England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Bethlem Royal Hospital
Bethlem Royal Hospital known as St Mary Bethlehem, Bethlehem Hospital and Bedlam, is a psychiatric hospital in London. Its famous history has inspired several horror books, films and TV series, most notably Bedlam, a 1946 film with Boris Karloff; the hospital is associated with King's College London and, in partnership with the Institute of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, is a major centre for psychiatric research. It is part of the King's Health Partners academic health science centre and the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health; the hospital was near Bishopsgate just outside the walls of the City of London. It moved outside of Moorfields in the 17th century to St George's Fields in Southwark in the 19th century, before moving to its current location at Monks Orchard in West Wickham in 1930; the word "bedlam", meaning confusion, is derived from the hospital's nickname. Although the hospital became a modern psychiatric facility it was representative of the worst excesses of asylums in the era of lunacy reform.
The hospital was founded in 1247 as the Priory of the New Order of our Lady of Bethlehem in the city of London during the reign of Henry III. It was established by the Bishop-elect of Bethlehem, the Italian Goffredo de Prefetti, following a donation of personal property by the London alderman and former sheriff, Simon FitzMary; the original location was in the parish of St Botolph, Bishopsgate's ward, just beyond London's wall and where the south-east corner of Liverpool Street Station now stands. Bethlem was not intended as a hospital, in the clinical sense, much less as a specialist institution for the insane, but as a centre for the collection of alms to support the Crusader Church and to link England to the Holy Land. De Prefetti's need to generate income for the Crusader Church and restore the financial fortunes of his see had been occasioned by two misfortunes: his bishopric had suffered significant losses following the destructive conquest of Bethlehem by the Khwarazmian Turks in 1244, his immediate predecessor had further impoverished his cathedral chapter through the alienation of a considerable amount of its property.
The priory, obedient to the Church of Bethlehem, would house the poor and, if they visited, provide hospitality to the bishop and brothers of Bethlehem. Thus, Bethlem became a hospital, in medieval usage, "an institution supported by charity or taxes for the care of the needy"; the subordination of the priory's religious order to the bishops of Bethlehem was further underlined in the foundational charter, which stipulated that the prior and inmates were to wear a star upon their cloaks and capes to symbolise their obedience to the church of Bethlehem. During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, with its activities underwritten by episcopal and papal indulgences, the hospital's role as a centre for alms collection persisted, but its linkage to the Order of Bethlehem unravelled, putting its purpose and patronage in doubt. In 1346 the master of Bethlem, a position at that time granted to the most senior of London's Bethlemite brethren, applied to the city authorities seeking protection, it is doubtful whether the city provided substantial protection and much less that the mastership fell within their patronage but, dating from the 1346 petition, it played a role in the management of Bethlem's finances.
By this time the Bethlehemite bishops had relocated to Clamecy, under the surety of the Avignon papacy. This was significant as, throughout the reign of Edward III, the English monarchy had extended its patronage over ecclesiastical positions through the seizure of priories under the control of non-English religious houses; as a dependent house of the Order of Saint Bethlehem in Clamecy, Bethlem was vulnerable to seizure by the crown and this occurred in the 1370s when Edward III took control. The purpose of this appropriation was, in the context of the Hundred Years' War between France and England, to prevent funds raised by the hospital from enriching the French monarchy via the papal court. After this event the masters of the hospital, semi-autonomous figures in charge of its day-to-day management, were crown appointees and it became an secularised institution; the memory of its foundation became muddled. The removal of the last symbolic link to the Bethlehemites was confirmed in 1403 when it was reported that master and inmates no longer wore the star of Bethlehem.
In 1546 the Lord Mayor of London, Sir John Gresham, petitioned the crown to grant Bethlem to the city. This petition was successful and Henry VIII reluctantly ceded to the City of London "the custody and governance" of the hospital and of its "occupants and revenues"; this charter came into effect in 1547. The crown retained possession of the hospital. Following a brief interval when it was placed under the management of the governors of Christ's Hospital, from 1557 it was administered by the governors of Bridewell, a prototype house of correction at Blackfriars. Having been thus one of the few metropolitan hospitals to have survived the dissolution of the monasteries physically intact, this joint administration continued, not without interference by both the crown and city, until incorporation into the National Health Service in 1948, it is Europe's oldest extant psyc
Sir Henry Solomon Wellcome FRS was a British pharmaceutical entrepreneur. He founded the pharmaceutical company Burroughs Wellcome & Company with his colleague Silas Burroughs in 1880, one of the four large companies to merge to form GlaxoSmithKline. In addition, he left a large amount of capital for charitable work in his will, used to form the Wellcome Trust, one of the world's largest medical charities, he was a keen collector of medical artifacts which are now displayed at the Wellcome Collection. Wellcome was born in a frontier log cabin in what would become Almond, Wisconsin, to Rev. S. C. Wellcome, an itinerant missionary who travelled and preached in a covered wagon, Mary Curtis Wellcome, he had an early interest in medicine marketing. His first product, at the age of 16, was invisible ink, which he advertised in the Garden City Herald, he was brought up with a strict religious upbringing with respect to the temperance movement. His father was a strong member of the Second Adventist Church.
He was a freemason. In 1880, Wellcome established a pharmaceutical company, Burroughs Wellcome & Company, with his colleague Silas Mainville Burroughs, they introduced the selling of medicine in tablet form to England under the 1884 trademark "Tabloid". Medicines had been sold as powders or liquids. Burroughs and Wellcome introduced direct marketing to doctors, giving them free samples. In 1895, Burroughs died, aged 48, leaving the company in the hands of Wellcome; the company flourished and Wellcome set up several research laboratories linked to the drug company. In 1924, Wellcome consolidated all his commercial and non-commercial activities in one holding company, The Wellcome Foundation Ltd. In 1901 Wellcome married Gwendoline Maud Syrie Barnardo, a daughter of orphanage founder Thomas John Barnardo, they had one child, Henry Mounteney Wellcome, born 1903, sent to foster parents at the age of about three. He was considered to be sickly at the time, his parents were spending much time travelling.
The marriage was not happy, in 1909 the couple separated. After that Syrie had several affairs, including with the department store magnate Harry Gordon Selfridge, the author William Somerset Maugham with whom she had a child and married. Wellcome sued for divorce in 1915; the suit attracted large amounts of publicity that he had tried to avoid. Syrie never contested Henry's custody of Henry. In 1910, Wellcome became a British subject, he was knighted in 1932. In 1932, he was made an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, he died of pneumonia in The London Clinic in 1936. On his death, the Wellcome Trust was established. In his will, Wellcome vested the entire share capital of his company in individual trustees, who were charged with spending the income to further human and animal health; the Wellcome Trust is now one of the world's largest private biomedical charities. The first biography of Wellcome was commissioned by the Wellcome Trust in 1939, by A. W. Haggis, a member of staff at the Historical Medicine Museum Wellcome had established.
But, the Trustees were dissatisfied with the final draft of 1942, the biography was never published, although the drafts are available for consultation at the Wellcome Library. A biography of Wellcome was written by Robert Rhodes James and published in 1994. In 2009, An Infinity of Things: How Sir Henry Wellcome Collected the World, written by Frances Larson, was published by Oxford University Press, after both Wellcome's personal and business papers had been catalogued. After Wellcome's death, the income from the Foundation via dividends via more tax efficient deeds of covenant, was used to fund the Wellcome Trust, providing endowments for pharmacology departments to educate and train the researchers of the future. After changes in UK charity law the Foundation was sold to GSK and the receipts invested in a broad ranging portfolio; the Trust became the largest charity in the UK, providing funding for focus areas such as biomedical science, Technology transfer, Public engagement and Bioethics.
Grants and fellowships are available to recipients with goals of translating research into usable health products. The trust spends over $600 million a year in medical research training. In 1955, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund was established as the U. S. branch of the Wellcome pharmaceutical enterprise. Newly started programmes by the Wellcome Trust include the creation of research training programmes for physicians wishing to pursue careers in academic medicine, which the trust started in October 2010; the foundation supports clinicians' research to develop treatments for obesity using natural appetite suppression. Wellcome had a passion for aiming to create a Museum of Man, he bought for his collection anything related to medicine, including Napoleon's toothbrush on display at the Wellcome Collection. By the time of his death there were 125,000 medical objects in the collection, of over one million total. Most of the non-medical objects were dispersed after his death, he was a keen archaeologist, in particular digging for many years at Jebel Moya, hiring 4000 people to excavate.
He was one of the first investigators to use kite aerial photography on an archaeological site, with survi
Medical Research Council (United Kingdom)
The Medical Research Council is responsible for co-coordinating and funding medical research in the United Kingdom. It is part of United Kingdom Research and Innovation, which came into operation 1 April 2018, brings together the UK’s seven research councils, Innovate UK and Research England. UK Research and Innovation is answerable to, although politically independent from, the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy; the MRC focuses on high-impact research and has provided the financial support and scientific expertise behind a number of medical breakthroughs, including the development of penicillin and the discovery of the structure of DNA. Research funded by the MRC has produced 32 Nobel Prize winners to date; the MRC was founded as the Medical Research Committee and Advisory Council in 1913, with its prime role being the distribution of medical research funds under the terms of the National Insurance Act 1911. This was a consequence of the recommendation of the Royal Commission on Tuberculosis, which recommended the creation of a permanent medical research body.
The mandate was not limited to tuberculosis, however. In 1920, it became the Medical Research Council under Royal Charter. A supplementary Charter was formally approved by the Queen on 17 July 2003. In March 1933, MRC established the first scientific published medical patrol named British Journal of Clinical Research and Educational Advanced Medicine, as a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science by reporting new research, it contain articles that have been peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, scientific validity, allow researchers to keep up to date with the developments of their field and direct their own research. In August 2012, the creation of the MRC-NIHR Phenome Centre, a research centre for personalised medicine, was announced; the MRC-NIHR National Phenome Centre is based at Imperial College London and is a combination of inherited equipment from the anti-doping facilities used to test samples during the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. and additional items from the Centre's technology partners Bruker and Waters Corporation.
The Centre, led by Imperial College London and King's College London, is funded with two five-year grants of £5 million from the Medical Research Council and the National Institute for Health Research and was opened in June 2013. Important work carried out under MRC auspices has included: the identification of the dietary cause of rickets by Sir Edward Mellanby. Mellanby carried out human experimentation regarding vitamin A and C deficiencies on volunteers at the Sorby Research Institute. Three would receive the 1962 Nobel Prize for Medicine for their discovery; this would lead to the 2003 Nobel Prize. Scientists associated with the MRC have received a total of 32 Nobel Prizes, all in either Physiology or Medicine or Chemistry The MRC is one of seven Research Councils and since 6 June 2009 has been answerable to, although politically independent from, the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy. In the past, the MRC has been answerable to the Office of Science and Innovation, part of the Department of Trade and Industry.
The MRC is governed by a council. Its Council, which directs and oversees corporate policy and science strategy, ensures that the MRC is managed, makes policy and spending decisions. Council members are drawn from industry, academia and the NHS. Members are appointed by the Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. Daily management is in the hands of the Executive Chair. Members of the council chair specialist boards on specific areas of research. For specific subj
London County Council
London County Council was the principal local government body for the County of London throughout its existence from 1889 to 1965, the first London-wide general municipal authority to be directly elected. It was replaced by the Greater London Council; the LCC was the largest, most ambitious English municipal authority of its day. By the 19th century the City of London Corporation covered only a small fraction of metropolitan London. From 1855 the Metropolitan Board of Works had certain powers across the metropolis, but it was appointed rather than elected. Many powers remained in the hands of traditional bodies such as parishes and the counties of Middlesex and Kent; the creation of the LCC in 1889, as part of the Local Government Act 1888, was forced by a succession of scandals involving the MBW, was prompted by a general desire to create a competent government for the city, capable of strategising and delivering services effectively. While the Conservative government of the day would have preferred not to create a single body covering the whole of London, their electoral pact with Liberal Unionists led them to this policy.
It was established as a provisional council on 31 January 1889 and came into its powers on 21 March 1889. Shortly after its creation a Royal Commission on the Amalgamation of the City and County of London considered the means for amalgamation with the City of London. Although this was not achieved, it led to the creation of 28 metropolitan boroughs as lower tier authorities to replace the various local vestries and boards in 1900; the LCC inherited the powers of its predecessor the MBW, but had wider authority over matters such as education, city planning and council housing. It took over the functions of the London School Board in 1903, Dr C W Kimmins was appointed chief inspector of the education department in 1904. From 1899 the Council progressively acquired and operated the tramways in the county, which it electrified from 1903. By 1933, when the LCC Tramways were taken over by the London Passenger Transport Board, it was the largest tram operator in the United Kingdom, with more than 167 miles of route and over 1,700 tramcars.
One of the LCC's most important roles during the late 19th and early 20th century, was in the management of the expanding city and the re-development of its growing slums. In the Victorian era, new housing had been intentionally urban and large-scale tenement buildings dominated. Beginning in the 1930s, the LCC incentivised an increase in more suburban housing styles. A less-dense style of development, focusing on single family homes, was popular among London housing developers because it was believed that this would satisfy the working classes and provide insurance, "against Bolshevism," to quote one parliamentary secretary; the LCC set the standard for new construction at 12 houses per acre of land at a time when some London areas had as many as 80 housing units per acre. The passage of the Housing of the Working Classes Act in 1885 gave the LCC the power to compel the sale of land for housing development, a power, vital to the systematic rehousing that began under the council's early Progressive leadership.
The Totterdown Fields development at Tooting was the first large suburban-style development to be built under LCC authority, in 1903, was followed by developments at Roehampton and Becontree. By 1938, 76,877 units of housing had been built under the auspices of the LCC in the city and its periphery, an astonishing number given the previous pace of development. Many of these new housing developments were genuinely working-class, though the poorest could afford subsidised rents, they relied on an expanding London Underground network that ferried workers en masse to places of employment in central London. These housing developments were broadly successful, they resisted the slummification that blighted so many Victorian tenement developments; the success of these commuter developments constructed by the LCC in the periphery of the city is, "one of the more remarkable achievements in London government, contributed much to the marked improvement of conditions between the wars for the capital's working classes."
The LCC undertook between 1929 to standardise and clarify street names across London. Many streets in different areas of the city had similar or identical names, the rise of the car as a primary mode of transportation in the city made these names unworkable. In an extreme case, there were over 60 streets called "Cross Street" spread across London when the LCC began its process of systematic renaming; these were given names from an approved list, maintained by the LCC, containing only "suitably English" names. If street names were deemed un-English, they were slated for change. By 1939, the council had the following powers and duties: † Denotes a power administered by the City of London Corporation within the City; the LCC used the Spring Gardens headquarters inherited from the Metropolitan Board of Works. The building had been designed by Frederick Marrable, the MBW's superintending architect, dated from 1860. Opinions on the merits of the building varied: the Survey of London described it as "well balanced" while the architectural correspondent of The Times was less enthusiastic.
He summarised the building as "of the Palladian type of four storeys with two orders, Ionic above and Corinthian below as if its designer had looked rather hastily at the banqueting house of Inigo Jones." The most impressive feature was the curving or elliptical spiral staircase leading to the principal floor. The origin
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Henry Maudsley FRCP was a pioneering British psychiatrist, commemorated in the Maudsley Hospital in London and in the annual Maudsley Lecture of the Royal College of Psychiatrists. Maudsley was born on an isolated farm near Giggleswick in the North Riding of Yorkshire and educated at Giggleswick School. Maudsley lost his mother at an early age, his aunt cared for him, teaching him poetry which he would recite to the servants, secured for him a top tutor and an expensive apprenticeship to University College London medical school. He earned ten Gold Medals and graduated with an M. D. degree in 1857, though is said to have avoided subjects and clinical work he found onerous and to have antagonised his teachers. Maudsley had intended to pursue a career in surgery, but according to his autobiography, he changed his mind when he failed to receive a reply to his first application: it had gone to his previous address, he decided to leave the country and work for the East India Company, although in the event he never did.
It would require him first to do a stint in an asylum, so he spent nine months at the West Riding Asylum in Wakefield, followed less by a shorter period at the Essex County Asylum in Brentwood. At the age of 23, Maudsley was appointed medical superintendent at the small, middle-class Manchester Royal Lunatic Asylum in Cheadle Royal. Despite being inexperienced clinically and administratively, he managed to raise patient numbers and income, he returned to London in 1862, taking up residence in Cavendish Square. In 1865 he failed to gain the position of Physician to the Bethlem Royal Hospital, but succeeded at the West London Hospital. So ended Maudsley's brief period in public and charitable asylums. In the same year he was appointed co-editor of the Journal of Mental Science, an influential position he retained for 15 years. Maudsley was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and delivered their Gulstonian Lectures in 1870 on Body and Mind; the text of Maudsley's lectures was studied by Charles Darwin in the preparation of his The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.
Maudsley was appointed Professor of Medical Jurisprudence at University College London from 1869 to 1879. Maudsley married John Conolly's daughter, Ann Conolly, in February 1866, from 1866 took over the running of Conolly's private mental asylum, Lawn House, housing six wealthy women, until 1874, he withdrew from public life and focused on authoring and on an lucrative and secretive private consultancy for the wealthy aristocratic, in the West End of London. Maudsley acquired a reputation as an outstanding essayist on literary topics. An early hit was a spectacular essay on Edgar Allan Poe, he made numerous contributions to the Journal of Mental Science. His position as Britain's foremost mental specialist was sealed by his acquaintance with Charles Darwin and other leading Victorian intellectuals and by his magisterial textbooks The Physiology and Pathology of Mind and Mind and Mental Responsibility in Health and Disease, his popularity was exemplified by his influence on many novels by Rosa Nouchette Carey.
Maudsley adhered to degeneration theory and believed that inherited "taints" were exaggerated through succeeding generations. He argued that alcoholism was the most frequent trigger of inherited degeneracy, that drunkenness in one generation would lead to frenzied need for drink in the second, hypochondria in the third, idiocy in the fourth. However, having contributed to the British uptake of degeneration theory for over two decades, by the 1890s he was cautioning about it being used in a meaninglessly vague way, his views on maternity have been critiqued for displaying a "revulsion to both parturition and the care of an infant," which he claimed was an expression of the rational objective truth. He was challenged at the time for his negative views on women. Maudsley has been described as "a prime example of how the medical establishment naturalised and reinforced social divisions and hierarchies during the latter part of the 19th century." He has been described as "consistently inconsistent".
Maudsley was agnostic, as such critical of religion and reports of ostensibly supernatural phenomena. In his book Natural Causes and Supernatural Seemings he wrote that so-called supernatural experiences were disorders of the mind and "malobservations and misinterpretations of nature", his book is seen as an early text in the field of anomalistic psychology. In 1907, Maudsley collaborated with Frederick Mott, a neuropathologist, to make an offer to London County Council to found a new Maudsley Hospital, for which Maudsley donated £30,000, with the council finding another £30,000 plus; this was to be a new mental hospital that would treat early and acute cases and have an out-patient clinic. The hospital housed teaching and research; the buildings were ready in 1915, temporarily used for war veterans, opened in 1923. A special Act of Parliament had made voluntary treatment there financially possible. Maudsley's £30,000 has been described as an astonishingly high sum, he still had at least £60,000 spare upon his death.
A bronze bust of Maudsley overlooks the main staircase at the Institute of Psychiatry next to the Maudsley Hospital. In his years, Maudsley became something of a recluse, resigning from the Medico-Psychological Association and, in some scattered writings, expressing regret at his career choice of psychiatry, he watched cricket and sent postcards. While earlier he had argu