The Intel 80286 is a 16-bit microprocessor, introduced on February 1, 1982. It was the first 8086-based CPU with separate, non-multiplexed address and data buses and the first with memory management and wide protection abilities; the 80286 used 134,000 transistors in its original nMOS incarnation and, just like the contemporary 80186, it could execute most software written for the earlier Intel 8086 and 8088 processors. The 80286 was employed for the IBM PC/AT, introduced in 1984, widely used in most PC/AT compatible computers until the early 1990s. Intel's first 80286 chips were specified for a maximum clockrate of 4, 6 or 8 MHz and releases for 12.5 MHz. AMD and Harris produced 16 MHz, 20 MHz and 25 MHz parts, respectively. Intersil and Fujitsu designed static CMOS versions of Intel's original depletion-load nMOS implementation aimed at battery-powered devices. On average, the 80286 was measured to have a speed of about 0.21 instructions per clock on "typical" programs, although it could be faster on optimized code and in tight loops, as many instructions could execute in 2 clock cycles each.
The 6 MHz, 10 MHz and 12 MHz models were measured to operate at 0.9 MIPS, 1.5 MIPS and 2.66 MIPS respectively. The E-stepping level of the 80286 was free of the several significant errata that caused problems for programmers and operating-system writers in the earlier B-step and C-step CPUs; the 80286 was designed for multi-user systems with multitasking applications, including communications and real-time process control. It had 134,000 transistors and consisted of four independent units: address unit, bus unit, instruction unit and execution unit, organized into a loosely coupled pipeline just as in the 8086; the increased performance over the 8086 was due to the non-multiplexed address and data buses, more address-calculation hardware and a faster multiplier. It was produced in a 68-pin package, including LCC and PGA packages; the performance increase of the 80286 over the 8086 could be more than 100% per clock cycle in many programs. This was a large increase comparable to the speed improvements around a decade when the i486 or the original Pentium were introduced.
This was due to the non-multiplexed address and data buses, but to the fact that address calculations were less expensive. They were performed by a dedicated unit in the 80286, while the older 8086 had to do effective address computation using its general ALU, consuming several extra clock cycles in many cases; the 80286 was more efficient in the prefetch of instructions, execution of jumps, in complex microcoded numerical operations such as MUL/DIV than its predecessor. The 80286 included, in addition to all of the 8086 instructions, all of the new instructions of the 80186: ENTER, LEAVE, BOUND, INS, OUTS, PUSHA, POPA, PUSH immediate, IMUL immediate, immediate shifts and rotates; the 80286 added new instructions for protected mode: ARPL, CLTS, LAR, LGDT, LIDT, LLDT, LMSW, LSL, LTR, SGDT, SIDT, SLDT, SMSW, STR, VERR, VERW. Some of the instructions for protected mode can be used in real mode to set up and switch to protected mode, a few are useful for real mode itself; the Intel 80286 had a 24-bit address bus and was able to address up to 16 MB of RAM, compared to the 1 MB addressability of its predecessor.
However, memory cost and the initial rarity of software using the memory above 1 MB meant that 80286 computers were shipped with more than one megabyte of RAM. Additionally, there was a performance penalty involved in accessing extended memory from real mode, as noted below; the 286 was the first of the x86 CPU family to support protected virtual-address mode called "protected mode". In addition, it was the first commercially available microprocessor with on-chip MMU capabilities; this would allow IBM compatibles to have advanced multitasking OSes for the first time and compete in the Unix-dominated server/workstation market. Several additional instructions were introduced in protected mode of 80286, which are helpful for multitasking operating systems. Another important feature of 80286 is prevention of unauthorized access; this is achieved by: Forming different segments for data and stack, preventing their overlapping. Assigning privilege levels to each segment. Segments with lower privilege levels cannot access segments with higher privilege levels.
In 80286, arithmetic operations can be performed on the following different types of numbers: unsigned packed decimal, unsigned binary, unsigned unpacked decimal, signed binary, floating-point numbers. By design, the 286 could not revert from protected mode to the basic 8086-compatible real address mode without a hardware-initiated reset. In the PC/AT introduced in 1984, IBM added external circuitry, as well as specialized code in the ROM BIOS and the 8042 peripheral microcontroller to enable software to cause the reset, allowing real-mode reentry while retaining active memory and returning control to the program that initiated the reset. (The BIOS is involved because it obtains control di
The Society of Gentleman Practisers in the Courts of Law and Equity was an 18th-century professional society for attorneys and solicitors in England and Wales. It was founded in 1739 or 1740 to improve the social standing of the professions and to implement professional standards, it was the first law society to be established in the United Kingdom, though its relationship to the modern-day Law Society of England and Wales is not certain. The Society of Gentleman Practisers in the Courts of Law and Equity was founded in either 1739 or 1740 by 28 elite London-based attorneys and solicitors. At this time an attorney was a lawyer who practised in the common law courts of England and Wales whilst a solicitor practised in the courts of equity/chancery. Up until the 18th century the attorneys had held themselves superior to the solicitors but around the time of the formation of the society the two professions held equal standing; the society seems to have been founded in response to the public's distrust of the professions as an attempt to improve the social standing of its members and as a reaction to the Attorneys and Solicitors Act of 1728.
This act attempted to regulate the solicitors and attorneys by instituting a compulsory five-year articleship and the society supported this. The two professions represented by the society were inferior to that of the barristers, who practised in the higher courts. Though the barristers had their ancient Inns of Court, they were somewhat late in setting up organisations dedicated to maintaining professional standards – only reforming education following the 1854 Royal Commission; the society was a voluntary association and was the first professional law society in the United Kingdom. It flourished in the century of its founding, was consulted by members of parliament when drafting new bills. A branch of the society was established in Bristol, considered England's second city, in 1770; as part of its drive to maintain standards the society attempted to expose "unworthy" attorneys, though it lacked the necessary resources to do so. It attempted to standardise the training and qualifications of solicitors and attorneys and to close the social gap between them and the barristers.
The society sought to raise the fee payable to solicitors and attorneys. This had been fixed by custom since the 17th century and its real value had been reduced by inflation; the society was informally known as "the law society", however its relationship to the modern-day Law Society of England and Wales is unclear. A Law Journal article of 1924 and Professor Andrew Boon, writing in 2014, claim that the society developed into the Society of Attorneys, Solicitors and others not being Barristers, practising in the Courts of Law and Equity in the United Kingdom, which itself developed into the Law Society of England and Wales; however Philip Ross Courtney Elliott, writing in 1972, claims this is by no means certain
Sapientis is a non-profit organization based in San Juan, Puerto Rico whose mission is to improve the quality of public education as a means to reducing poverty, stimulating economic growth and enhancing the standard of living in Puerto Rico. With over 500,000 children and over 1,500 schools, Puerto Rico's public education system is the third largest in the United States, it ranks at the bottom on all indicators of academic achievement in comparison to other states and U. S. territories. Over half of its schools are not making Adequate Yearly Progress under the federal No Child Left Behind law; the 2008 island-wide standardized academic performance tests show that 45% of students are not proficient in Spanish, 40% are not proficient in English and 45% are not proficient in math. 91% of fourth grade students in Puerto Rico scored below grade level in math in comparison to their peers according to the 2004 National Assessment of Educational Progress. Sapientis' purpose is to mobilize an island-wide network of diverse and informed change agents who exercise leadership to improve the quality of public schools for all Puerto Rican children.
Sapientis believes that to improve schools, all sectors of society must connect and engage, not rest until every child in Puerto Rico has access to a quality public education system that develops students' abilities, nurtures their talents and prepares them to compete internationally. The organization believes that when concerned citizens come together with specific ideas about improving schools, positive change can become a reality. An analogous movement is the Civil Rights Movement in the American South in the 1960s. Pressure for change and acts of leadership came from all sectors: formal authority, the media, from persons of authority within the black community, the general white and black populations, governors who forced schools to integrate and more; the organization, created by two graduates of Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government– Kristin Ehrgood and Vadim Nikitine – designs and implements programs built on a leadership model developed by renowned leadership professor Dr. Ronald Heifetz.
The model incorporates elements of disciplines as diverse as philosophy, political science, social psychology and music. It has been developed over 20 years and has been implemented in 85 countries around the globe. Contrary to leadership models that focus on traits or characteristics of a traditional "leader" the adaptive leadership model views leadership as an action, not a person. Any individual, with or without formal authority can exercise leadership by observing and intervening within a group or organization. Exercising leadership is a recurring activity that forces the organization or group to face its most critical challenges and mobilize its resources in order to generate progress. Sapientis' goal over the next three years is to use this model as an essential tool to fulfill its purpose as an organization; the name Sapientis comes from Latin and means common sense and wisdom. Thus, the name embodies the organization's core values. Through its programs, Sapientis intends to spur change at the local level and help recruit individuals from different sectors into the network: Schools on the Move Over three years, Sapientis has worked with a cluster of seven schools to ensure that members of the schools' Improvement Teams exercise leadership to improve student achievement and their learning environments.
It builds a team in each school to help it diagnose root problems and implement a series of interventions, evaluate progress and continue the improvement cycle. This program is being implemented in the Luis Llorens Torres public housing complex, home to over 40,000 residents in the heart of San Juan. Youth Leadership Sapientis recruits and trains middle and high school students in the adaptive leadership model, it provides follow-up support to ensure student participation in their schools' Improvement Teams. Sapientis provides financial support via small grants to support leadership efforts and assist seniors in their higher education goals. Frontline Educators Sapientis works with teachers and school directors through a fellowship program that provides participants with a deeper understanding of the adaptive leadership model; this model is presented as a useful tool for diagnosing challenges and generating progress in student achievement and the school environment. Get Involved Sapientis engages concerned individuals and responsible corporations as supporters of its efforts to improve the quality of Puerto Rico's public education.
The program provides information about Puerto Rico's public education system and the adaptive leadership model, as well as opportunities to visit public schools. To raise the public's awareness of the education system, the "Get Involved" program holds an annual event, Sapientis Week, with 15 distinguished individuals volunteering their time to teach a class at a public school. Participants come from the public and non-profit sectors and join Sapientis in bringing attention to challenges faced by public schools as well as to the important role that teachers play in society. Sapientis offers ADAPTA, a leadership seminar for private companies, non-profit organizations and other groups. ADAPTA attempts to unleash Sapientis' theory of change in other spheres and fosters a better understanding of the adaptive leadership model. By 2012 Sapientis will: Mobilize over 10,000 individuals to participate in its network. Make the quality of public education one of the top three priorities in Pue
Angell Conwell is an American actress. Conwell was born in Orangeburg, South Carolina and moved to Columbia, South Carolina at the age of 2, she attended Seven Oaks Elementary School in Columbia where she was the first African-American student body president. She once lived in Brooklyn NY, she has a younger sister. In 1994, Conwell moved to Los Angeles to film the TV pilot "On Our Own", she starred in films such as Soul Plane and Baby Boy and appeared in TV productions and series like What About Your Friends: Weekend Getaway, One on One and Cuts. She appeared in one episode of That's So Raven. Conwell appeared in the music video of Nelly and the St. Lunatics "Batter Up", released in September 2001, "Ride wit Me", released on April 24, 2001. In December 2010, Conwell began airing in the recurring role of attorney Leslie Michaelson on the number-one-rated CBS daytime drama, The Young and the Restless. In December 2012, she was placed on contract however, was dropped back to recurring in August 2014 and quietly left the show.
In March 2015, Conwell returned to Y&R to reprise her role as Leslie for four episodes. 2019- present Bigger BET Pluse Home page Angell Conwell on IMDb
Sahaja means spontaneous enlightenment in Indian and Tibetan Buddhist spirituality. Sahaja practices first arose in Bengal during the 8th century among Buddhist yogis called Sahajiya siddhas. Ananda Coomaraswamy describes its significance as "the last achievement of all thought", "a recognition of the identity of spirit and matter and object", continuing "There is no sacred or profane, spiritual or sensual, but everything that lives is pure and void." The Sanskrit means:'born or produced together or at the same time as. Congenital, hereditary, natural'. Etymologically, saḥ- means'together with', ja derives from the root jan, meaning'to be born, produced, to occur, to happen'; the Tibetan lhan cig tu skye ba is an exact etymological equivalent of the Sanskrit. Lhan cig means'together with', skye ba means'to be born, to arise, to come about, to be produced'; the Tibetan can function as noun, or adjective. The Buddhist siddha Saraha was the founder of the Buddhist movement termed "Sahajayana" which flourished in Odisha and Bengal.
Sahajiya mahasiddhas like Saraha, Kanha and Luipa were tantric Buddhists who expounded their beliefs in songs and dohas in the Apabhraṃśa languages and Bengali. Many of the songs in this tradition are preserved in the Charyapada. Sahajiyas such as Saraha believed that enlightenment could be achieved in this lifetime, by laypersons living in samsara. Though he was a famed Buddhist sage; the sahajiyas practiced a form of ritual union, supposed to bring the female and male elements together in balance. Saraha and his disciples were master practitioners of Mahamudra meditation, Saraha composed a famous Mahamudra meditation text along with his'Three Cycles of Doha', a series of yogic songs. Sahajiyas criticized the Hindu caste system. Sahajayana Buddhism became popular in the Pala Empire among commoners. One of the classic texts associated with the Sahajiya Buddhists is the Hevajra Tantra; the tantra describes four kinds of Joy: From Joy there is some bliss, from Perfect Joy yet more. From the Joy of Cessation comes a passionless state.
The Joy of Sahaja is finality. The first comes by desire for contact, the second by desire for bliss, the third from the passing of passion, by this means the fourth is realized. Perfect Joy is samsara; the Joy of Cessation is nirvana. There is a plain Joy between the two. Sahaja is free of them all. For there is a middle to be obtained; the siddhi, wrote a commentary on Sahaja teachings called the Sahajasiddhipaddhati. Sahaja is one of the four keywords of the Nath sampradaya along with Svecchachara and Samarasa. Sahaja meditation and worship was prevalent in Tantric traditions common to Hinduism and Buddhism in Bengal as early as the 8th–9th centuries; the British Nath teacher Mahendranath wrote: Man is born with an instinct for naturalness. He has never forgotten the days of his primordial perfection, except insomuch as the memory became buried under the artificial superstructure of civilization and its artificial concepts. Sahaja means natural... The tree grows according to Sahaja and spontaneous in complete conformity with the Natural Law of the Universe.
Nobody tells it how to grow. It has no swadharma or rules and obligations incurred by birth, it has only svabhava - essence - to guide it. Sahaja is that nature which, when established in oneself, brings the state of absolute freedom and peace; the concept of a spontaneous spirituality entered Hinduism with Nath yogis such as Gorakshanath and was alluded to indirectly and symbolically in the twilight language common to sahaja traditions as found in the Charyapada and works by Matsyendranath and Daripada. It influenced the bhakti movement through the Sant tradition, exemplified by the Bauls of Bengal, Meera and Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism. Yoga in particular had a quickening influence on the various Sahajiya traditions; the culture of the body through processes of Haṭha-yoga was of paramount importance in the Nāth sect and found in all sahaja schools. Whether conceived of as'supreme bliss', as by the Buddhist Sahajiyās, or as'supreme love', strength of the body was deemed necessary to stand such a supreme realisation.
The Vaishnava-Sahajiya sect became popular in 17th century Bengal. It sought religious experience through the five senses; the divine relationship between Krishna and Radha had been celebrated by Chandidas and Vidyapati whose works foreshadowed the rasas or "flavours" of love. The two aspects of absolute reality were explained as the eternal enjoyer and the enjoyed, Kṛṣṇa and Rādhā conceived of as ontological principles of which all men and women are physical manifestations, as may be realised through a process of attribution, in which the sexual intercourse of a human couple is transmuted into the divine love between Kṛṣṇa and Rādhā, leading to the highest spiritual realisation, the state of union or Yugala; the element of love, the innovation of the Vaiṣṇava Sahajiyā school, is based on the element of yoga in the form of physical and psychological discipline. Vaisnava-Sahajiya is a synthesis and complex of traditions that, due to its sexual tantric practices, was perceived with disdain by other religious communities and much of the time was forced to operate in secrecy.
Its literature employed an encrypted and
Protein Wisdom is a libertarian weblog created by former academic and sometime fiction writer Jeff Goldstein—a self-described classical liberal. Barrett Brown of The Huffington Post has described the blog as catering to "one of the most collectively cerebral audiences one may find within the right side of the blogosphere". Goldstein's respect for the legacy of Hunter S. Thompson is an enduring theme, as is his sardonic allusions to such popular cult figures as Martha Stewart and the fictional Billy Jack; the blog is known for its bawdy overtones, surrealistic sense of humor, biting wit. Goldstein vocally opposed the abrupt change of financial arrangements by Pajamas Media in 2009, which deprived him — and other bloggers such as The Anchoress and Ace of Spades HQ — of income from PJM-mediated advertising, he publicly chastised those he refers to as GOP pragmatists or realists for their criticism of Rush Limbaugh's answer to a question about the coming Obama presidency, once again relying on linguistics and hermeneutics to make the point that "losing more slowly" is still losing, that there is nothing more pragmatic, as a political strategy, than standing on principleIn 2016, he was a vocal critic of the Trump nomination and of the idea of "White Nationalism," likening it to an "identity politics of the right."Recently, however, he has praised the effectiveness of many Trump Administration policies and expressed a willingness to support his re-election campaign under the right circumstances.
On July 4, 2006, University of Arizona adjunct professor Deborah Frisch started writing comments at Protein Wisdom. Two days she wrote "You live in Colorado, I see. Hope no one JonBenets your baby." She added: "I reiterate: If some nutcase kidnapped your child tomorrow and did to him what was done to your fellow Coloradan, JonBenet Ramsey, I wouldn't give a damn." She resigned and apologized, saying "I don’t think professors should do that. I crossed the line." Her behavior gained nationwide news coverage. Following further incidents, Goldstein obtained a restraining order and preliminary injunction against her. Goldstein has said he took temporary breaks from blogging to deal with continued harassment from Frisch, who has faced continued legal problems since her relocation to the Pacific Northwest. Conservative bloggers have alleged other strange behavior by Frisch since then. In 2015, Frisch was arrested four times on charges including stalking, criminal trespass, initiating a false police report.
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