict. Charles returned to Provence. With this second arbitration of the holy king, the conflict closed and John I of Avesnes was secure in Hainault; the following decades saw further strife between the Dampierres and the Avesnes, who by the start of the 14th century had inherited the County of Holland and Zeeland.

Fastré I d'Oisy m. Ade Fastré II d'Oisy m. Richilde Wautier I d'Oisy m. Ida de Mortagne Nicholas le Beau m. Mathilde de La Roche James of Avesnes m. Ameline de Guise Walter II of Avesnes m. Marguerite de Blois Bouchard IV of Avesnes m. Margaret of Flanders John I of Avesnes m. Adelaide of Holland John II of Avesnes count of Hainaut and Holland m. Philippa of Luxembourg William III of Avesnes m. Joan of Valois William IV of Avesnes m. Joanna, Duchess of Brabant Margaret II of Hainaut m. Louis IV Wittelsbach Guy of Avesnes Aleid of Avesnes, married Otto van Asperen van Heuckelom Maria of Avesnes, married Arnold, Lord of IJsselstein Counts of Hainaut family tree Adrien-Joseph Michaux, Chronologie historique des seigneurs de la terre et pairie d'Avesnes, Office d'édition et de diffusion du livre d'histoire, Paris, 1994 OCLC 36103867; the History Files: The Kings of Holland

Folkestone School for Girls

Folkestone School for Girls is an all-girls grammar school with academy status in Folkestone, England, next to Sandgate Primary School on Coolinge Lane. The school, in its current form, on its current site and under its current name, started in 1983, its history goes much further back, however, to 1905 as the Folkestone County School for Girls. There is a Folkestone School Old Girls' Association with further information and some 800 members, including from various of the current school's predecessors, along the way have merged; the previous names were various: The Grange Folkestone County Technical School for Girls Folkestone Technical High School for Girls Folkestone County Grammar School for GirlsThe boys' grammar school is called the Harvey Grammar School. The school intended to use the entrance examination introduced by Dover Grammar School for Boys, after an objection by Kent County Council, it was ruled on 8 July 2005 by the Schools Adjudicator that the school should use the county's selection test and shepway test.

In 2017, around 85% of students either continued onto university or planned to do so after a gap year. The remainder went into directly into employment. There are six houses named after important women: Curie, Austen, Pankhurst and Seacole; each house has an assigned colour, red, blue and purple respectively. The houses have their own prefects, chosen from Year 13. Tracey Crouch, Member of Parliament for Chatham and Aylesford Daphne Fowler, Brain of Britain winner 1997, BBC's Eggheads team member 2003–Present Anne Farmer, professor of psychiatry Alison Hastings, Vice-President of the British Board of Film Classification, Editor of Newcastle's Evening Chronicle from 1996-2002 Dame Sheila Sherlock, hepatologist Folkestone School for Girls