An institute of technology is an institution of tertiary education that specializes in engineering, applied science, natural sciences. The institutes of technology and polytechnics have been in existence since at least the 18th century, but became popular after World War II with the expansion of engineering and applied science education, associated with the new needs created by industrialization; the world's first institution of technology, the Berg-Schola, was founded by the Court Chamber of Vienna in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary, in 1735 in order to train specialists of precious metal and copper mining according to the requirements of the industrial revolution in Hungary. The oldest German Institute of Technology is the Braunschweig University of Technology, founded in 1745 as "Collegium Carolinum". Another exception is the École Polytechnique, which has educated French élites since its foundation in 1794. In some cases, polytechnics or institutes of technology are engineering schools or technical colleges.
In several countries, like Germany, the Netherlands and Turkey, institutes of technology are institutions of higher education and have been accredited to award academic degrees and doctorates. Famous examples are the Istanbul Technical University, ETH Zurich, İYTE, Delft University of Technology and RWTH Aachen, all considered universities. In countries like Iran, Malaysia, Singapore or the United Kingdom, there is a significant and confused distinction between polytechnics and universities. In the UK a binary system of higher education emerged consisting of polytechnics. Polytechnics offered university equivalent degrees in STEM subjects from bachelor's, master's and PhD that were validated and governed at the national level by the independent UK Council for National Academic Awards. In 1992 UK polytechnics were designated as universities which meant they could award their own degrees; the CNAA was disbanded. The UK's first polytechnic, the Royal Polytechnic Institution, was founded in 1838 in Regent Street, London.
In Ireland the term "institute of technology" is the more favored synonym of a "regional technical college" though the latter is the correct term. In a number of countries, although being today considered similar institutions of higher learning across many countries and institutes of technology used to have a quite different statute among each other, its teaching competences and organizational history. In many cases "polytechnic" were elite technological universities concentrating on applied science and engineering and may be a former designation for a vocational institution, before it has been granted the exclusive right to award academic degrees and can be called an "institute of technology". A number of polytechnics providing higher education is a result of a formal upgrading from their original and historical role as intermediate technical education schools. In some situations, former polytechnics or other non-university institutions have emerged through an administrative change of statutes, which included a name change with the introduction of new designations like "institute of technology", "polytechnic university", "university of applied sciences" or "university of technology" for marketing purposes.
Such emergence of so many upgraded polytechnics, former vocational education and technical schools converted into more university-like institutions has caused concern where the lack of specialized intermediate technical professionals lead to industrial skill shortages in some fields, being associated to an increase of the graduate unemployment rate. This is the case in those countries, where the education system is not controlled by the state and any institution can grant degrees. Evidence have shown a decline in the general quality of teaching and graduate's preparation for the workplace, due to the fast-paced conversion of that technical institutions to more advanced higher level institutions. Mentz and Van der Merwe argue that all the tools are in place to promote the debate on the place of technology in higher education in general and in universities of technology and they posit several questions for the debate. In the so-called Latin American docta the main higher institution advocates to the study of technology is the National Technological University which has brand ramifications through all the country geographic space in the way of Regional Faculties.
The Buenos Aires Institute of Technology is other important recognized institute of technology with renowned and prestige in the country. 1970s–1990sDuring the 1970s to early 1990s, the term was used to describe state owned and funded technical schools that offered both vocational and higher education. They were part of the College of Advanced Education system. In the 1990s most of these formed new ones of their own; these new u
Vito Taccone was an Italian road cyclist. Taccone made his professional debut in 1961. In the same year he won the Giro di Lombardia. During the 1964 Tour de France, he was accused of causing other cyclists to fall, leading to a fight with Spanish racer Fernando Manzaneque and his non-appearance in following tours, his other victories include one Giro del Piemonte, one Giro della Toscana, one Milano–Torino and five stages overall at the 1963 Giro d'Italia. In June 2007, he was charged with selling counterfeit and stolen clothing. Media related to Vito Taccone at Wikimedia Commons La Stampa obituary Vito Taccone at Cycling Archives
Lark Hill Sports Complex is a multi-purpose sporting and recreation reserve at Lark Hill in Port Kennedy, Western Australia. It is located on 270 hectares of land 60 km south of Perth, is owned by the City of Rockingham. Stage one of the development costing $24 million was opened in 2008. Lark Hill provides sporting facilities for rugby union, rugby league, touch football, soccer and cricket. There is a synthetic field hockey pitch; the complex has lighting suitable for hosting night time events on all sporting fields, multiple changing room facilities, grandstands for spectator sports events. It was one of the home grounds for the Perth Spirit team in the National Rugby Championship in 2014; the second development stage of Lark Hill, to expand the Australian rules football facilities, was dropped from the Rockingham City 10-year business plan. Sports groups with tenancies at the complex as of 2019 include: Cricket: Rockingham-Mandurah Mariners District Cricket Club Hockey: Rockingham Redbacks District Hockey Club Rugby league: Rockingham Coastal Sharks Rugby League Football Club Rugby union: Rockingham Rugby Union Football Club Soccer: Rockingham City Football Club Softball: Rockingham and Districts Softball Association Satellite Image of Lark Hill Sports Complex