In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a network host, peripheral device, disk sector, a memory cell or other logical or physical entity. For software programs to save and retrieve stored data, each unit of data must have an address where it can be individually located or else the program will be unable to find and manipulate the data; the number of address spaces available will depend on the underlying address structure and these will be limited by the computer architecture being used. Address spaces are created by combining enough uniquely identified qualifiers to make an address unambiguous within the address space. For a person's physical address, the address space would be a combination of locations, such as a neighborhood, city, or country; some elements of an address space may be the same, but if any element in the address is different addresses in said space will reference different entities. An example could be that there are multiple buildings at the same address of "32 Main Street" but in different towns, demonstrating that different towns have different, although arranged, street address spaces.
An address space provides a partitioning to several regions according to the mathematical structure it has. In the case of total order, as for memory addresses, these are chunks; some nested domain hierarchies appear in the case of directed ordered tree as for the Domain Name System or a directory structure. In the Internet, for example, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority allocates ranges of IP addresses to various registries in order to enable them to each manage their parts of the global Internet address space. Uses of addresses include, but are not limited to the following: Memory addresses for main memory, memory-mapped I/O, as well as for virtual memory. Another common feature of address spaces are mappings and translations forming numerous layers; this means that some higher-level address must be translated to lower-level ones in some way. For example, file system on a logical disk operates linear sector numbers, which have to be translated to absolute LBA sector addresses, in simple cases, via addition of the partition's first sector address.
For a disk drive connected via Parallel ATA, each of them must be converted to logical cylinder-head-sector address due to the interface historical shortcomings. It is converted back to LBA by the disk controller and finally, to physical cylinder and sector numbers; the Domain Name System maps its names to network-specific addresses, which in turn may be mapped to link layer network addresses via Address Resolution Protocol. Network address translation may occur on the edge of different IP spaces, such as a local area network and the Internet. An iconic example of virtual-to-physical address translation is virtual memory, where different pages of virtual address space map either to page file or to main memory physical address space, it is possible that several numerically different virtual addresses all refer to one physical address and hence to the same physical byte of RAM. It is possible that a single virtual address maps to zero, one, or more than one physical address. Linear address space Name space Virtualization
Nintendo Co. Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto. Nintendo is one of the world's largest video game companies by market capitalization, creating some of the best-known and top-selling video game franchises, such as Mario, The Legend of Zelda, Pokémon. Founded on 23 September 1889 by Fusajiro Yamauchi, it produced handmade hanafuda playing cards. By 1963, the company had tried several small niche businesses, such as cab services and love hotels. Abandoning previous ventures in favor of toys in the 1960s, Nintendo developed into a video game company in the 1970s becoming one of the most influential in the industry and one of Japan's most-valuable companies with a market value of over $37 billion in 2018. Nintendo was founded as a playing card company by Fusajiro Yamauchi on 23 September 1889. Based in Kyoto, the business marketed Hanafuda cards; the handmade cards soon became popular, Yamauchi hired assistants to mass-produce cards to satisfy demand.
In 1949, the company adopted the name Nintendo Karuta Co. Ltd. doing business as The Nintendo Playing Card Co. outside Japan. Nintendo continues to manufacture playing cards in Japan and organizes its own contract bridge tournament called the "Nintendo Cup"; the word Nintendo can be translated as "leave luck to heaven", or alternatively as "the temple of free hanafuda". In 1956, Hiroshi Yamauchi, grandson of Fusajiro Yamauchi, visited the U. S. to talk with the United States Playing Card Company, the dominant playing card manufacturer there. He found. Yamauchi's realization that the playing card business had limited potential was a turning point, he acquired the license to use Disney characters on playing cards to drive sales. In 1963, Yamauchi renamed Nintendo Playing Card Co. Ltd. to Nintendo Co. Ltd; the company began to experiment in other areas of business using newly injected capital during the period of time between 1963 and 1968. Nintendo set up a taxi company called Daiya; this business was successful.
However, Nintendo was forced to sell it because problems with the labour unions were making it too expensive to run the service. It set up a love hotel chain, a TV network, a food company and several other ventures. All of these ventures failed, after the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, playing card sales dropped, Nintendo's stock price plummeted to its lowest recorded level of ¥60. In 1966, Nintendo moved into the Japanese toy industry with the Ultra Hand, an extendable arm developed by its maintenance engineer Gunpei Yokoi in his free time. Yokoi was moved from maintenance to the new "Nintendo Games" department as a product developer. Nintendo continued to produce popular toys, including the Ultra Machine, Love Tester and the Kousenjuu series of light gun games. Despite some successful products, Nintendo struggled to meet the fast development and manufacturing turnaround required in the toy market, fell behind the well-established companies such as Bandai and Tomy. In 1973, its focus shifted to family entertainment venues with the Laser Clay Shooting System, using the same light gun technology used in Nintendo's Kousenjuu series of toys, set up in abandoned bowling alleys.
Following some success, Nintendo developed several more light gun machines for the emerging arcade scene. While the Laser Clay Shooting System ranges had to be shut down following excessive costs, Nintendo had found a new market. Nintendo's first venture into the video gaming industry was securing rights to distribute the Magnavox Odyssey video game console in Japan in 1974. Nintendo began to produce its own hardware in 1977, with the Color TV-Game home video game consoles. Four versions of these consoles were produced, each including variations of a single game. A student product developer named, he worked for Yokoi, one of his first tasks was to design the casing for several of the Color TV-Game consoles. Miyamoto went on to create and produce some of Nintendo's most famous video games and become one of the most recognizable figures in the video game industry. In 1975, Nintendo moved into the video arcade game industry with EVR Race, designed by their first game designer, Genyo Takeda, several more games followed.
Nintendo had some small success with this venture, but the release of Donkey Kong in 1981, designed by Miyamoto, changed Nintendo's fortunes dramatically. The success of the game and many licensing opportunities gave Nintendo a huge boost in profit and in addition, the game introduced an early iteration of Mario known in Japan as Jumpman, the eventual company mascot. In 1979, Gunpei Yokoi conceived the idea of a handheld video game, while observing a fellow bullet train commuter who passed the time by interacting idly with a portable LCD calculator, which gave birth to Game & Watch. In 1980, Nintendo launched Watch -- a handheld video game series developed by Yokoi; these systems do not contain interchangeable cartridges and thus the hardware was tied to the game. The first Game & Watch game, was distributed worldwide; the modern "cross" D-pad design was developed by Yokoi for a Donkey Kong version. Proven to be popular, the design was patented by Nintendo, it earned a Technology & Engineering Emmy Award.
In 1983, Nintendo launched the Family Computer home video game console in Japan, alongside ports of its most popular arcade games. In 1985, a cosmetically reworked version of the system known
Intel System Development Kit
Each time Intel launched a new microprocessor, they provided a System Development Kit allowing engineers, university students, others to familiarise themselves with the new processor's concepts and features. The SDK single-board computers allowed the user to enter object code from a keyboard or upload it through a communication port, test run the code; the SDK boards provided a system monitor ROM to operate other interfaces. Kits varied in their specific features but offered optional memory and interface configurations, a serial terminal link, audio cassette storage, EPROM program memory. Intel's Intellec development system could download code to the SDK boards. In addition, Intel sold a range of larger-scale development systems which ran their proprietary operating systems and hosted development tools – assemblers and compilers – targeting their processors; these included the Microprocessor Development System, Personal Development System, In-Circuit Emulators, device programmers and so on. Most of these were rendered obsolete when the IBM PC became a de facto standard, by other standardised technologies such as JTAG.
The SIM4-01 prototyping board holds a complete MCS-4 micro computer set including the first microprocessor, the 4004, introduced in 1971. The SIM8-01 prototyping board holding a MCS-8 micro computer set was released in 1972; the SDK-51 MCS-51 System Design Kit released 1982 contained all of the components of a single-board computer based on Intel's 8051 single-chip microcomputer, clocked at 12 MHZ. SDK-51 used the external ROM version of the 8051. Provides a serial port which can support either RS232 or current loop configurations, an audio cassette interface to save and load programs. Unlike some of Intel's other SDKs, the built-in monitor can only be controlled via the built-in QWERTY keyboard and cannot be commanded via the serial port. However, memory dumps and disassembly listings can be dumped out to the serial port, it can be used to transfer data to/from a connected PC in the form of Intel hex files. RAM up to 16 KB ROM up to 8 KB expansion SIZE / WEIGHT 12 × 14 × 2 inch I/O ports: parallel, serial up to 9600 baud KEYBOARD Standard Qwerty layout with additional 12 button keypad DISPLAY 24 alpha/numeric 18 segment LEDs OS 8K Monitor in ROM POWER SUPPLY External 5V 3A/ +12V, -12V 100mA power supply unit PERIPHERALS Expansion area on board PRICE $1200 in the US Documentation Assembly Manual User Manual The 8080 System Design Kit of 1975 provided a training and prototype vehicle for evaluation of the 8080 microcomputer system, clocked at 0.5 MHZ.
The SDK-80 allowed interface to custom interface development. A monitor ROM was provided. RAM 256 bytes expandable to 1 KB ROM 2 KB expandable to 4 KB SIZE / WEIGHT 12 × 0.5 × 6.75 inch I/O ports: parallel, serial up to 4800 baud Documentation User's Manual The HSE-49 emulator of 1979 was a stand-alone development tool with on-board 33-key keypad, 8-character display, two 8039 microcontrollers, 2K bytes of user-program RAM, a serial port and cable, a ROM-based monitor which supervises the emulator operation and user interface. The emulator provides a means for executing and debugging programs for the 8048/8049 family of microcontrollers at speeds up to 11 MHz, it interfaced to a user-designed system through an emulation cable and 40-pin plug, which replaced the MCS-48 device in the user's system. Using the HSE-49 keypad, a designer can run programs in real-time or single-step modes, set up to 8000 breakpoint flags, display or change the contents of user program memory and external data memory, internal MCS-48 hardware registers.
When linked to a host Intellec development system, the HSE-49 emulator system-debugging capabilities, with the development system program assembly and storage facilities, provide the tools required for total product development. Freq. 11 MHz RAM 2 KB VRAM None ROM 2 KB SIZE / WEIGHT 14 × 0.5 × 10 inch / 4.0 Ib I/O ports: Emulation Cable and Plug & 20 mA Current Loop or RS232 The SDK-85 MCS-85 System Design Kit was a single board microcomputer system kit using the 8085 processor, clocked at 3 MHz with a 1.3 us instruction cycle time. It contained all components required to complete construction of the kit, including LED display, resistors, caps and miscellaneous hardware. A preprogrammed ROM was supplied with a system monitor; the kit included a 6-digit LED display and a 24-key keyboard for direct insertion and execution of a user's program. It had a serial transistor interface for a 20 mA current loop Teletype using the bit-serial SID and SOD pins on the CPU; the maximum user RAM for programs and data, on the factory standard kit, was limited to 0xC2 or 194 decimal bytes.
The full 256 bytes was available on the expansion RAM. User programs could call subroutines in the monitor ROM for functions such as: Serial In/Out, CRLF, Read Keyboard, Write Display, time delay, convert binary to two character hexadecimal etc. RAM 256 bytes expandable to 512 bytes with another 8155 RAM / 22 programmable IO lines; the 14-bit programmable Timer/Counter was used for system single-step control. The expansion Timer/Counter was available. ROM 2 KB expandable to 4 KB with another 8755 EPROM / 16 programmable IO lines in the expansion socket. SIZE / WEIGHT 30.5 × 25.7 × 1.3 cm. Documentation User's Manual The Intel ECK88 8088 Educational Component Kit was released in 1979, used the 8088 processor; the SDK-86 MCS-86 System Design Kit is a complete single board
The Sinclair QL, is a personal computer launched by Sinclair Research in 1984, as an upper-end counterpart to the Sinclair ZX Spectrum. The QL was aimed at the serious home user and professional and executive users markets from small to large businesses and higher educational establishments, but failed to achieve commercial success. Based on a Motorola 68008 processor clocked at 7.5 MHz, the QL included 128 KB of RAM, expandable to 640 KB and in practice, 896 KB. It could be connected to a TV for display. Two built-in Microdrive tape-loop cartridge drives provided mass storage, in place of the more expensive floppy disk drives found on similar systems of the era. Microdrives had been introduced for the Sinclair ZX Spectrum in July 1983, although the QL used a different logical tape format. Interfaces included an expansion slot, ROM cartridge socket, dual RS-232 ports, proprietary QLAN local area network ports, dual joystick ports and an external Microdrive bus. Two video modes were available, 256×256 pixels with 8 RGB colours and per-pixel flashing, or 512×256 pixels with four colours: black, red and white.
The supported colours could be stippled in 2×2 blocks to simulate up to 256 colours, an effect which did not copy reliably on a TV over an RF connection. Both screen modes used a 32 KB framebuffer in main memory; the hardware was capable of switching between two different areas of memory for the frame buffer, thus allowing double buffering. However, this would have used 64 KB of the standard machine's 128 KB of RAM and there was no support for this feature in the QL's original firmware; the alternative and much improved operating system Minerva does provide full support for the second frame buffer. When connected to a normally-adjusted TV or monitor, the QL's video output would overscan horizontally; this was reputed to have been due to the timing constants in the ZX8301 chip being optimised for the flat-screen CRT display intended for the QL. Internally, the QL comprised the CPU, two ULAs, an Intel 8049 microcontroller known as the IPC, or "Intelligent Peripheral Controller"; the ZX8301 or "Master Chip" implemented the video display generator and provided DRAM refresh.
The ZX8302, or "Peripheral Chip", interfaced to the RS-232 ports Microdrives, QLAN ports, real-time clock and the 8049 via a synchronous serial link. The 8049 included at late stage in the QL's design, the ZX8302 being intended to perform its functions ran at 11 MHz and acted as a keyboard/joystick interface, RS-232 receive buffer and audio generator; the first pre-emptive multitasking operating system for a microcomputer, QDOS designed by Tony Tebby, was included on ROM, as was an advanced structured BASIC interpreter, named SuperBASIC designed by Jan Jones, used as the command-line interpreter. The QL was bundled with an office suite, consisting of a word processor, spreadsheet and business graphics written by Psion. Physically, the QL was the same black colour as the preceding ZX81 and Sinclair ZX Spectrum models, but introduced a new angular styling theme and keyboard design which would be seen in the ZX Spectrum+; the QL used British Telecom type 631W plugs of similar design to British telephone sockets for serial cables except for QLs built by Samsung for export markets, which had DE-9 sockets.
Joysticks connected to the QL with similar type 630W plugs. The QL was conceived in 1981 under the code-name ZX83, as a portable computer for business users, with a built-in ultra-thin flat-screen CRT display similar to the TV80 pocket TV, printer and modem; as development progressed it became clear that the portability features were over-ambitious and the specification was reduced to a conventional desktop configuration. The electronics were designed by David Karlin, who joined Sinclair Research in summer 1982; the industrial design was done by Rick Dickinson, who designed the ZX81 and ZX Spectrum range of products. Sinclair had commissioned GST Computer Systems to produce the operating system for the machine, but switched to Domesdos, developed by Tony Tebby as an in-house alternative, before launch. GST's OS, designed by Tim Ward, was made available as 68K/OS, in the form of an add-on ROM card; the tools developed by GST for the QL would be used on the Atari ST, where GST object format became standard.
The QL was designed to be more powerful than the IBM Personal Computer, comparable to Apple's Macintosh. The QL was the first mass-market personal computer based on the Motorola 68000-series processor family. Rushed into production, the QL beat the Apple Macintosh by a month, the Atari ST by a year and the Commodore Amiga by a year and 2 months. While clock speeds were comparable, the 8-bit databus and cycle stealing of the ZX8301 gate array limited the QL's performance. However, at the time of launch, on January 12, 1984, the QL was far from being ready for production, there being no complete working prototype in existence. Although Sinclair started taking orders promising delivery within 28 days, first customer deliveries only started in April; this provoked much criticism of the company and the attention of the Advertising Standards Authority. Due to its premature launch, the QL was plagued by a number of problems from the start. Early production QLs were shipped with preliminary versions of firmware containing numerous bugs in SuperBASIC.
Part of the firmware was held on an external 16 KB ROM cartridge known as the "kludge" or "dongle", until the QL was redesigned to accommodate the necessary 48 KB of ROM internally, instead of the 32 KB specified. The QL suffered from reliability problems of its Microdrives; these problems were later
Video game console
A video game console is a computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play. The term "video game console" is used to distinguish a console machine designed for consumers to use for playing video games, in contrast to arcade machines or home computers. An arcade machine consists of a video game computer, game controller and speakers housed in large chassis. A home computer is a personal computer designed for home use for a variety of purposes, such as bookkeeping, accessing the Internet and playing video games. While arcades and computers are expensive or “technical” devices, video game consoles were designed with affordability and accessibility to the general public in mind. Unlike similar consumer electronics such as music players and movie players, which use industry-wide standard formats, video game consoles use proprietary formats which compete with each other for market share. There are various types of video game consoles, including home video game consoles, handheld game consoles and dedicated consoles.
Although Ralph Baer had built working game consoles by 1966, it was nearly a decade before the Pong game made them commonplace in regular people's living rooms. Through evolution over the 1990s and 2000s, game consoles have expanded to offer additional functions such as CD players, DVD players, Blu-ray disc players, web browsers, set-top boxes and more; the first video games appeared in the 1960s. They were played on massive computers connected to vector displays, not analog televisions. Ralph H. Baer conceived the idea of a home video game in 1951. In the late 1960s, while working for Sanders Associates, Baer created a series of video game console designs. One of these designs, which gained the nickname of the 1966 "Brown Box", featured changeable game modes and was demonstrated to several TV manufacturers leading to an agreement between Sanders Associates and Magnavox. In 1972, Magnavox released the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home video game console which could be connected to a TV set. Ralph Baer's initial design had called for a huge row of switches that would allow players to turn on and off certain components of the console to create different games like tennis, volleyball and chase.
Magnavox replaced the switch design with separate cartridges for each game. Although Baer had sketched up ideas for cartridges that could include new components for new games, the carts released by Magnavox all served the same function as the switches and allowed players to choose from the Odyssey's built-in games; the Odyssey sold about 100,000 units, making it moderately successful, it was not until Atari's arcade game Pong popularized video games that the public began to take more notice of the emerging industry. By autumn 1975, bowing to the popularity of Pong, canceled the Odyssey and released a scaled-down version that played only Pong and hockey, the Odyssey 100. A second, "higher end" console, the Odyssey 200, was released with the 100 and added on-screen scoring, up to four players, a third game—Smash. Released with Atari's own home Pong console through Sears, these consoles jump-started the consumer market. All three of the new consoles used simpler designs than the original Odyssey did with no board game pieces or extra cartridges.
In the years that followed, the market saw many companies rushing similar consoles to market. After General Instrument released their inexpensive microchips, each containing a complete console on a single chip, many small developers began releasing consoles that looked different externally, but internally were playing the same games. Most of the consoles from this era were dedicated consoles playing only the games that came with the console; these video game consoles were just called video games because there was little reason to distinguish the two yet. While a few companies like Atari and newcomer Coleco pushed the envelope, the market became flooded with simple, similar video games. Fairchild released the Fairchild Video Entertainment System in 1976. While there had been previous game consoles that used cartridges, either the cartridges had no information and served the same function as flipping switches or the console itself was empty and the cartridge contained all of the game components.
The VES, contained a programmable microprocessor so its cartridges only needed a single ROM chip to store microprocessor instructions. RCA and Atari soon released their own cartridge-based consoles, the RCA Studio II and the Atari 2600, respectively; the first handheld game console with interchangeable cartridges was the Microvision designed by Smith Engineering, distributed and sold by Milton-Bradley in 1979. Crippled by a small, fragile LCD display and a narrow selection of games, it was discontinued two years later; the Epoch Game Pocket Computer was released in Japan in 1984. The Game Pocket Computer featured an LCD screen with 75 X 64 resolution and could produce graphics at about the same level as early Atari 2600 games; the system sold poorly, as a result, only five games were made for it. Nintendo's Game & Watch series of dedicated game systems proved more successful, it helped to establish handheld gaming as popular and lasted until 1991. Many Game & Watch games were re-released on Nintendo's subsequent handheld systems.
The VES continued to be sold at a profit after 1977, both Bally and Magnavox brought their own programmable cartridge-based consoles to the market. However, i
The Intel MCS-51 is a single chip microcontroller series developed by Intel in 1980 for use in embedded systems. The architect of the instruction set of the Intel MCS-51 was John H. Wharton. Intel's original versions were popular in the 1980s and early 1990s and enhanced binary compatible derivatives remain popular today, it is an example of a complex instruction set computer, has separate memory spaces for program instructions and data. Intel's original MCS-51 family was developed using N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor technology like its predecessor Intel MCS-48, but versions, identified by a letter C in their name used complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor technology and consume less power than their NMOS predecessors; this made them more suitable for battery-powered devices. The family was continued in 1996 with the enhanced 8-bit MCS-151 and the 8/16/32-bit MCS-251 family of binary compatible microcontrollers. While Intel no longer manufactures the MCS-51, MCS-151 and MCS-251 family, enhanced binary compatible derivatives made by numerous vendors remain popular today.
Some derivatives integrate a digital signal processor. Beyond these physical devices, several companies offer MCS-51 derivatives as IP cores for use in field-programmable gate array or application-specific integrated circuit designs; the 8051 architecture provides many functions in one package: 8-bit arithmetic logic unit and accumulator, 8-bit registers, 8-bit data bus and 2×16-bit address bus, program counter, data pointer, related 8/11/16-bit operations. This feature helped cement the 8051's popularity in industrial control applications because it reduced code size by as much as 30%. Another feature is the inclusion of four bank selectable working register sets which reduce the amount of time required to perform the context switches to enter and leave interrupt service routines. With one instruction, the 8051 can switch register banks, avoiding the time consuming task of transferring the critical registers to RAM. Once a UART, a timer if necessary, has been configured, the programmer needs only write a simple interrupt routine to refill the send shift register whenever the last bit is shifted out by the UART and/or empty the full receive shift register.
The main program performs serial reads and writes by reading and writing 8-bit data to stacks. As of 2013, new derivatives are still developed by many major chipmakers, major compiler suppliers such as IAR Systems and Altium Tasking continuously release updates. MCS-51 based microcontrollers include one or two UARTs, two or three timers, 128 or 256 bytes of internal data RAM, up to 128 bytes of I/O, 512 bytes to 64 KB of internal program memory, sometimes a quantity of extended data RAM located in the external data space. External RAM and ROM share the data and address buses; the original 8051 core ran at 12 clock cycles per machine cycle, with most instructions executing in one or two machine cycles. With a 12 MHz clock frequency, the 8051 could thus execute 1 million one-cycle instructions per second or 500,000 two-cycle instructions per second. Enhanced 8051 cores are now used which run at six, two, or one clock per machine cycle, have clock frequencies of up to 100 MHz, are thus capable of an greater number of instructions per second.
All Silicon Labs, some Dallas and a few Atmel devices have single cycle cores. 8051 variants may include built-in reset timers with brown-out detection, on-chip oscillators, self-programmable flash ROM program memory, built-in external RAM, extra internal program storage, bootloader code in ROM, EEPROM non-volatile data storage, I²C, SPI, USB host interfaces, CAN or LIN bus, ZigBee or Bluetooth radio modules, PWM generators, analog comparators, A/D and D/A converters, RTCs, extra counters and timers, in-circuit debugging facilities, more interrupt sources, extra power saving modes, more/less parallel ports etc. Intel manufactured a mask programmed version, 8052AH-BASIC, with a BASIC interpreter in ROM, capable of running user programs loaded into RAM. MCS-51 based. Examples for high-temperature variants are the Tekmos TK8H51 family for −40 °C to +250 °C or the Honeywell HT83C51 for −55 °C to +225 °C. Radiation-hardenend MCS-51 microcontrollers for use in spacecraft are available.
Magnavox is an American electronics company founded in the United States. Since 1974 it is a subsidiary of Dutch electronics corporation Philips; the predecessor to Magnavox was founded in 1911 by Edwin Pridham and Peter L. Jensen, co-inventors of the moving-coil loudspeaker at their lab in Napa, California under United States Patent number 1,105,924 for telephone receivers. Six decades Magnavox produced the Odyssey, the world's first home video game console toy. Magnavox is the brand name worn by a line of products now made by Funai under license from trademark owner Philips. Jensen and Pridham founded the Commercial Wireless and Development Company in 1911, moved from Napa to San Francisco Oakland in 1916. In July, 1917 a merger with The Sonora Phonograph Distributor Company was finalized and the Magnavox Company was born. Frank Morgan Steers was chosen as the company's first President. Jensen moved on to Chicago, in the late 1920s. Pridham stayed on with Magnavox; the term "Commercial Wireless" had a different meaning in the early days of telephone.
Magnavox manufactured radios, TVs, phonographs. In the 1960s Magnavox manufactured the first plasma displays for the military and for computer applications. In 1972 Magnavox introduced the Odyssey. In 1974, the Magnavox Company was acquired by Philips of the Netherlands to ensure nationwide distribution for their VLP Videodisc technology, all Philips consumer electronics in the US under the Norelco name began rebranding them under the Magnavox name. In the late 1970s, Philips developed LaserDisc technology, producing an optically read, 12 inch disc that would contain recorded video material. In the early 1980s, Philips worked with Sony to create a standard for optical audio discs, using the technology developed for the LaserDisc. Teamed with Sony, Philips used the Magnavox brand name to introduce the CD-DA standard and equipment for consumer audio with the Magnavox player sold in department stores while the Sony CDP-101 went to high-end audio stores. During the late 1970s the company released the Odyssey² known as the Philips Videopac.
In the early 1980s, Philips merged Sylvania and Magnavox into one division headquartered in Knoxville, with a manufacturing plant in Greeneville, Tennessee. The Sylvania plant in Batavia, New York was closed and all operations moved to Greeneville. Philips abandoned the Sylvania trademark, owned by Osram. In the late 1980s, Magnavox sold the Magnavox/Philips VideoWriter with some success. Released in 1985, the VideoWriter was a standalone fixed-application word processing machine. Philips Computers based in Canada, sold its products in North America under the Magnavox brand with minor rebadging in logo and color scheme of computers, monitors and manuals. Philips exited the proprietary personal computer business in 1992. Philips sold the Greenville plant in 1997. Starting in the early 1990s, some Philips electronics were marketed under the brand name "Philips Magnavox", in an attempt to increase brand awareness of the Philips name in the United States. While it did work to a degree, it caused confusion to the consumer as to the difference between "Philips Magnavox" products and "Philips" products, resulting in Philips marketing the two brands separately again.
The defense electronics group, centered in Fort Wayne, remained independent under the Magnavox Electronic Systems name, first under Philips and in the Carlyle Group, until it was acquired by Hughes Electronics in 1995. The three areas of business of the MESC operation during the late 1980s and early 1990s were C-Cubed, Electronic Warfare, sonobuoys; when Hughes Electronics sold its aerospace and defense operations to Raytheon, the former Magnavox defense operations were transferred as well. Shortly thereafter, Raytheon spun off the sonobuoy operation to form Under Sea Systems Inc, in Columbia City, Indiana. In 1998, Raytheon sold USSI to a British defense consortium named Ultra Electronics; the company is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Ultra, manufacturing water and acoustic sensing and communications devices for military and civil defense. Among the defense products Magnavox manufactured were the AN/ARC-164 UHF radio, AN/SSQ-53 series sonobuoys, AN/ALQ-128 EW equipment, AN/SSQ-62 series sonobuoys, the Advanced Field Artillery Data System.
The brand has worked with Funai with their televisions after the Philips Magnavox name was popular. Magnavox has a brand licensing deal where several of their consumer electronics are manufactured by Craig Electronics and sold under the Magnavox brand. In Australia, the rights to the Magnavox brand are not owned by Philips but by Mistral Ltd, a Hong Kong trading company that uses it to sell audio/video equipment of a different make. In Europe, the brand Magnavox was used in the 1990s by Philips on budget consumer electronics to replace traditional local brand names. Since no one recognised the brand name, it was soon discontinued. Official Magnavox website Philco International