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Integumentary system

The integumentary system comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or damages from outside. The integumentary system includes hair, feathers and nails, it has a variety of additional functions. In most land vertebrates with significant exposure to sunlight, the integumentary system provides for vitamin D synthesis; the skin is the largest organ of the body. In humans, it accounts for about 12 to 15 percent of total body weight and covers 1.5-2m2 of surface area. The human skin is composed of at least two major layers of tissue: the dermis; the epidermis is the outermost layer. It is separated from the dermis by the basement membrane; the epidermis gives color to the skin. The deepest layer of epidermis contains nerve endings. Beneath this, the dermis comprises two sections, the papillary and reticular layers, contains connective tissues, glands, hair roots, sensory nerve endings, muscular tissue; the deepest layer, the hypodermis, is made up of adipose tissue.

Substantial collagen bundles anchor the dermis to the hypodermis in a way that permits most areas of the skin to move over the deeper tissue layers. The epidermis is the top layer of skin made up of epithelial cells, it does not contain blood vessels. Its main functions are protection, absorption of nutrients, homeostasis. In structure, it consists of a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium; the major cell of the epidermis is the keratinocyte, which produces keratin, a fibrous protein that aids in skin protection. An overwhelming amount of keratin can cause disease by giving rise to eruptions from the skin that will protrude outwards and lead to infection. Keratin is a waterproofing protein. Millions of dead keratinocytes rub off daily; the majority of the skin on the body is keratinized. The only skin on the body, non-keratinized is the lining of mucous membranes, such as the inside of the mouth. Non-keratinized cells allow water to "stay" atop the structure; the protein keratin stiffens epidermal tissue to form fingernails.

Nails grow from a thin area called the nail matrix at an average of 1 mm per week. The lunula is the crescent-shape area at the base of the nail, lighter in color as it mixes with the matrix cells; the stratum corneum is the top part of the epidermis. The dermis is the middle layer of skin, composed of dense irregular connective tissue and areolar connective tissue such as a collagen with elastin arranged in a diffusely bundled and woven pattern; the dermis has two layers. One is the papillary layer, the superficial layer and consists of the areolar connective tissue; the other is the reticular layer, the deep layer of the dermis and consists of the dense irregular connective tissue. These layers serve to give elasticity to the integument, allowing stretching and conferring flexibility, while resisting distortions and sagging; the dermal layer provides a site for the endings of blood nerves. Many chromatophores are stored in this layer, as are the bases of integumental structures such as hair and glands.

The hypodermis, otherwise known as the subcutaneous layer, is a layer beneath the skin. It invaginates into the dermis and is attached to the latter above it, by collagen and elastin fibers, it is composed of a type of cell known as adipocytes specialized in accumulating and storing fats. These cells are grouped together in lobules separated by connective tissue; the hypodermis acts as an energy reserve. The fats contained in the adipocytes can be put back into circulation, via the venous route, during intense effort or when there is a lack of energy-providing substances, are transformed into energy; the hypodermis participates, passively at least, in thermoregulation since fat is a heat insulator. The integumentary system has multiple roles in homeostasis. All body systems work in an interconnected manner to maintain the internal conditions essential to the function of the body; the skin has an important job of protecting the body and acts as the body’s first line of defense against infection, temperature change, other challenges to homeostasis.

Functions include: Protect the body’s internal living tissues and organs Protect against invasion by infectious organisms Protect the body from dehydration Protect the body against abrupt changes in temperature, maintain homeostasis Help excrete waste materials through perspiration Act as a receptor for touch, pain and cold Protect the body against sunburns by secreting melanin Generate vitamin D through exposure to ultraviolet light Store water, glucose, vitamin D Maintenance of the body form Formation of new cells from stratum germinativum to repair minor injuries Protect from UV rays. Regulates body temperatureIt distinguishes and protects the organism from its surroundings. Small-bodied invertebrates of aquatic or continually moist habitats respire using the outer layer; this gas exchange system, where gases diffuse into and out of the interstitial fluid, is called integumentary exchange. Possible diseases and injuries to the human integumentary system include

Helena Zachos

Mary Helena Zachos was an American college professor and elocutionist, on the faculty at Cooper Union from 1897 to 1939. Mary Helena Zachos was born in Dayton, the daughter of John Celivergos Zachos and Harriet Tompkins Canfield Zachos, her father was born in Constantinople of Greek parents, brought to the United States by American educational reformer Samuel Gridley Howe. The elder Dr. Zachos taught oratory at Cooper Union. Helena Zachos attended Wells College, graduating in 1875. Helena Zachos taught English, debate, parliamentary procedure, elocution classes at Cooper Union beginning in 1897, with popular classes in the school's extension catalog, she was the coach of the school's debating teams, advised student commencement speakers until 1939. For some of her tenure at Cooper Union, she taught "expression" at the Friends Seminary in New York. Zachos wrote one-act plays and pieces for recitation, her own performances as a dramatic reader were admired for their "penetration and magnetism". She was president of the Wells College Club of New York, a trustee of the Library Lecture Association.

She served on the executive board of the National Association of Elocutionists. Zachos died in 1951, just before her 95th birthday, in New York City. There is an M. Helena Zachos 1875 Prize at Wells College, given for excellence in prose composition

Bayswater, Victoria

Bayswater is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 27 km east of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Knox. At the 2016 Census, Bayswater had a population of 11,758; the first Post Office in the area was Scoresby North, which opened on 8 May 1882 and renamed Macauley in 1884. When the railway arrived in 1889, a Bayswater office near the station replaced Macauley. In 1998 Bayswater Village office replaced Bayswater. In the late 1940s, a number of German Templers settled in Boronia. Part of the Temple Society Australia, they built a Community Centre in Elizabeth Street and a Retirement Village, as well as Nursing Home Tabulam, in partnership with the Australian German Welfare Society; the Bayswater Wine Cellar is the oldest building in the region, erected in the mid 19th century to service loggers that travelled between the city and the Dandenongs. After falling into disarray, it was sold to a developer in late 2017 for'more than $2 million AUD'. Current Education in Bayswater include Our Lady of Lourdes Primary School, Bayswater Primary School, Bayswater South Primary School, Bayswater West Primary School and Bayswater Secondary College.

Its most well-known reserve is Bayswater Park, where football and cricket is played on the two ovals, as well as netball and tennis, on surrounding courts. The adjacent playground, known by the locals as the'Train Park', contains a disused steam engine, altered for children to play on. Shopping in Bayswater includes 3 supermarkets; the most recent newest shopping precinct is Mountain High Plaza, completed in May 2009, includes an Anytime Fitness 24hr health club, a Coles supermarket, coffee shops and variety stores, including Discount Pharmacy Dimmeys. The Bayswater library is located within the Mountain High Shopping Centre. Bayswater is the headquarters of the Knox Opportunity Shop, run by Councillors and others. Bayswater CFA Fire Brigade On 17 November 1969 Bayswater Fire Brigade was registered with CFA; the Brigade attended its first fire call on22nd January. However, a site for the Fire Station had not yet been established so the Brigade vehicle was parked under a tarp at the rear of a service station on the corner of Mountain Highway and Highmoor Avenue, Bayswater.

On Good Friday 1970 a tin shed was erected to house the Brigade vehicle and other operational equipment. In 1973 the tin shed was relocated to a site adjacent to the Scoresby Road railway crossing until the present Fire Station was built in 1976. In 2008, the Brigade leased an additional building on the same site to be used for administration and indoor training. Bayswater Station is located near Mountain Highway, the main stretch of road running through the suburb and a train ride from Bayswater to the CBD is 29 kilometres. Bayswater North shares the postcode 3153 with Bayswater. Bayswater contained three voting booths at the 2010 federal election, all located within the federal electorate of Aston; the seat of Aston is named after Tilly Aston, a blind writer and advocate for blind people, born and lived in Victoria. The suburb is fairly'marginal' electorally, in that neither of the main political parties tends to dominate the area, it is therefore a reasonably good barometer in its representation of overall national voting patterns and trends.

Competitive, the collective 2010 result for the three booths distributed the primary vote in portions of 42.2% to Labor, 41.2% to the Liberals, 10.8% to the Greens. After the distribution of preferences, the two-party result was 46.2 % Liberal. Liberal MP, Alan Tudge, who ran unsuccessfully for the seat of Aston in 2010, won the seat at the 2013 Australian federal election, 2016 Australian federal election and 2019 Australian federal election; the suburb has an Australian Rules football team, The Bayswater Kangaroos, known as The Waters, who compete in the Eastern Football League. The suburb is the home of the Bayswater Cricket Club and they are part of the Victorian Sub District Cricket Association. City of Croydon - the former local government area of which Bayswater was a part Australian Places - Bayswater, Victoria Bayswater Neighborhood on Facebook Crusader Hose Bayswater Volunteer Fire Brigade

Radio Ilijaš

Radio Ilijaš is a Bosnian local public radio station, broadcasting from Ilijaš, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Radio Ilijaš was launched on 6 April 1978 by the municipal council of Ilijaš. In Yugoslavia and in SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, it was part of part of local/municipal Radio Sarajevo network affiliate; this radio station broadcasts a variety of programs such as music, local news and talk shows. Program is produced in Bosnian language. Estimated number of potential listeners of Radio Ilijaš is around 57,793. Radiostation is available in Sarajevo and in municipalities: Vareš, Visoko and Breza; the program is broadcast at 3 frequencies: Ilijaš 89.7 MHz Vareš 100.9 MHz Ilijaš 102.7 MHz List of radio stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina www.radioilijas.ba Communications Regulatory Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Science on Stage Europe

The European initiave Science on Stage - launched as Physics on Stage in 1999 – is designed for European teachers to share good practice in science teaching and to discuss ways of improving the quality of science lessons. This is driven by the foreseen lack of young scientists in all European countries. Science on Stage Europe believes that a good way to encourage schoolchildren to consider a career in science or engineering is to motivate and educate their teachers. Therefore, Science on Stage Europe provides a forum for science teachers to exchange teaching ideas and gives them access to science teaching resources. Organised by EIROforum, a collaboration of European research organisations, the initiative Science on Stage began in 1999 as Physics on Stage, with financial support from the European Commission. EIROforum launched the initiative to address the decreasing numbers of young physicists; the first Physics on Stage festival was at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, in 2000. Over the course of an inspiring week, more than 500 teachers from 22 countries shared activities and projects in a fair, in workshops, in performances and in presentations showed that physics can be fun.

On the back of this success, Physics on Stage 2 was arranged in 2002 at ESA in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. Physics on Stage 3 followed a year at the same location; the members of EIROforum soon realised that the lack of young scientists was not limited to the field of physics, so the initiative was broadened to cover all sciences and renamed Science on Stage. The first Science on Stage festival took place in 2005, again at CERN in Geneva, the second in 2007 at ESRF/ILL in Grenoble, France; the format of the Physics on Stage festivals still remains unchanged. In May 2008, the financial support of the European Commission ran out. In March 2009, under the guidance of Stage on Stage Germany the 27 European countries involved unanimously affirmed their wish to continue the cooperation. All participants stressed the importance of regular European festivals as the flagship of the European Science on Stage activities. Alternative funding would be sought for the festivals. In October 2008, the first of these alternatively funded Science on Stage festivals took place at Urania in Berlin, organised by Science on Stage Germany and sponsored by THINK ING. an initiative of the Federation of German Employers‘ Associations in the Metal and Electrical Engineering Industries.

The second alternatively funded European Science on Stage festival took place from 16–19 April 2011 at the Ørestad Gymnasium in Copenhagen under the motto “Science Teaching: Winning Hearts and Minds”. It was funded by the Danish Ministry of Education and organised by Danish Science Communication and the Science on Stage Europe office; the next Science on Stage festival will take place from 25–28 April 2013 in Slubice and Frankfurt/Oder at the German-Polish border. For the first time, the festival will be organised by two countries, represented by the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poland and Science on Stage Germany, under the motto “Crossing Borders in Science Teaching”. 350 science teachers from across Europe will present their most innovative teaching ideas and performances. Participants are chosen at competitive national processes in each country involved. Launched as an initiative in 2008, Science on Stage Europe became an registered non-profit association in January 2012, with headquarters in Berlin and recognised by German law.

Science on Stage Europe is organised in a bottom-up structure. The basis is the Science on Stage community in the participating countries; each country has a national steering committee. The NSCs elect the executive board; the board is supported by the Science on Stage Europe office in Berlin. The Science on Stage international festivals take place every two years, as the culmination of all the national Science on Stage activities; the festivals are organised jointly by a European festival programme committee and a national organising committee. Science on Stage Europe, official website Article in Science in School magazine, Issue 13 Article in Science in School magazine, Issue 16

Bundesautobahn 643

Bundesautobahn 643 is a 8.4-kilometer short autobahn in Germany. The motorway crosses the Rhine River, connecting the cities of Wiesbaden and Mainz, the capital cities of the German states of Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate, respectively, it is one of two autobahns in Germany. However short the A 643 may be, it is a vital link within the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Region, being only one of three routes across the Rhine in the region, it is an important connection between Autobahn 66 on the north bank of the Rhine and A 60 south of Mainz. The A 643 was built in 1966, together with the Mainz Ring Road, the A 60; the original plan for the highway included a section from Wiesbaden to Taunusstein-Neuhof, replacing a section of Bundesstraße 417. This project was never realized; the A 643 begins at the Dotzheim Interchange in Wiesbaden as a continuation of Schiersteiner Straße to and from the city center. This interchange includes an exit ramp to Erich-Ollenhauser Straße, which leads northwest to Wiesbaden-Dotzheim and southeast to Biebrich.

The A 643 soon intersects with the A 66 at Schiersteiner Kreuz. It crosses the border with Rhineland-Palatinate on the Rhine with the Schierstein Bridge, it leads to the Hochstraße Lenneberg in the Mainz district of Mombach, through the Mainz Sand Dunes nature reserve, ends at the Mainz Dreieck in the A 60. Bundesautobahn 643 – detailed route plan