Broadcast automation incorporates the use of broadcast programming technology to automate broadcasting operations. Used either at a broadcast network, radio station or a television station, it can run a facility in the absence of a human operator, they can run in a "live assist" mode when there are on-air personnel present at the master control, television studio or control room. The radio transmitter end of the airchain is handled by a separate automatic transmission system. In the USA, many broadcast licensing authorities required a licensed board operator to run every station at all times, meaning that every DJ had to pass an exam to obtain a license to be on-air, if their duties required them to ensure proper operation of the transmitter; this was the case on overnight and weekend shifts when there was no broadcast engineer present, all of the time for small stations with only a contract engineer on call. In the U. S. it was necessary to have an operator on duty at all times in case the Emergency Broadcast System was used, as this had to be triggered manually.
While there has not been a requirement to relay any other warnings, any mandatory messages from the U. S. president would have had to first be authenticated with a code word sealed in a pink envelope sent annually to stations by the Federal Communications Commission. The quality and reliability of electronic equipment improved, regulations were relaxed, no operator had to be present while a station was operating. In the U. S. this came about when the EAS replaced the EBS, starting the movement toward automation to assist, sometimes take the place of, the live disc jockeys and radio personalities. Early automation systems were electromechanical systems. Systems were "computerized" only to the point of maintaining a schedule, were limited to radio rather than TV. Music would be stored on reel-to-reel audio tape. Subaudible tones on the tape marked the end of each song; the computer would rotate among the tape players until the computer's internal clock matched that of a scheduled event. When a scheduled event would be encountered, the computer would finish the currently-playing song and execute the scheduled block of events.
These events were advertisements, but could include the station's top-of-hour station identification, news, or a bumper promoting the station or its other shows. At the end of the block, the rotation among tapes resumed. Advertisements and the top-of-hour station identification required by law were on "carts". Short for cartridges, these were endless tapes similar to 4-track tapes, were mechanically identical as well, were called Fidelipacs; the primary difference between carts and 4 track is two fold. The Cart had only two tracks and the 4-track had four; the Cart ran at 7 and 1/2 IPS whereas the 4-Track ran at 3 and 3/4 IPS. Carts had a slot for a pinch roller on a spindle, activated by solenoid upon pressing the start button on the cart machine; the capstan was spinning at full speed and this allowed for nearly instantaneous playback start without artifacts. Mechanical carousels would rotate the carts in and out of multiple tape players as dictated by the computer. Time announcements were provided by a pair of dedicated cart players, with the minutes stored on one and the odd minutes on the other.
This meant an announcement would always be ready to play if the minute was changing when the announcement was triggered. The system did require attention throughout the day to change reels as they ran out and reload carts, it became obsolete when a method was developed to automatically rewind and re-cue the reel tapes when they ran out, extending'walk-away' time indefinitely. Radio station WIRX may have been one of the world's first automated radio stations and designed by Brian Jeffrey Brown in 1963 when Brown was only 10 years old; the station broadcast in a classical format, called "More Good Music" and featured five-minute bottom-of-the-hour news feeds from the Mutual Broadcasting System. The heart of the automation was an 8 x 24 telephone stepping relay which controlled two reel-to-reel tape decks, one twelve inch Ampex machine providing the main program audio and a second RCA seven inch machine providing "fill" music; the tapes played by these machines were produced in the Midwest Family Broadcasting Madison, Wisconsin production facility by WSJM Chief Engineer Richard E. McLemore with sub-audible tones used to signal the end of a song.
The stepping relay was programmed by slide switches in the front of the two relay racks which housed the equipment. The news feeds were triggered by a microswitch, attached to a Western Union clock and tripped by the minute hand of the clock, and reset the stepping relay. 30-minute station identification was accomplished by a simulcast switch in the control booth for sister station WSJM, whereupon the disc jockey in the booth would announce "This is WSJM-AM and...... WSJM-FM, St. Joseph, Michigan." This only lasted about six months, a standard tape cartridge player was wired in to announce the station identification and triggered by the Western Union clock. A different technology appeared in 1980 with the analog recorders made by Solidyne, which used a computer-controlled tape positioning system. Four GMS 204 units were controlled from a 6809 microprocessor, with the program stored in a solid-state plug-in memory module; this system has a limited programming time of about eight hours. Satellite programming used audible dual-tone multi-frequency signals to trigger
Robotic lawn mower
A robotic lawn mower is an autonomous robot used to cut lawn grass. A typical robotic lawn mower requires the user to set up a border wire around the lawn that defines the area to be mowed; the robot uses this wire to locate the boundary of the area to be trimmed and in some cases to locate a recharging dock. Robotic mowers are capable of maintaining up to 30,000 m2 of grass. Robotic lawn mowers are sophisticated, are self-docking and some contain rain sensors if necessary, nearly eliminating human interaction. Robotic lawn mowers represented the second largest category of domestic robots used by the end of 2005; the first commercial robotic lawn mower was the MowBot and patented in 1969 and showing many features of today's most popular products. In 2012, the growth of robotic lawn mower sales was 15 times that of the traditional styles. With the emergence of smart phones some robotic mowers have integrated features within custom apps to adjust settings or scheduled mowing times and frequency, as well as manually control the mower with a digital joystick.
Modern robotic lawn mowers can contain specialized sensors, allowing them to automatically mow around obstacles or go to sleep when it starts to rain. In 1995, the first solar powered robotic mower became available; the mower can find its charging station via radio frequency emissions, by following a boundary wire, or by following an optional guide wire. This can eliminate wear patterns in the lawn caused by the mower only being able to follow one wire back to the station. To get to remote areas or areas only accessible through narrow passages the mower can follow a guide wire or a boundary wire out of the station. Batteries used include nickel -- metal lithium-ion and lead-acid. Domestic robots Lawn mower List of home automation topics Robotics Modern conveniences Media related to Robotic lawn mowers at Wikimedia Commons
Automated guided vehicle
An automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle is a portable robot that follows along marked lines or wires on the floor, or uses radio waves, vision cameras, magnets, or lasers for navigation. They are most used in industrial applications to transport heavy materials around a large industrial building, such as a factory or warehouse. Application of the automatic guided vehicle broadened during the late 20th century; the AGV can tow objects behind them in trailers. The trailers can be used to move finished product; the AGV can store objects on a bed. The objects can be placed on a set of motorized rollers and pushed off by reversing them. AGVs are employed in nearly every industry, including pulp, metals and general manufacturing. Transporting materials such as food, linen or medicine in hospitals is done. An AGV can be called a laser guided vehicle. In Germany the technology is called Fahrerlose Transport system and in Sweden förarlösa truckar. Lower cost versions of AGVs are called Automated Guided Carts and are guided by magnetic tape.
AGCs are available in a variety of models and can be used to move products on an assembly line, transport goods throughout a plant or warehouse, deliver loads. The first AGV was brought to market in the 1950s, by Barrett Electronics of Northbrook, at the time it was a tow truck that followed a wire in the floor instead of a rail. Out of this technology came a new type of AGV, which follows invisible UV markers on the floor instead of being towed by a chain; the first such system was deployed at the Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois to deliver mail throughout its offices. Over the years the technology has become more sophisticated and today automated vehicles are Laser navigated e.g. LGV. In an automated process, LGVs are programmed to communicate with other robots to ensure product is moved smoothly through the warehouse, whether it is being stored for future use or sent directly to shipping areas. Today, the AGV plays an important role in the design of new factories and warehouses, safely moving goods to their rightful destination.
A slot is cut in to the floor and a wire is placed 1 inch below the surface. This slot is cut along the path; this wire is used to transmit a radio signal. A sensor is installed on the bottom of the AGV close to the ground; the sensor detects the relative position of the radio signal being transmitted from the wire. This information is used making the AGV follow the wire. AGVs use tape for the guide path; the tapes can be one of two styles: colored. The AGV is fitted with the appropriate guide sensor to follow the path of the tape. One major advantage of tape over wired guidance is that it can be removed and relocated if the course needs to change. Colored tape is less expensive, but lacks the advantage of being embedded in high traffic areas where the tape may become damaged or dirty. A flexible magnetic bar can be embedded in the floor like wire but works under the same provision as magnetic tape and so remains unpowered or passive. Another advantage of magnetic guide tape is the dual polarity. Small pieces of magnetic tape may be placed to change states of the AGC based on polarity and sequence of the tags.
The navigation is done by mounting reflective tape on walls, fixed machines. The AGV carries a laser receiver on a rotating turret; the laser is received by the same sensor. The angle and distance to any reflectors that in line of sight and in range are automatically calculated; this information is compared to the map of the reflector layout stored in the AGV's memory. This allows the navigation system to triangulate the current position of the AGV; the current position is compared to the path programmed in to the reflector layout map. The steering is adjusted accordingly to keep the AGV on track, it can navigate to a desired target using the updating position. Modulated Lasers The use of modulated laser light gives greater range and accuracy over pulsed laser systems. By emitting a continuous fan of modulated laser light a system can obtain an uninterrupted reflection as soon as the scanner achieves line of sight with a reflector; the reflection ceases at the trailing edge of the reflector which ensures an accurate and consistent measurement from every reflector on every scan.
By using a modulated laser a system can achieve an angular resolution of ~ 0.1 mrad at 8 scanner revolutions per second. Pulsed Lasers A typical pulsed laser scanner emits pulsed laser light at a rate of 14,400 Hz which gives a maximum possible resolution of ~ 3.5 mrad at 8 scanner revolutions per second. To achieve a workable navigation, the readings must be interpolated based on the intensity of the reflected laser light, to identify the centre of the reflector. Another form of an AGV guidance is inertial navigation. With inertial guidance, a computer control system assigns tasks to the vehicles. Transponders are embedded in the floor of the work place; the AGV uses these transponders to verify. A gyroscope is able to detect the slightest change in the direction of the vehicle and corrects it in order to keep the AGV on its path; the margin of error for the inertial method is ±1 inch. Inertial can operate in nearly any environment including extreme temperatures. Inertial navigation can include use of magnets embedded in the floor of the facility that the vehicle can read and follow.
The Dynix Automated Library System was a popular integrated library system, with a heyday from the mid-1980s to the late-1990s. It was used by libraries to replace the paper-based card catalog, track lending of materials from the library to patrons. First developed in 1983, it became the most popular library automation software released, was once near-ubiquitous in libraries boasting an electronic card catalog, peaking at over 5,000 installations worldwide in the late 1990s, with a market share of nearly 80%, including the United States' Library of Congress. Typical of 1980s software technology, Dynix had a character-based user interface, involving no graphics except ASCII art/ANSI art boxes; the first installation, in 1983, was at a public library in South Carolina. The library contracted for the system before the software was written. In the words of Paul Sybrowsky, founder of Dynix: "There was no software, no product. Undaunted, we pitched our plan to create an automated library system to a public library in South Carolina.
We didn't have a product, but we said'You need a system and we'd like to bid on it,' and showed them our business plan."The original Dynix library system was based on software developed at CTI, a development project of Brigham Young University, presided over by Gary Carlson. The initial search engine tools: FSELECT and FSORT were written for the PICK operating system under contract for CTI by Walter Nicholes as part of a bid for a research support systems for AT&T laboratories. Paul Sybrowsky was an employee of CTI. Both library systems were based on these PICK based search engine tools. Dynix use grew in the early-and-mid 1990s. In October 1989, Dynix had just 292 installations. Fifteen months in January 1991, it was up 71% to 500 installations. A year-and-a-half in June 1993, Dynix had doubled its installed base, signing its 1,000th contract. At its peak in the late 1990s, Dynix had over 5,000 libraries using its system, amounting to an 80% market share; the customer base for Dynix did not begin decreasing until 2000, at which point it started being replaced by Internet-based interfaces.
In 2003, it was reported that Dynix was being phased out by its manufacturer, approaching "end-of-life" status in terms of functionality and support. By 2004, its market share was down to 62%, still a comfortable majority. Phase-outs were constant in the late 2000s, by the second decade of the 21st century, it was obsolete and remained in few libraries. By mid-2013, only 88 libraries were on record as having Dynix installed; the majority of phase-outs took place between 2002 and 2007. At one point, Dynix was benchmarked supporting 1,600 terminals on a single system; this stability would come in handy. Several specialized versions were released, all nearly identical to the mainstream version. For academic libraries K-12, there was Dynix Scholar. For small libraries, with only one or two terminals, there was Dynix Elite; the original Dynix system, as used in regular public libraries, was renamed Dynix Classic in its lifespan to distinguish it from other Dynix products. Based around a relational database, Dynix was written in Pick/BASIC, run on the PICK operating system.
In 1990, it was ported to VMark's uniVerse BASIC programming language, run on Unix-based servers, with uniVerse acting as a PICK emulation layer between the software and the operating system. In the late 1990s, Dynix was once again re-ported, this time for Windows NT-based servers, it should be noted that Pick/BASIC and uniVerse BASIC are the same programming language, so porting Dynix did not require re-writing the source code. In the words of one Dynix developer, " was programmed in Pick/BASIC... however, as it matured, it was written in uniVerse BASIC... It was never re-written; that type of BASIC isn't easy to move to any other language. None other handles data as well. It's a fast-compiled and -interpreted language, frankly nothing matches it or now. It's too bad that it was so good, because it didn't make the transition to object-oriented Web-based technology in time to stay afloat." The software was written on computers made by The Ultimate Corp. of East Hanover, New Jersey, which ran Ultimate's proprietary implementation of the PICK operating system.
Dynix moved to IBM RISC/6000-based computers running AIX throughout the company, except in Training, which used SCO Unix. While most libraries purchased the same type of servers as Dynix was using, there were installations done on platforms such as DEC and MIPS, Sequoia, HP's Unix servers, etc; the Dynix corp. could do software-only installs to any compliant Unix because of uniVerse's scalability and adaptability. Dynix was developed around the ADDS Viewpoint A2 terminal's escape sequences, because ADDS terminals were the de facto standard on the PICK-based mainframes on which Dynix was created. Shortly after Dynix started being deployed to libraries around the country, requests started coming back that alternate terminals be provided for patron use.
Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures and possibilities. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine." In the 21st century, the term is used in a rather loose way to imply "control of any system using technology." In other words, it is the scientific study of how humans and machines control and communicate with each other. Cybernetics is applicable when a system being analyzed incorporates a closed signaling loop—originally referred to as a "circular causal" relationship—that is, where action by the system generates some change in its environment and that change is reflected in the system in some manner that triggers a system change. Cybernetics is relevant to, for example, physical, biological and social systems; the essential goal of the broad field of cybernetics is to understand and define the functions and processes of systems that have goals and that participate in circular, causal chains that move from action to sensing to comparison with desired goal, again to action.
Its focus is how anything processes information, reacts to information, changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks. Cybernetics includes the study of feedback, black boxes and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms and organizations including self-organization. Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but are not limited to: learning, adaptation, social control, convergence, efficiency and connectivity. In cybernetics these concepts are abstracted from the context of the specific device; the word cybernetics comes from Greek κυβερνητική, meaning "governance", i.e. all that are pertinent to κυβερνάω, the latter meaning "to steer, navigate or govern", hence κυβέρνησις, meaning "government", is the government while κυβερνήτης is the governor or "helmperson" of the "ship". Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control systems, electrical network theory, mechanical engineering, logic modeling, evolutionary biology, neuroscience and psychology in the 1940s attributed to the Macy Conferences.
During the second half of the 20th century cybernetics evolved in ways that distinguish first-order cybernetics from second-order cybernetics. More there is talk about a third-order cybernetics. Studies in cybernetics provide a means for examining the design and function of any system, including social systems such as business management and organizational learning, including for the purpose of making them more efficient and effective. Fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory, system theory, perceptual control theory, psychology, philosophy and organizational theory. System dynamics, originated with applications of electrical engineering control theory to other kinds of simulation models by Jay Forrester at MIT in the 1950s, is a related field. Cybernetics has been defined in a variety of ways, by a variety of people, from a variety of disciplines. Cybernetician Stuart Umpleby reports some notable definitions: "Science concerned with the study of systems of any nature which are capable of receiving and processing information so as to use it for control."—A. N. Kolmogorov "'The art of steersmanship': deals with all forms of behavior in so far as they are regular, or determinate, or reproducible: stands to the real machine -- electronic, neural, or economic -- much as geometry stands to real object in our terrestrial space.
– Humberto Maturana "The ability to cure all temporary truth of eternal triteness."—Herbert BrunOther notable definitions include: "The science and art of the understanding of understanding."—Rodney E. Donaldson, the first president of the American Society for Cybernetics "A way of thinking about ways of thinking of which it is one."—Larry Richards "The art of interaction in dynamic networks."—Roy Ascott "The study of systems and processes that interact with themselves and produce themselves from themselves."—Louis Kauffman, President of the American Society for Cybernetics The term cybernetics stems from κυβερνήτης "steersman, pilot, or rudder". As with the ancient Greek pilot, independence of thought is important in cybernetics. French physicist and mathematician André-Marie Ampère first coined the word "cybernetique" in his 1834 essay Essai sur la philosophie des
A domestic robot is a type of service robot, an autonomous robot, used for household chores, but may be used for education, entertainment or therapy. Thus far, there are only a few limited models, though speculators, such as Bill Gates, have suggested that they could become more common in the future. While most domestic robots are simplistic, some are connected to WiFi home networks or smart environments and are autonomous to a high degree. There were an estimated 3,540,000 service robots in use in 2006, compared with an estimated 950,000 industrial robots. Early historical attempts to bring robots into the home include the Topo; this type of domestic robot does chores inside homes. Different kinds include: Robotic vacuum cleaners and floor-washing robots that clean floors with sweeping and wet mopping functions; some use Swiffer or other disposable cleaning cloths to dry-sweep, or reusable microfiber cloths to wet-mop. Within the ironing robots, Dressman is a mannequin to iron shirts using hot air.
Other ones includes mannequin for down parts. More advanced ones fold and organizes the clothes, as Laundroid and FoldiMate. Cat litter robots are automatic self-cleaning litter boxes that filter clumps out into a built-in waste receptacle that can be lined with an ordinary plastic bag. Robotic kitchens include Moley Robotics MK1 and Prometheus delta robot. Security robots such as Knightscope have a night-vision-capable wide-angle camera that detects movements and intruders, it can patrol places and shoot video of suspicious activities and send alerts via email or text message. The robot can be configured to go into action at any time of the day. Atlas is a robot built to perform in house task such as sweeping, opening doors, climbing stairs, etc. A robotic lawn mower is a lawn mower, able to mow a lawn by itself after being programmed. Once programmed, this invention repeats the operation by itself according to its programming. Robotic lawn mowers come with a power unit which may be an electric motor or internal combustion engine.
This allows it to move itself and its cutting blades. There is a control unit which helps the mower move; this unit contains a memory unit which records and memorizes its operation programming. Its memorized route turns angles; this allows the same lawn to be mowed without having to reprogram. The steering unit acquires an operation signal and propels the lead wheel, which leads the mower, go guide along the programmed route; some models can mow uneven lawns that are up to three-quarters of an acre in size. Others can mow a lawn. There are automated pool cleaners that clean and maintain swimming pools autonomously by scrubbing in-ground pools from the floor to the waterline in 3 hours and circulating more than 70 US gallons of water per minute, removing debris as small as 2 µm in size. Gutter-cleaning robots such as Looj use brushes and rubber blades to remove debris from rain gutters. Window cleaning robots are most used to clean outdoor windows, more house windows. However, it may be used on other types such as ones on tall buildings and structures.
This robot contains a movement system which allows the robot to navigate itself across the window surface in a defined direction. It has a powered agitator located by the cleaning pad; when activated, the agitator gets rid of dirt from the window surface. The cleaning pad directly interacts with the window surface and is directly responsible for removing the dirt by filling itself with specialized window cleaning fluid. A window-washing robot uses two magnetic modules to navigate windows as it sprays the cleaning solution onto microfiber pads to wash them, it covers about 1,601 square feet per charge. Robotic toys, such as the well known Furby, have been popular since 1998. There are small humanoid remote-controlled robots as well as electronic pets, such as robotic dogs, they have have been used by many universities in competitions such as the RoboCup. Social robots take on the function of social communication. Domestic humanoid robots are used by immobilized residents to keep them company. Home-telepresence robots can move around in a remote location and let one communicate with people there via its camera and microphone.
Network robots link ubiquitous networks with robots, contributing to the creation of new lifestyles and solutions to address a variety of social problems including the aging of population and nursing care. Robots built for therapy have been in production for quite some time now; some of these uses can be for physical therapy. Lt. Comm. Data is a Starfleet officer in Star Trek: The Next Generation; the episode that best explains who Data is was "The Measure of A Man", Data, an android on the U. S. S. Enterprise is on trial to determine whether or not he is human, he likes to be seen as a human, not a robot. In the Star Wars film series, robots of all shapes and sizes can be found assisting the humans with several tasks. C-3PO is a robot designed to assist humans in translation, etiquette. Many cartoons feature robot maids, notably Rosie the Robot from The Jetsons. Maid Robots are prominent in anime (in Japanese, they are cal