General Intelligence Directorate (Egypt)
The General Intelligence Directorate referred to as the Mukhabarat is an Egyptian intelligence agency responsible for providing national security intelligence, both domestically and transnationally, with a counter-terrorism focus. The GID is part of the Egyptian intelligence community, together with the Office of Military Intelligence Services and Reconnaissance and National Security Agency. In July 2013, General Mohammed Ahmed Fareed al-Tohami was appointed head of the Egyptian intelligence apparatus, instead of Mohamed Raafat Shehata, appointed by Mohamed Morsi in August 2012; the decision to set up an Egyptian intelligence service was taken by President Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1954, placed under the command of Zakaria Mohieddin. The agency's importance rose when Nasser assigned its command to Salah Nasr, who held the post of director of the GID from 1957 to 1967 and reorganized the agency. Under Nasr's supervision, the GID relocated to its own building and established separate divisions for Radio, Computer and Black Operations.
To cover the agency's expenses, Nasr set up Al Nasr Company, ostensibly an import-export firm, as a front organization. He played a important role helping Algeria, Southern Yemen and many Arab and African states gain independence. Although the Egyptian foreign ministry was responsible for foreign affairs, GID initiated and aided many Arab and African movements for independence as a part of Gamal Abdel Nasser's anti-imperialist policies. Nasr established good relations with other intelligence agencies across the globe, which helped providing Egypt with wheat and establishing industries such as. One of his constructions is the Gezeera Tower in Cairo. For several years the name of GID director was a secret only known to high officials and government newspapers chief editors. However, Major-General Omar Suleiman, the head of the GID from 1993 to January 2011, was the first one to break this taboo, his name was published before he himself became a known face in media after being envoyed by former Egyptian president Mubarak to Israel, USA and Gaza on several occasions.
On 31 January 2011, Major-General Murad Muwafi was declared the director of GID, after Omar Suleiman was appointed as a Vice President of Egypt and resigned after former president Mubarak had to step down during the Egyptian revolution. He was replaced by Mohamed Raafat Shehata. In July 2013, as result of 2012–13 Egyptian protests, Mohamed Raafat Shehata was sacked by interim president Adly Mansour and was replaced by General Mohamed Ahmed Fareed. In spite of the rule that says "success in the intelligence world is a buried secret while failure is a world wide scandal" the GID did achieve many successes a few of which were released and dramatized in Egyptian TV and cinema; the GID states. That agent, Refaat Al-Gammal, managed to live 18 years in Israel without being discovered. In those years, he established a network of spies in various fields of the Israeli community, though this is contradicted by various Israeli sources, which claim that Refaat was a double agent and helped the IDF to win the Six-Day War.
In 1970 the GID managed to hunt an Israeli oil rig while being shipped from Canada to Sinai. Clandestine GID agents and frogmen succeeded in tracing the oil rig to Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, planted sets of explosives, had them detonated and crippled the rig; this was done while the city was full, not only of Mossad agents protecting the oil rig, but while it was full of CIA agents who were guarding the NASA astronauts during their visit to Côte d'Ivoire. This operation was published in 1985 under the name "Al-Haffar Operation" it was supervised at that time by GID director Amin Howeidi. A major success of the GID was handling the Egyptian "Strategic Deception Plan", carried out from January 1970 to October 1973 and aimed to conceal the Egyptian plans to launch massive operation to free occupied Sinai on 6 October 1973 starting the October war; the plan included planting false information and hidden implied data in Egyptian president Sadat's speeches and newspapers articles. For example, the GID prepared the military operations and evacuated complete sections of Cairo hospitals to be ready for receiving war casualties.
This evacuation that took place few days before the war started, was done after declaring false information that those hospitals were infected with Tetanus. The plan included a major operation; this operation aimed at getting detailed information of American spy satellites covering the Middle East, by knowing exact trajectories and timing of those satellites the GID prepared complicated logistic movement schedules for all Egyptian military units to avoid moving mass troops in timings where they could be spotted by satellites. Gumaa Al-Shawan who used to provide the Mossad with false information from 1967 to 1973, he used to get the advanced transmission devices from the Mossad and give it to the GID. During the 1973 war with Israel the GID spied on Mossad weeks prior to the surprise attack on the 6 October 1973; the information derived allowed the director and his associates to identify the weakest points on the Israeli front line. A suicide mission to divert the Israeli counter-attack was initiated to halt Israeli movements into mainland Egypt.
The Director of the General Intelligence serves as the head of the Egyptian General Intelligence Service, which
Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions. This aim is achieved by providing an assessment of data from a range of sources, directed towards the commanders' mission requirements or responding to questions as part of operational or campaign planning. To provide an analysis, the commander's information requirements are first identified, which are incorporated into intelligence collection and dissemination. Areas of study may include the operational environment, hostile and neutral forces, the civilian population in an area of combat operations, other broader areas of interest. Intelligence activities are conducted at all levels, from tactical to strategic, in peacetime, the period of transition to war, during a war itself. Most governments maintain a military intelligence capability to provide analytical and information collection personnel in both specialist units and from other arms and services.
The military and civilian intelligence capabilities collaborate to inform the spectrum of political and military activities. Personnel performing intelligence duties may be selected for their analytical abilities and personal intelligence before receiving formal training. Intelligence operations are carried out throughout the hierarchy of military activity. Strategic intelligence is concerned with broad issues such as economics, political assessments, military capabilities and intentions of foreign nations; such intelligence may be scientific, tactical, diplomatic or sociological, but these changes are analyzed in combination with known facts about the area in question, such as geography and industrial capacities. Operational intelligence is focused on denial of intelligence at operational tiers; the operational tier is below the strategic level of leadership and refers to the design of practical manifestation. The term operation intelligence is sometimes used to refer to intelligence that supports long-term investigations into multiple, similar targets.
Operational intelligence is concerned with identifying, targeting and intervening in criminal activity. Tactical intelligence is focused on support to operations at the tactical level and would be attached to the battlegroup. At the tactical level, briefings are delivered to patrols on current threats and collection priorities; these patrols are debriefed to elicit information for analysis and communication through the reporting chain. Intelligence should respond to the needs of leadership, based on the military objective and operational plans; the military objective provides a focus for the estimate process, from which a number of information requirements are derived. Information requirements may be related to terrain and impact on vehicle or personnel movement, disposition of hostile forces, sentiments of the local population and capabilities of the hostile order of battle. In response to the information requirements, analysts examine existing information, identifying gaps in the available knowledge.
Where gaps in knowledge exist, the staff may be able to task collection assets to target the requirement. Analysis reports draw on all available sources of information, whether drawn from existing material or collected in response to the requirement; the analysis reports are used to inform the remaining planning staff, influencing planning and seeking to predict adversary intent. This process is described as Intelligence Requirement Management; the process of intelligence has four phases: collection, analysis and dissemination. In the United Kingdom these are known as direction, collection and dissemination. In the U. S. military, Joint Publication 2-0 states: "The six categories of intelligence operations are: planning and direction. Many of the most important facts may be gathered from public sources; this form of information collection is known as open-source intelligence. For example, the population, ethnic make-up and main industries of a region are important to military commanders, this information is public.
It is however imperative that the collector of information understands that what is collected is "information", does not become intelligence until after an analyst has evaluated and verified this information. Collection of read materials, composition of units or elements, disposition of strength, tactics, personalities of these units and elements contribute to the overall intelligence value after careful analysis; the tonnage and basic weaponry of most capital ships and aircraft are public, their speeds and ranges can be reasonably estimated by experts just from photographs. Ordinary facts like the lunar phase on particular days or the ballistic range of common military weapons are very valuable to planning, are habitually collected in an intelligence library. A great deal of useful intelligence can be gathered from photointerpretation of detailed high-altitude pictures of a country. Photointerpreters maintain catalogs of munitions factories, military bases and crate designs in order to interpret munition shipments and inventories.
Most intelligence services support groups whose only purpose is to keep maps. Since maps have valuable civilian uses, these agencies are publicly associated or identified as other parts of the government; some historic counterintelligence services in Russia and China, have intentionally banned or p
Belgian General Information and Security Service
The General Intelligence and Security Service, known in Dutch as Algemene Dienst Inlichting en Veiligheid, in French as Service Général du Renseignement et de la Sécurité is the Belgian military intelligence service under responsibility of the Minister of Defence. It is one of two Belgian intelligence services, together with the civilian Belgian State Security Service; the military head of the GISS is called the Assistant Chief of Staff Intelligence and Security, part of the Defense Staff of the Belgian military. Air Force Lieutenant-General Claude Van de Voorde is the current chief, appointed in 2017. Belgian military intelligence has antecedents going back to the foundation of the Belgian Army in 1830, but the current service traces its establishment to 1915 at the front during World War I, it was referred to, like its immediate predecessor of 1910, as the 2nd Bureau of the General Staff It was charged with counterespionage and the internal security of the Belgian Army. During World War I the service undertook the army's intelligence operations and coordinated resistance activities behind enemy lines.
After the Armistice the service was responsible for the security of the Belgian troops participating in the occupation of the Ruhr area. In 1923 it was involved in the attempted Rhineland independence coup. With its counterespionage tasks the 2nd Bureau entered into a rivalry with the civilian State Security service, but a scandal caused by the bureau's forging of military plans against Holland and Germany which had fallen into the hands of the Dutch press, led to the suppression of the service and the transfer of its tasks to the civilian intelligence agency in 1929. The threat of renewed conflict saw to the resurrection of military intelligence in 1937 to cope with a surge in German espionage. In January of 1940, the service acquired the Luftwaffe's instructions to Fall Gelb, the German invasion of France and Belgium, as the plane carrying the courier crash landed on Belgian soil; the burnt plans allowed to deduce by what movements the three countries would be taken by the Nazi onslaught. Despite an attempt to hide their capture from the Germans, Hitler postponed the invasion to the spring.
The Belgians shared the plans with the Dutch and British. When the invasion did happen in May, it turned out it differed little from what could be gleaned from the documents captured the previous winter; the intelligence officers who made it to England would once again coordinate resistance activities on occupied soil. The 2nd Bureau would cooperate with the Special Operations Executive. It's effectiveness was hampered however by the distrust of the Belgian government in exile who favoured working through the civilian State Security; the reason was the government's conflict with King Leopold III, who had chosen to stay in Belgium after surrendering and had become a prisoner of the Nazis. The government feared the military service would be too loyal to the king their commander-in-chief and deemed it a security risk; the State Security would relegate the 2nd Bureau to processing filtered intelligence, while both rivals would not communicate about what they were doing in Belgium with their resistance groups.
The 2nd became so frustrated with the State Security's primacy that a High Commissioner had to be appointed to coordinate the two intelligence services and get them to fight the war against the Nazis rather than a war against each other. After the war the service occupied itself with the pursuit of collaborators. After a peacetime reorganisation of the General Staff in 1947, it was now called the Service Général du Renseignement, it had started taking an interest in the rise of the communist movement and entered into cooperation with private intelligence services dedicated to monitoring communists. The SGR undertook intelligence operations in support of the Belgian contingent participating in the Korean War. At home the service was made responsible for the military side of the NATO-led operation Stay Behind preparing for a possible Soviet invasion of the West: influenced by and co-operating with the British and American secret services, this was the job of the Service de Documentation, Renseignement et de l’Action VIII.
When the Belgian General Staff was reformed in 1964 the SGR was restructured and consisted of a division for intelligence, security and the Army archive. The coming to Belgium of NATO in 1968, which coincided with the growing importance of the European Community, drastically changed the intelligence and security outlook of the country; the added international dimension would involve increased spying activity and turn Brussels into a target for terrorism. Anglo-American concerns about the services’ ability to cope with the expanded portfolio had to be alleviated with an increase in their resources, some of which would be paid for with American money. Belgian military personnel as well as officials from the other ministries now had easy access to the international organizations, which made them a primary target for Warsaw Pact spies. While the State Security was responsible for most of this activity, military counterespionage fell to SDRA III of the SGR. In 1974 the SGR was made responsible for the establishment of the Public Information Office, a PR organisation by which the defence ministry sought to address the criticisms directed at the military by pacifist and communist movements.
Symptomatic of the SGR’s obsession with the left, the service involved its associates in the right-wing private intelligence entities and other shady anti-communist organisations, which took over the PIO when the ministry abolished it in 1979. During the 1980s, a number of incidents inclu
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people. It is used in this regard to refer to violence during peacetime or in war against non-combatants; the terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century but gained mainstream popularity in the 1970s in news reports and books covering the conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Basque Country and Palestine. The increased use of suicide attacks from the 1980s onwards was typified by the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, D. C. in 2001. There are different definitions of terrorism. Terrorism is a charged term, it is used with the connotation of something, "morally wrong". Governments and non-state groups denounce opposing groups. Varied political organizations have been accused of using terrorism to achieve their objectives; these organizations include right-wing and left-wing political organizations, nationalist groups, religious groups and ruling governments.
Legislation declaring terrorism a crime has been adopted in many states. There is no consensus as to; the Global Terrorism Database, maintained by the University of Maryland, College Park, has recorded more than 61,000 incidents of non-state terrorism, resulting in at least 140,000 deaths between 2000 and 2014. Etmologically, the word terror is derived from the Latin verb Tersere, which becomes Terrere; the latter form appears in European languages as early as the 12th century. By 1356 the word terreur is in use. Terreur is the origin of the Middle English term terrour, which becomes the modern word "terror"; the term terroriste, meaning "terrorist", is first used in 1794 by the French philosopher François-Noël Babeuf, who denounces Maximilien Robespierre's Jacobin regime as a dictatorship. In the years leading up to the Reign of Terror, the Brunswick Manifesto threatened Paris with an "exemplary, never to be forgotten vengeance: the city would be subjected to military punishment and total destruction" if the royal family was harmed, but this only increased the Revolution's will to abolish the monarchy.
Some writers attitudes about French Revolution grew less favorable after the French monarchy was abolished in 1792. During the Reign of Terror, which began in July 1793 and lasted thirteen months, Paris was governed by the Committee of Public safety who oversaw a regime of mass executions and public purges. Prior to the French Revolution, ancient philosophers wrote about tyrannicide, as tyranny was seen as the greatest political threat to Greco-Roman civilization. Medieval philosophers were occupied with the concept of tyranny, though the analysis of some theologians like Thomas Aquinas drew a distinction between usurpers, who could be killed by anyone, legitimate rulers who abused their power – the latter, in Aquinas' view, could only be punished by a public authority. John of Salisbury was the first medieval Christian scholar. Most scholars today trace the origins of the modern tactic of terrorism to the Jewish Sicarii Zealots who attacked Romans and Jews in 1st century Palestine, they follow its development from the Persian Order of Assassins through to 19th-century anarchists.
The "Reign of Terror" is regarded as an issue of etymology. The term terrorism has been used to describe violence by non-state actors rather than government violence since the 19th-century Anarchist Movement. In December 1795, Edmund Burke used the word "Terrorists" in a description of the new French government called'Directory': At length, after a terrible struggle, the Troops prevailed over the Citizens To secure them further, they have a strong corps of irregulars, ready armed. Thousands of those Hell-hounds called Terrorists, whom they had shut up in Prison on their last Revolution, as the Satellites of Tyranny, are let loose on the people; the terms "terrorism" and "terrorist" gained renewed currency in the 1970s as a result of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the Northern Ireland conflict, the Basque conflict, the operations of groups such as the Red Army Faction. Leila Khaled was described as a terrorist in a 1970 number of Life magazine. A number of books on terrorism were published in the 1970s.
The topic came further to the fore after the 1983 Beirut barracks bombings and again after the 2001 September 11 attacks and the 2002 Bali bombings. There are over 109 different definitions of terrorism. American political philosopher Michael Walzer in 2002 wrote: "Terrorism is the deliberate killing of innocent people, at random, to spread fear through a whole population and force the hand of its political leaders". Bruce Hoffman, an American scholar, has noted that It is not only individual agencies within the same governmental apparatus that cannot agree on a single definition of terrorism. Experts and other long-established scholars in the field are incapable of reaching a consensus. C. A. J. Coady has written that the question of how to define terrorism is "irresolvable" because "its natural home is in polemical and propagandist contexts". French historian Sophie Wahnich distinguishes between the revolutionary terror of the French Revolution and the terrorists of the September 11 attacks: Revolutionary terror is not terrorism.
To make a moral equivalence between the Revolution's year II and September 2001 is historical and philosophical nonsense... The violence exercised on 11 September 2001 aimed neither at liberty. Nor did the preventive war announced by the president of the United States. Experts
Assassination is the act of killing a prominent person for either political, religious or monetary reasons. An assassination may be prompted by political or military motives, it is an act that may be done for financial gain, to avenge a grievance, from a desire to acquire fame or notoriety, or because of a military, insurgent or secret police group's command to carry out the homicide. Acts of assassination have been performed since ancient times; the word assassin is believed to derive from the word Hashshashin, shares its etymological roots with hashish. It referred to a group of Nizari Shia Muslims. Founded by Hassan-i Sabbah, the Assassins were active in the fortress of Alamut in Persia from the 8th to the 14th centuries, expanded by capturing forts in Syria; the group killed members of the Abbasid, Seljuq and Christian Crusader elite for political and religious reasons. Although it is believed that Assassins were under the influence of hashish during their killings or during their indoctrination, there is debate as to whether these claims have merit, with many Eastern writers and an increasing number of Western academics coming to believe that drug-taking was not the key feature behind the name.
The earliest known use of the verb "to assassinate" in printed English was by Matthew Sutcliffe in A Briefe Replie to a Certaine Odious and Slanderous Libel, Lately Published by a Seditious Jesuite, a pamphlet printed in 1600, five years before it was used in Macbeth by William Shakespeare. Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics, it dates back at least as far as recorded history. In the Old Testament, King Joash of Judah was recorded as being assassinated by his own servants. Chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra, his student Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire made use of assassinations against some of his enemies, including two of Alexander the Great's generals and Philip. Other famous victims are Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, Roman consul Julius Caesar. Emperors of Rome met their end in this way, as did many of the Muslim Shia Imams hundreds of years later; the practice was well known in ancient China, as in Jing Ke's failed assassination of Qin king Ying Zheng in 227 BC.
Whilst many assassinations were performed by individuals or small groups, there were specialized units who used a collective group of people to perform more than one assassination. The earliest were the sicarii in 6 A. D. who predated the Middle Eastern assassins and Japanese ninjas by centuries. In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare in Western Europe, but it was a recurring theme in the Eastern Roman Empire. Blinding and strangling in the bathtub were the most used procedures. With the Renaissance, tyrannicide—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe. High medieval sources mention the assassination of King Demetrius Zvonimir, dying at the hands of his own people, who objected to a proposition by the Pope to go on a campaign to aid the Byzantines against the Seljuk Turks; this account is, contentious among historians, it being most asserted that he died of natural causes. The myth of the "Curse of King Zvonimir" is based on the legend of his assassination.
In 1192, Conrad of Montferrat, the de facto King of Jerusalem, was killed by an assassin. The reigns of King Przemysł II of Poland, William the Silent of the Netherlands, the French kings Henry III and Henry IV were all ended by assassins. In the modern world, the killing of important people began to become more than a tool in power struggles between rulers themselves and was used for political symbolism, such as in the propaganda of the deed. In Russia alone, two emperors, Paul I and his grandson Alexander II, were assassinated within 80 years. In the United Kingdom, only one Prime Minister has been assassinated—Spencer Perceval on May 11, 1812. In Japan, a group of assassins called the Four Hitokiri of the Bakumatsu killed a number of people, including Ii Naosuke, the head of administration for the Tokugawa shogunate, during the Boshin War. Most of the assassinations in Japan were committed with bladed weaponry, a trait, carried on into modern history. A video-record exists of the assassination of Inejiro Asanuma.
In the United States, within 100 years, four presidents—Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley and John F. Kennedy—died at the hands of assassins. There have been at least 20 known attempts on U. S. presidents' lives. Huey Long, a Senator, was assassinated on September 10, 1935. Robert F. Kennedy, a Senator and a presidential candidate, was assassinated on June 6, 1968 in the United States. In Austria, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, carried out by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian national and a member of the Serbian nationalist insurgents, is blamed for igniting World War I after a succession of minor conflicts, while belligerents on both sides in World War II used operatives trained for assassination. Reinhard Heydrich died after an attack by British-trained Czechoslovak soldiers on behalf of the Czechoslovak government in exile in Operation Anthropoid, knowledge from decoded transmissions allowed the United States to carry out a targeted attack, killing Japanese Admiral
Département du Renseignement et de la Sécurité
Département du Renseignement et de la Sécurité was the Algerian state intelligence service. Its existence dates back to the struggle for independence. In 2016 it was dissolved by President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and replaced by the Direction des services de sécurité; the DRS was formed as the Ministère de l'Armement et des Liaisons générales during the Algerian War for independence, under the direction by Abdelhafid Boussouf, whose role was to lead both the national and international networks of the Front de libération nationale. After independence in 1962, with the accession of Houari Boumédiène to the leadership of the country in 1965, the Algerian intelligence services professionalised and institutionalised. MALG was organized under five departments: DTN: National Communications department DDR: Documentation and Research department, responsible for military research DVCR: Vigilance and Counter Intelligence DLG: Army post network Management of logistics for acquiring and routing weapons and equipment.
This change of internal organization was modeled to a large extent on the intelligence and internal security services of the Eastern bloc Nations. Renamed Sécurité Militaire its directives were: Counter-espionage Internal security Foreign intelligenceThe first appointed Chairman of Military Security was the colonel Kasdi Merbah who stayed until the death of president Boumédiène in 1978, he was succeeded for a short time by colonel Yazid Zerhouni. President Chadli Bendjedid, who mistrusted the SM, dismantled it and renamed it the DGPS. Chadli appointed to the chair of the DGPS general Lakehal Ayat, reorganising the agency to work in foreign intelligence; the riots and turmoil of October 1988 caused president Chadli Bendjedid to dismiss General Ayat, succeeded by General Betchine. His tenure saw major political change, beginning with the advent of a multi-party political system and the rise of the Islamist movement of the FIS. Betchine was replaced by Mohamed Mediène in November 1990, who served until 2015.
Following this, the Services changed its name once again, from DGPS to DRS. Outside observers have charged that Mediène was one of the junta of generals who forced the cancellation the 1991 elections which the Islamists were set to win, plunging the nation into a war against the Islamist, increasing the power of the military—and the DRS—in Algeria's government, it was in this period that the DRS reasserted its role in internal security, becoming an active player in the Algerian Civil War of the 1990s. It had as many as 100,000 agents that infiltrated many segments of society. DRS agents infiltrated and manipulated terrorist groups, repressed different Islamist groups, it blocked negotiations both by the ruling and opposition powers with the FIS. In September 2013, the DRS was reorganized to bring more of its power under the state's control; the Groupe d'Intervention Spécial is a special force under the direction of the DRS. Abdelhafid Boussouf from 1954 to 1958 Houari Boumédiène from 1958 to 1965 Kasdi Merbah from 1965 to 1978 Yazid Zerhouni from 1979 to 1981 Lakehal Ayat from 1981 to 1988 Mohamed Betchine from 1988 to 1990 Mohamed Mediène from 1990 to 2015 Athmane Tartag since 2015 to 2019 Algerians count cost of burying the past.
Financial Times. July 4, 2007. Algérie. Pratique persistante de la torture par la Sécurité militaire dans des lieux tenus secrets. Amnesty International. 10 June 2007. Algeria: Unrestrained powers: Torture by Algeria's Military Security. Amnesty International. Index Number: MDE 28/004/2006. 9 July 2006. Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. Algeria: The anti-terrorism campaign conducted by the army between 1997 and 2000, including the army's strategy, 27 August 2007. DZA102593. E. Online. Available at UNHCR Refworld, accessed 30 March 2009. Martin Evans, John Phillips. Algeria: Anger of the Dispossessed. Yale University Press ISBN 0-300-10881-8 Hugh Roberts. Demilitarizing Algeria. Carnegie Papers Middle East Program, Number 86. May 2007. Yahia H. Zoubir, Haizam Amirah Fernández. North Africa: Politics and the Limits of Transformation. Routledge ISBN 0-415-42921-8 pp. 299–300
George Bush Center for Intelligence
The George Bush Center for Intelligence is the headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency, located in the unincorporated community of Langley in Fairfax County, United States. C; the headquarters is a conglomeration of the Original Headquarters Building and the New Headquarters Building that sits on a total of 258 acres of land. Before its current name, the CIA headquarters was formally unnamed. On April 26, 1999, the complex was named in the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 for George H. W. Bush, who had served as the Director of Central Intelligence for 357 days, between January 30, 1976 and January 20, 1977, had served as both the 43rd Vice President of the United States and the 41st President of the United States; the Original Headquarters Building was designed by the New York firm Harrison & Abramovitz in the 1950s and contains 1,400,000 square feet of space. The ground was broken for construction on November 3, 1959, with President Dwight Eisenhower laying the cornerstone, the building was completed in March 1961.
The New Headquarters Building, designed by Smith and Grylls Associates, was completed in March 1991 after the ground was broken for construction on May 24, 1984. It is a complex that adjoins two six-story office towers and is connected via a tunnel to the OHB. On January 25, 1993, Mir Qazi, a Pakistani resident of the United States, killed two CIA employees and wounded three others on the road to the CIA headquarters, claiming that it was revenge for the US government's policy in the Middle East, "particularly toward the Palestinian people"; the Center is located at 1000 Colonial Farm Road in McLean and can be reached via George Washington Memorial Parkway. However, due to a need for secrecy, the complex may only be accessed by those with authorization or by appointment; the location of the building in Langley, Virginia has arisen to the name "Langley" being used as a colloquial metonym for the CIA headquarters, despite the presence of other non-CIA-related government buildings in the community of Langley, such as the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center.
This is similar to how "Foggy Bottom" is colloquially used to identify the headquarters of the United States Department of State, despite the name being used to refer to the neighborhood of D. C. in which the building is located. The CIA Museum is located within the Center; the museum holds declassified items such as artifacts associated with the CIA, the Office of Strategic Services and foreign intelligence organizations, including historical spy gadgets and weapons, photographs. As it is located within the CIA compound, it is not accessible by the general public. An Enigma machine and Osama bin Laden's AKMS are held in the museum. There is a Starbucks located on the site of the CIA headquarters. Kryptos is an infamous encrypted sculpture. In a nod to American covert intelligence-gathering activities from an earlier era, a statue of Nathan Hale, the captured colonial spy hanged by the British during the American Revolution, stands on the grounds of the CIA headquarters complex. Defense Intelligence Agency Headquarters 1993 shootings at CIA Headquarters The Crystal Palace Headquarters Virtual Tour—A virtual tour of the CIA headquarters Three Things About the CIA's Langley Headquarters