The Latin New Car Assessment Programme is an automobile safety assessment programme founded in 2010 by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile Region IV, FIA Foundation, International Consumer Research & Testing and the Gonzalo Rodríguez Foundation. The initiative has support from the Inter-American Development Bank, following the Euro NCAP and other schemes around the world, its aim it to test the active and passive safety of new cars sold in Latin America and the Caribbean. Latin NCAP includes rating for adult rating for child occupant. Euro NCAP ASEAN NCAP JNCAP Official website Overview of Latin NCAP tests Media related to LatinNCAP at Wikimedia Commons
An airbag is a vehicle occupant restraint system using a bag designed to inflate rapidly quickly deflate during a collision. It consists of a flexible fabric bag, inflation module and impact sensor; the purpose of the airbag is to provide the occupants a soft cushioning and restraint during a crash event. It can reduce injuries between the interior of the vehicle; the airbag provides an energy absorbing surface between the vehicle's occupants and a steering wheel, instrument panel, as well as the body pillars and windshield. Modern vehicles may contain multiple airbag modules in various configurations including, passenger, side curtain, seat-mounted side impact, knee bolster, inflatable seat-belt, front right and left side sensors and pedestrian airbag modules. During a crash, the vehicle's crash sensors provide crucial information to the airbag electronic controller unit, including collision type and severity of impact. Using this information, the airbag electronic controller unit's crash algorithm determines if the crash event meets the criteria for deployment and triggers various firing circuits to deploy one or more airbag modules within the vehicle.
Working as a supplemental restraint system to the vehicle's seat-belt systems, airbag module deployments are triggered through a pyrotechnic process, designed to be used once. Newer side-impact airbag modules consist of compressed air cylinders that are triggered in the event of a side on vehicle impact; the first commercial designs were introduced in passenger automobiles during the 1970s with limited success and caused some fatalities. Broad commercial adoption of airbags occurred in many markets during the late 1980s and early 1990s with a driver airbag, a front passenger airbag as well on some cars. Airbags are considered a "passive" restraint and act as a supplement to "active" restraints, i.e. seat belts. Because no action by a vehicle occupant is required to activate or use the airbag, it is considered a "passive" device; this is in contrast to seat belts, which are considered "active" devices because the vehicle occupant must act to enable them. This terminology is not related to active and passive safety, which are systems designed to prevent accidents in the first place, systems designed to minimize the effects of accidents once they occur.
In this usage, a car Anti-lock Braking System will qualify as an active-safety device, while both its seatbelts and airbags will qualify as passive-safety devices. Further terminological confusion can arise from the fact that passive devices and systems—those requiring no input or action by the vehicle occupant—can operate independently in an active manner. Vehicle safety professionals are careful in their use of language to avoid this sort of confusion, though advertising principles sometimes prevent such semantic caution in the consumer marketing of safety features. Further confusing the terminology, the aviation safety community uses the terms "active" and "passive" in the opposite sense from the automotive industry; the airbag "for the covering of aeroplane and other vehicle parts" traces its origins to a United States patent submitted in 1919 by two dentists, Harold Round & Arthur Parrott of Birmingham and approved in 1920. Air-filled bladders were in use as early as 1951; the airbag for automobile use is credited independently to the American John W. Hetrick who filed for an airbag patent on 5 August 1952, granted #2,649,311 by the United States Patent Office on 18 August 1953.
German engineer Walter Linderer, who filed German patent #896,312 on 6 October 1951, was issued on 12 November 1953 three months after American John Hetrick. Hetrick and Linderer's airbags were both based on a compressed air system, either released by spring, bumper contact or by the driver. Research during the 1960s showed that compressed air could not inflate the mechanically based airbags fast enough for maximum safety, leading to the current chemical and electrically based airbags. In patent applications, manufacturers sometimes use the term "inflatable occupant restraint systems". Hetrick was an industrial member of the United States Navy, his airbag was designed based on his experiences with compressed air from torpedoes during his service in the Navy, combined with a desire to provide protection for his family in their automobile during accidents. Hetrick worked with the major American automobile corporations at the time, but they chose not to invest in it. Although airbags are now required in every automobile sold in the United States, Hetrick's 1951 patent filing serves as an example of a "valuable" invention with little economic value to its inventor because its first commercial use did not occur until after the patent expired when in 1971, it was installed as an experiment in a few Ford cars.
In 1964, a Japanese automobile engineer, Yasuzaburou Kobori, started developing an airbag "safety net" system that harnesses an explosive to inflate an airbag, for which he was awarded patents in 14 countries. He died in 1975 without seeing widespread adoption of airbag systems. In 1967, a breakthrough occurred in the development of airbag crash sensors, when Allen K. Breed invented a mechanically-based ball-in-tube component for crash detection, an electromechanical sensor with a steel ball attached to a tube by a magnet that would inflate an airbag in under 30 milliseconds. A small explosion of sodium azide instead of compressed air was used for the first time during inflation. Breed Corporation marketed this innovation first to Chrysler. A similar "Auto-Ceptor" crash-restraint, developed by the Eato
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is an agency of the Executive Branch of the U. S. government, part of the Department of Transportation. It describes its mission as "Save lives, prevent injuries, reduce vehicle-related crashes."As part of its activities, NHTSA is charged with writing and enforcing Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards as well as regulations for motor vehicle theft resistance and fuel economy, as part of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy system. NHTSA licenses vehicle manufacturers and importers, allows or blocks the import of vehicles and safety-regulated vehicle parts, administers the vehicle identification number system, develops the anthropomorphic dummies used in safety testing, as well as the test protocols themselves, provides vehicle insurance cost information; the agency has asserted preemptive regulatory authority over greenhouse gas emissions, but this has been disputed by such state regulatory agencies as the California Air Resources Board. Another of NHTSA's major activities is the creation and maintenance of the data files maintained by the National Center for Statistics and Analysis.
In particular, the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, has become a resource for traffic safety research not only in the United States, but throughout the world. Research contributions using FARS by researchers from many countries appear in many non-U. S. Technical publications, provide a significant database and knowledge bank on the subject. With this database, conclusive analysis of crash causes remains difficult and controversial, with experts debating the veracity and statistical validity of results. In 1964 and 1966, public pressure grew in the United States to increase the safety of cars, culminating with the publishing of Unsafe at Any Speed, by Ralph Nader, an activist lawyer, "Accidental Death and Disability: The Neglected Disease of Modern Society" by the National Academy of Sciences. In 1966, Congress held a series of publicized hearings regarding highway safety, passed legislation to make installation of seat belts mandatory, enacted Pub. L. 89–563, Pub. L. 89–564, Pub. L. 89–670 which created the U.
S. Department of Transportation on October 15, 1966; this legislation created several predecessor agencies which would become NHTSA, including the National Traffic Safety Agency, the National Highway Safety Agency, the National Highway Safety Bureau. Once the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards came into effect, vehicles not certified by the maker or importer as compliant with US safety standards were no longer legal to import into the United States. Congress established the NHTSA in 1970 with the Highway Safety Act of 1970. In 1972, the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act expanded NHTSA's scope to include consumer information programs. Since automobiles have become far better in protecting their occupants in vehicle impacts; the number of deaths on American highways hovers around 33,000 annually, a lower death rate per vehicle-mile traveled than in the 1960s. NHTSA has conducted numerous high-profile investigations of automotive safety issues, including the Audi 5000/60 Minutes affair, the Ford Explorer rollover problem and the Toyota: Sticky accelerator pedal problem.
The agency has introduced a proposal to mandate Electronic Stability Control on all passenger vehicles by the 2012 model year. This technology was first brought to public attention with the Swedish moose test. In 1958, under the auspices of the United Nations, a consortium called the Economic Commission for Europe had been established to commonize vehicle regulations across Europe so as to standardize best practices in vehicle design and equipment and minimize technical barriers to pan-European vehicle trade and traffic; this became the World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations, which began to promulgate what would become the UN's ECE Regulations on vehicle design and safety performance. Many of the world's countries accept or require similar standards to the U. S. or ECE compliant vehicles. The U. S blocks the importation of vehicles that do not meet the higher U. S. standards, including those built to ECE Regulations. Because of the unavailability in America of certain vehicle models, a gray market arose in the late 1970s.
This provided an legal method to acquire vehicles only sold overseas. The success of the gray market, ate into the business of Mercedes-Benz of North America Inc. which launched a successful congressional lobbying effort to eliminate this alternative for consumers in 1988, despite the lack of any evidence suggesting grey-market vehicles were less safe than those built to comply with U. S. regulations. As a result, it is no longer possible to import foreign vehicles into the United States as a personal import, with few exceptions—primarily Canadian cars with safety regulations similar to the United States, vehicles imported temporarily for display or research purposes. In practice the gray market involved a few thousand luxury cars annually, before its virtual elimination in 1988. In 1998, NHTSA exempted vehicles older than 25 years from the rules it administers, since these are presumed to be collector vehicles. In 1999, certain low production volume specialist vehicles were exempt for "Show and Display" purposes.
However, the ban on newer vehicles considered safe in countries with lower vehicle-related death rates has led some to claim that the main effect of NHTSA's regulatory activity is to protect the U. S. market for a modified oligopoly consisting of the three U. S.-based automakers and the Amer
The Ford Edge is a mid-size crossover SUV manufactured by Ford Motor Company. The first generation Edge is based on the Ford CD3 platform shared with the first generation Ford Fusion, Mazda CX-9, first and second generation Mazda 6 and Lincoln MKX. Ford markets the second-generation Edge in European markets; the Edge uses Ford's CD4 platform. The vehicle is assembled at Ford's Oakville Assembly, Canada assembly plant; the first generation Edge had debuted at the 2006 Detroit Auto Show with production starting in January 2006 as a 2007 model year. The SE includes cloth seats, single-zone manual air-conditioning, AM/FM stereo with single-disc CD/MP3 player, 17-inch painted aluminum wheels; the SEL includes unique cloth seats, 6-way power driver's seat, premium AM/FM stereo with 6-disc in-dash CD/MP3 player, leather-wrapped steering wheel with secondary audio controls, 18-inch painted aluminum wheels. The Limited includes leather-trimmed seats, optionally, 6-way power front passenger fold-flat seat, EasyFold second-row seat back release, dual-zone electronic automatic temperature control, SYNC in-car connectivity system, 18-inch premium chrome-clad aluminum wheels.
The Limited trim level replaced the SEL Plus in 2008. The Sport trim level debuted with sales beginning as a 2009 model; the trim level includes leather-trimmed with grey faux suede inserts, reclining 60/40 fold-flat seats with center fold-down armrest, second-row seat back release, premium AM/FM stereo with 6-disc in-dash CD/MP3 player, SYNC in-car connectivity system, larger diameter chrome exhaust tips, 20-inch premium chrome-clad aluminum wheels, all body-colored trim and optional 22-inch wheels. Standard transmission is a 6F50 6-speed automatic transmission. Safety equipment includes standard dual front airbags, front side-impact airbags, side curtain airbags, anti-lock brakes, traction control, electronic stability control, a tire-pressure monitoring system. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Crash Test Ratings Frontal Driver: Frontal Passenger: Side Impact: Rollover: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 2011 Edge FWD Crash Ratings Frontal Driver: Frontal Passenger: Side Driver: Side Passenger: Side Pole: Ford Edge recognized as one of "Best Cars for Families" in 2007 by AAA and Parents Magazine.
Edge earns IIHS "Top Safety Pick" rating for models built after January 2007 3.5 L Duratec 35 V6 named one of the world's "10 Best Engines" by Ward. Ford Edge named "2007 Urban Truck of the Year" by On Inc.. Edge wins J. D. Power and Associates' 2007 "APEAL Award" Ford Canada announced in June 2007, that a gasoline-electric hybrid version of the Edge was to debut in the 2010 model year; the model was expected to use a new hybrid system from Ford, pairing an electric motor with a V6 engine. A concept of the Ford Edge with HySeries Drive was shown at the 2007 Washington Auto Show and the automaker claimed potential future production; this was a hybrid electric vehicle that used hydrogen fuel along with plug-in charging of its lithium-ion battery pack, for a combined range of over 320 kilometres. The HySeries system was introduced in the Ford Airstream concept from the 2007 Detroit Auto Show; the updated Ford Edge was revealed at the 2010 Chicago Auto Show with production starting on February 12, 2010 as a 2011 model.
Exterior changes include a new front fascia, a revised bumper, while the revamped interior features upgraded materials and capacitive touch controls in place of some conventional buttons and switches, which can be seen on the second-generation Lincoln MKX. Engines offered for the updated first generation: a 2.0 L EcoBoost I4 engine, a 3.5 L Duratec with Ti-VCT making 285 hp and 253 lb⋅ft of torque, the Sport model had the same 3.7 L Duratec engine as the 2011 Lincoln MKX with 305 hp and 280 lb⋅ft of torque. The turbocharger in the new 2.0 L engine is designed for 10 years. In the American Range: The SE includes cloth-trimmed seats, single-zone manual air-conditioning, steering wheel controls, 17-inch painted aluminum wheels; the SEL includes everything in the SE plus unique cloth-trimmed seats, 6-way power driver's seat, dual-zone electronic automatic temperature controls, leather-wrapped steering wheel with cruise control, 5-way switch pads and secondary audio controls, 18-inch painted aluminum wheels, reverse sensing system, supplemental parking lamps.
The Limited includes everything in the SEL plus leather-trimmed seats, 10-way heated power driver's seat, Sony audio system with HD radio with 12 speakers in 10 locations, MyFord Touch with two driver-configurable 4.2-inch color LCD displays in cluster and 8-inch color LCD display in center stack, Ford Sync including media hub with 2 USB ports, SD card reader and video input jacks, 18-inch chrome-clad aluminum wheels with optional 20-inch chrome-clad aluminum wheels, rear view camera, 6-way heated power, fold-flat front passenger seat. In Israel this trim is called SEL Plus. Limited options include HID headlamps, BLIS, Adaptive Cruise Control; the Sport includes the 3.7 L Twin-independent Variable Cam Timing V6 engine from the Mustang, 6-Speed SelectShift Automatic transmission with paddle activation, unique Charcoal Black leather-trimmed seats with Silver Smoke Metallic inserts, 22-inch polished aluminum wheel with Tuxedo Black spoke accents, body-color front and rear lower fascia, 4-inch chrome oval dual exhaust tips, body-color side lower cladding and rocker molding.
For 2015, the Ford Edge was redesigned with a new Taurus and Explorer-like grille, new headlights, LED combination taillights, increased interior room, a rear-view camera. This generation of the Edge comes with a
Lane departure warning system
In road-transport terminology, a lane departure warning system is a mechanism designed to warn the driver when the vehicle begins to move out of its lane on freeways and arterial roads. These systems are designed to minimize accidents by addressing the main causes of collisions: driver error and drowsiness. In 2009 the U. S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration began studying whether to mandate lane departure warning systems and frontal collision warning systems on automobiles. There are three types of systems: Systems which warn the driver if the vehicle is leaving its lane Systems which warn the driver and, if no action is taken, automatically take steps to ensure the vehicle stays in its lane Systems which take over steering, keep the car centered in the lane, ask the driver to take over in challenging situations. Lane warning/keeping systems are based on: Video sensors in the visual domain Laser sensors Infrared sensors A lane detection system used behind the lane departure warning system uses the principle of Hough transform and Canny edge detector to detect lane lines from realtime camera images fed from the front-end camera of the automobile.
A basic flowchart of how a lane detection algorithm works to help lane departure warning is shown in the figures. The first production lane departure warning system in Europe was developed by the United States company Iteris for Mercedes Actros commercial trucks; the system debuted in 2000, is now available on most trucks sold in Europe. In 2002, the Iteris system became available on Freightliner Trucks' North American vehicles. In both these systems, the driver is warned of unintentional lane departures by an audible rumble strip sound generated on the side of the vehicle drifting out of the lane. No warnings are generated if, before crossing the lane, an active turn signal is given by the driver. Nissan Motors began offering a lane-keeping support system on the Cima sold in Japan. Toyota introduced its Lane Monitoring System on models such as the Caldina and Alphard sold in Japan. Honda launched its Lane Keep Assist System on the Inspire, it provides up to 80% of steering torque to keep the car in its lane on the highway.
It is designed to make highway driving less cumbersome, by minimizing the driver's steering input. A camera, mounted at the top of the windshield just above the rear-view mirror, scans the road ahead in a 40-degree radius, picking up the dotted white lines used to divide lane boundaries on the highway; the computer recognizes that the driver is "locked into" a particular lane, monitors how sharp a curve is, uses factors such as yaw and vehicle speed to calculate the steering input required. In 2004, the first passenger-vehicle system available in North America was jointly developed by Iteris and Valeo for Nissan on the Infiniti FX and the M vehicles. In this system, a camera monitors the lane markings on a roadway. A warning tone is triggered to alert the driver. In 2004, Toyota added a Lane Keeping Assist feature to the Crown Majesta which can apply a small counter-steering force to aid in keeping the vehicle in its lane. Citroën became the first in Europe to offer LDWS on its 2005 C4 and C5 models, its C6.
This system uses infrared sensors to monitor lane markings on the road surface, a vibration mechanism in the seat alerts the driver of deviations. Lexus introduced a multi-mode Lane Keeping Assist system on the LS 460, which utilizes stereo cameras and more sophisticated object- and pattern-recognition processors; this system can issue an audiovisual warning and steer the vehicle to hold its lane. It applies counter-steering torque to help ensure the driver does not over-correct or "saw" the steering wheel while attempting to return the vehicle to its proper lane. If the radar cruise control system is engaged, the Lane Keep function works to help reduce the driver's steering-input burden by providing steering torque. In 2007, Audi began offering its Audi Lane Assist feature for the first time on the Q7; this system, unlike the Japanese "assist" systems, will not intervene in actual driving. The LDW System in Audi is based on a forward-looking video-camera in its visible range, instead of the downward-looking infrared sensors in the Citroën.
In 2007, Infiniti offered a newer version of its 2004 system, which it called the Lane Departure Prevention system. This feature utilizes the vehicle stability control system to help assist the driver maintain lane position by applying gentle brake pressure on the appropriate wheels. General Motors introduced Lane Departure Warning on its 2008 model-year Cadillac STS, DTS, Buick Lucerne models; the General Motors system warns the driver with an audible tone and a warning indicator on the dashboard. BMW introduced Lane Departure Warning on the 5 Series and 6 Series, using a vibrating steering wheel to warn the driver of unintended departures. In late 2013 BMW updated the system with Traffic Jam Assistant appearing first on the redesigned BMW X5, this system works below 25 miles per hour. Volvo introduced the Lane Departure Warning system and the Drive
The Chevrolet Malibu is a mid-size car manufactured and marketed by Chevrolet from 1964 to 1983 and since 1997. The Malibu began as a trim-level of the Chevrolet Chevelle, becoming its own model line in 1978. A rear-wheel-drive intermediate, GM revived the Malibu nameplate as a front-wheel-drive car in 1997. Named after coastal community of Malibu, the Malibu was marketed in North America, with the eighth generation introduced globally; the first Malibu was a top-line subseries of the mid-sized Chevrolet Chevelle from 1964 to 1972. Malibus were available in a full range of bodystyles including a four-door sedan, two-door Sport Coupe hardtop and two-seat station wagon. Interiors were more lavish than lesser Chevelle 300 and 300 Deluxe models thanks to patterned cloth and vinyl upholstery, deep-twist carpeting, deluxe steering wheel and other items; the Malibu SS was available only as a two-door Sport Coupe hardtop or convertible and added bucket seats, center console, engine gauges and special wheelcovers, offered with any six-cylinder or V8 engine offered in other Chevelles - with the top option being a 300 hp 327 cu in in 1964.
For 1965, Malibus and other Chevelles received new grilles and revised tail sections and had the exhaust pipes replaced but carried over the same basic styling and bodystyles from 1964. The Malibu and Malibu SS models continued as before with the SS featuring a blacked-out grille and special wheelcovers. Top engine option was now a 350 hp 327 cu in V8; the Malibu SS was replaced in 1966 by a new Chevelle SS-396 series that included a big-block 396 cu in V8 engine, heavy duty suspension and other performance equipment. Other SS-396 equipment was similar to Malibu Sport Coupes and convertibles including an all-vinyl bench seat. Bucket seats and console with floor shift were now optional on the SS and for 1966 with the SS now denoting a car with a big-block engine, the bucket seats became a new option on the regular Malibu Sport Coupe and convertible, upon which any six-cylinder or small-block V8 could be ordered. New for 1966 was the Chevelle Malibu four-door Sport Sedan hardtop. Styling revisions on all 1966 Chevelles including more rounded styling similar to the full-sized Chevrolets with sail panels and tunneled rear windows featured on two-door hardtop coupes.
For 1967, the same assortment of bodystyles were continued with styling changes similar to all other Chevelles including a new grille and revised tail section with taillights that wrapped around to the side. New this year was a Chevelle Malibu Concours station wagon with simulated woodgrain exterior side panel trim. Front disc brakes were a new option along with a stereo 8-track tape player; the same assortment of drivetrains carried over from 1966 with the top 327 cu in V8 dropped from 350 to 325 hp. Malibus and all other Chevelles were restyled for 1968 with semi-fastback rooflines on two-door hardtops and wheelbases split to 112 inches } on two-door models and 116 for four-door sedans and station wagons. Engine offerings included a new 307 cu in V8 rated at 200 hp that replaced the 283 cu in V8 that had served as the base V8 since the Chevelle's introduction in 1964. Inside was a new instrument panel featuring round gauges in square pods similar to what would appear in Camaros the following year.
New for 1968 was the Concours luxury option for Malibu sedans and coupes that included upgraded cloth or vinyl bench seats, carpeted lower door panels, woodgrain trim on dash and door panels, a center console and floor shifter and Concours nameplates. There was again a top-line Concours Estate wagon with simulated woodgrain trim that had the same interior and exterior appointments as the Malibu sedans. New grilles and rear decks with revised taillights highlighted other Chevelles. Instrument panels were revised and front seat headrests were now standard equipment due to federal safety mandate; the ignition switch moved from the instrument panel to the steering column and doubled as a steering wheel lock. The 307 continued as the base V8, but the 327 engines were replaced by new 350 cu in V8s of 255 and 300 hp. GM's three-speed Turbo Hydra-Matic transmission only offered on SS-396 Chevelles, was now available on all models with all engines was phased in with the small blocks optioned, including the six-cylinder and small-block V8s which in previous years were only available with the two-speed Powerglide.
A police package Chevelle 300 was available for the 1969 model year which came with the L35 code 396 - it was built in few numbers when the Chrysler Corporation held the market for its law enforcement orders. Some 1964 and 1965 Chevelle 300s came with the BO7 police package but was powered with the inline six. For 1970, the Malibu was the only series of Chevelle offered, aside from the SS-396 and new SS-454, as the low-line 300 and 300 Deluxe models were discontinued for the American market, which eliminated the two-door pillared coupes from the Chevelle lineup – which were never included in the Malibu series. New grilles, rear decks with taillights moved into the bumper and revised Sport Coupe roofline highlighted this year's chang
Chevrolet Bel Air
The Chevrolet Bel Air was a full-size car produced by Chevrolet for the 1950–1981 model years. Only the two door hardtops in the Chevrolet model range were designated with the Bel Air name from 1950 to 1952, as distinct from the Styleline and Fleetline models for the remainder of the range. With the 1953 model year the Bel Air name was changed from a designation for a unique body shape to a premium level of trim applied across a number of body styles; the Bel Air continued with various other trim level designations until US production ceased in 1975. Production continued for its home market only, through the 1981 model year. For 1950, Chevrolet came up with a revolutionary style; the Bel Air Hardtop was styled as a convertible with a non-detachable solid roof. Models like this had been around since the 1920s, including early Chevrolets, with no degree of success, but the newly revised idea, sweeping the GM line from Chevrolet to Cadillac, had found its era. First year production reached only 76,662 as buyers cautiously tested the revised concept.
The car cost $1,741 and weighed 3,225 lb. Front suspension was independent, named "knee-action"; the first Bel Airs of this era shared only their front sheet metal ahead of the A pillar with the rest of the range. The windshield, doors and trunk were common with the Styline DeLuxe Convertible Coupe, however the roof, rear quarters and rear windows were unique; the chassis and mechanicals were common with the rest of the passenger car range, the overall appearance was the same as the rest of the range, except that the roof line was lower and the unique three piece rear window gave it a longer and more balanced look. The first Bel Airs were only available with the "DeLuxe" premium trim specification. Apart from the usual annual grille and trim changes, the 1951–1952 Bel Air differed from the earlier 1950 model with introduction of the higher and squarer rear guards that were across the whole range. In 1953 Chevrolet renamed its series, the Bel Air name was applied to the premium model range. Two lower series, the 150 and 210 emerged.
The 1953 Chevrolet was advertised as "Entirely new through and through," due to the restyled body panels and rear ends. However these Chevrolets had similar frame and mechanicals to the 1949–1952 cars; the 1953–1954 Chevrolet range had a unique and somewhat awkward look about it and much of this stemmed from its role as a transitional model to introduce a raft of changes that were necessary to pave the way for the introduction of the 1955–1957 range that established the Bel Air as a cultural icon. The pre-war technology, such as torque tube drive, six-cylinder splash feed engines, knee action suspension, split windshields, etc. of the early models was phased out and the foundations for the first post war modern Chevrolet passenger car were finalized in this 1953–1954 model. The Bel Air series featured a wide chrome strip of molding from the rear fender bulge to the rear bumper; the inside of this stripe was painted a coordinating color with the outside body color, "Bel Air" scripts were added inside the strip.
Lesser models had no model designation anywhere on the car, only having a Chevy crest on the hood and trunk. 1953 was the first year for a one-piece windshield. Bel Air interiors had an optional massive expanse of chrome across the lower part of the dashboard, along with a deluxe Bel Air steering wheel with full chrome horn ring. Carpeting and full wheel covers rounded out Bel Air standard equipment. For 1954, the Bel Air stayed the same, except for a revised grille and taillights, a revised engine that had insert bearings and higher oil pressure, needed for the full-flow oil filtration system, not available prior to 1954. Prior to 1954, the 235 and 216 cubic inch six cylinder engines had babbit bearings and scoops to create oil pressure at the bottom of each rod and the oil pressure was standard at 15-30 PSI. During these years, there were three engine choices, depending on the transmission ordered. Both 235 cubic inch engines were "Blue Flame" inline six cylinder OHV engines, featuring hydraulic valve lifters and aluminum pistons.
The 106 hp 235 cubic inch displacement engine was standard on stickshift models, with solid lifters and splash plus pressure lubrication including babbit bearings. Powerglide cars got a 115 hp version which had full pressure lubrication. In 1953 and 1954, Bel Airs could be ordered in convertible, hardtop coupe, two- and four-door sedans, for 1954, the Beauville station wagon which featured woodgrain trim around the side windows. Many new options, once available only to more expensive luxury cars, became offered starting in 1953, including power steering and the Guidematic headlight dimmer in 1953. All 1954 models equipped with the standard transmission used the 1953 Powerglide engine. For 1955, Chevrolet's full-size model received all new power; the 1955 Bel Air was 3,456 lb and 15 ft long. It was called the "Hot One" in GM's advertising campaign. Chevrolet's styling was crisp and incorporated a Ferrari-inspired grille. Bel Airs came with features found on cars in the lower models ranges plus interior carpet, chrome headliner bands on hardtops, chrome spears on front fenders, stainless steel window moldings, full wheel covers.
Models were further distinguished by the Bel Air name script in gold lettering in the year. For 1955 Chevrolets gained a V8 engine option and the option of the 2 speed Powerglide automatic, or a standard