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Intelligence assessment

Intelligence assessment is the development of behavior forecasts or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organisation, based on wide ranges of available overt and covert information. Assessments develop in response to leadership declaration requirements to inform decision making. Assessment may be executed on behalf of a state, military or commercial organisation with ranges of information sources available to each. An intelligence assessment reviews available information and previous assessments for relevance and currency. Where there requires additional information, the analyst may direct some collection. Intelligence studies is the academic field concerning intelligence assessment relating to international relations and military science. Intelligence assessment is based on a customer requirement or need, which may be a standing requirement or tailored to a specific circumstance or a Request for Information; the "requirement" is passed to the assessing agency and worked through the intelligence cycle, a structured method for responding to the RFI.

The RFI may indicate. The RFI is reviewed by a Requirements Manager, who will direct appropriate tasks to respond to the request; this will involve a review of existing material, the tasking of new analytical product or the collection of new information to inform an analysis. New information may be collected through one or more of the various collection disciplines; the nature of the RFI and the urgency placed on it may indicate that some collection types are unsuitable due to the time taken to collect or validate the information gathered. Intelligence gathering disciplines and the sources and methods used are highly classified and compartmentalised, with analysts requiring an appropriate high level of security clearance; the process of taking known information about situations and entities of importance to the RFI, characterizing what is known and attempting to forecast future events is termed "all source" assessment, analysis or processing. The analyst uses multiple sources to mutually corroborate, or exclude, the information collected, reaching a conclusion along with a measure of confidence around that conclusion.

Where sufficient current information exists, the analysis may be tasked directly without reference to further collection. The analysis is communicated back to the requester in the format directed, although subject to the constraints on both the RFI and the methods used in the analysis, the format may be made available for other uses as well and disseminated accordingly; the analysis will be written to a defined classification level with alternative versions available at a number of classification levels for further dissemination. This approach, known as Find-Fix-Finish-Exploit-Assess, is complementary to the intelligence cycle and focused on the intervention itself, where the subject of the assessment is identifiable and provisions exist to make some form of intervention against that subject, the target-centric assessment approach may be used; the subject for action, or target, is identified and efforts are made to find the target for further development. This activity will identify where intervention against the target will have the most beneficial effects.

When the decision is made to intervene, action is taken to fix the target, confirming that the intervention will have a high probability of success and restricting the ability of the target to take independent action. During the finish stage, the intervention is executed an arrest or detention or the placement of other collection methods. Following the intervention, exploitation of the target is carried out, which may lead to further refinement of the process for related targets; the output from the exploit stage will be passed into other intelligence assessment activities. All-source intelligence Intelligence cycle List of intelligence gathering disciplines Military intelligence Surveillance Threat assessment Futures studies SurveysAndrew, Christopher. For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush Black and Morris, Benny Israel's Secret Wars: A History of Israel's Intelligence Services Bungert, Heike et al. eds. Secret Intelligence in the Twentieth Century essays by scholars Dulles, Allen W.

The Craft of Intelligence: America's Legendary Spy Master on the Fundamentals of Intelligence Gathering for a Free World Kahn, David The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet, 1200 pages Lerner, K. Lee and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, eds. Encyclopedia of Espionage and Security, 1100 pages. 850 articles, strongest on technology Odom, Gen. William E. Fixing Intelligence: For a More Secure America, Second Edition O'Toole, George. Honorable Treachery: A History of U. S. Intelligence, Covert Action from the American Revolution to the CIA Owen, David. Hidden Secrets: A Complete History of Espionage and the Technology Used to Support It, popular Richelson, Jeffery T. A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century Richelson, Jeffery T; the U. S. Intelligence Community Shulsky, Abram N. and Schmitt, Gary J. "Silent Warfare: Understanding the World of Intelligence", 285 pages West, Nigel. MI6: British Secret Intelligence Service Operations 1909–1945 West, Nigel.

Secret War: The Story of SOE, Britain's Wartime Sabotage Organization Wohlstetter, Roberta. Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision World War IBeesly, Patrick. Room 40.. Covers the breaking of German c

Shinkai

Shinkai is the 5th studio album recorded by Japanese rock band Mr. Children, released in June 1996 under the record label Toy's Factory. After their breakthrough in 1994, Mr. Children yielded eight consecutive chart-topping singles. Three of those hits were appeared on the album. Kazutoshi Sakurai, the chief singer-songwriter of the band named the album's working title as Coelacanth, misheard by his band-mate as "Shinkai". Sakurai, who favored the sound of the phrase, decided to change the title of the album. Shinkai was a sort of concept album, featuring more insightful compositions and harder-edged sound compared to the band's previous materials; the whole album is played gaplessly, though each tracks are separated on CD. They had not anticipated. Contrary to the group's prediction, Shinkai met with commercial success, although it underperformed its predecessor in cumulative sales, it debuted at number one on the Japanese Oricon chart with first-week sales of over 1.5 million copies, becoming the country's fastest selling album at the time.

The album spent 46 weeks on the top 100. Upon its release, Shinkai was certified double-million by the Recording Industry Association of Japan, for shipments of over 2 million copies. All tracks are written by Kazutoshi Sakurai, arranged by Takeshi Kobayashi and Mr. Children

Croatian Apoxyomenos

The Croatian Apoxyomenos is an Ancient Greek statue cast in bronze in the 2nd or 1st century BC. It represents an athlete – Apoxyomenos – in the act of scraping sweat and dust from his body with the small curved instrument called a strigil. After the Croatian Apoxyomenos was raised from the sea in 1999, it was extensively restored, it was not publicly displayed until 2006. It is the best preserved among eight known Apoxyomenos statues. Apoxyomenos was found in 1996 by Belgian tourist René Wouters in the sea near the islet of Vele Orjule, on the sandy bottom between two rocks at a depth of about 45 metres. Wouters, an avid sports diver and amateur photographer, visiting Croatia and the island of Lošinj for a number of years, discovered the statue by chance during one of his dives. Wouters reported the finding to the Croatian Ministry of Culture in 1998, he was present when a team of divers from the Ministry of Culture and Archaeological Museum in Zadar, the Special Police and the Submar d.o.o. raised the statue from the sea on 27 April 1999.

When brought from the sea, Apoxyomenos was covered with marine organisms. Scientists did not use chemical agents to remove them: instead, only mechanical precision hand tools were used in the conservation process, the first of its kind in Croatia. Cracks and breaks were repaired, a specially designed construction that supported the whole figure from the inside was made. Croatian Apoxyomenos is 6 feet 3.5 inches high, stands on a 10-centimetre high original bronze base, decorated with alternating square and swastika ornamentation. The alternating square-and-swastika is repeated three times on the sides of the base, four times on the front, while the back side of the base is undecorated. Art historians Nenad Cambi from Split and professor Vincenzo Saladino from the University of Florence believe that this bronze statue dates from 2nd or 1st century BC; the author is unknown, but the statue's beauty, as well as the quality of its casting, indicate a skilled craftsman. A similar statue was found in 1896 in Ephesus, in present-day Turkey, is now held by the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.

Croatian Apoxyomenos is different from the Vatican Apoxyomenos made by Lysippos because the Croatian keeps his hands at the level of the hip and not the forearm. A larger number of fragmentary findings of this type suggests the popularity of the figure in antiquity; the Vatican Apoxyomenos may have been created as a variation on the Lysippos theme style. Of the eight known Apoxyomenos statues, the Croatian one is the best preserved. Art historian and professor Antun Karaman described Apoxyomenos: Apoxyomenos' bronze glow flashes just like the last flashes of the Greek classical period when man, with the help of philosophy, begins to seek refuge in the invisible, but in a safe and solid shelter of knowledge. Therefore, Apoxyomenos is calm. Viewing his perfect form, one can touch what would otherwise remain hidden from one's sight, which would be limited to the observation of external forms. Apoxyomenos and its sculptor stoically accept the relativity of the foundation of existence, because he lives in the midst of constant change.

By accepting impermanence as an effective value and fact, he reveals buried emotions that tomorrow are going to rise to a boiling point in Hellenism. Shards of wood, twigs, a few seeds of fruits, pitted olives and cherries, the nest of a small rodent were found inside Apoxyomenos. Radiocarbon dating of organic material found inside the statue indicated that Apoxyomenos did not fall into the sea after it was made, according to the results, sometime between 20 BC and 110 AD. Extensive underwater search on an area of 50,000 square meters around the finding, using robotic probes and metal detectors, revealed fragments of the bronze base of the statue, a lead anchor bar, some amphorae remains. Since the findings do not indicate a shipwreck, researchers believe that Apoxyomenos was thrown into the sea from a Roman merchant ship during a storm, but the reason remains a mystery. At the beginning of 2nd century AD, this Apoxyomenos was considered to be an antique, it may have been in the process of being transported to one of major cities in the Northern Adriatic, such as Aquileia, Ravenna, Pula or Parentium.

An early Roman villa with thermae in Verige Bay on the island of Veli Brijun is one of the destinations. Since the discovery, archaeologists are divided over the question of whether the model for the sculptor was left-handed or right-handed. While he was visiting the Apoxyomenos exhibition in Palazzo Medici Riccardi, Italian Education Minister Giuseppe Fioroni concluded that the model was left-handed, he based this on his observation that the left shoulder muscles of the model are more developed than those on the right. Croatian archaeologist Nenad Cambi analysed the body type and proportions of the statue and concluded – based on the muscular development of the upper torso – that it most represents a wrestler. Cambi has challenged the naming of the sculpture. In his view, Apoxyomenos is not the correct name for the statue because the model is cleaning the scraping instrument, not his body. In this respect, this statue is different from the others, except for the Viennese one, found in 1896. Cambi believes.

Cambi argues that the correct name for the st

Sinsaenum

Sinsaenum are an extreme metal supergroup, formed in 2016. The band features French guitarists Frédéric Leclercq and Stéphane Buriez, American drummer Joey Jordison, American vocalist Sean Zatorsky in a co-lead role with Hungarian vocalist Attila Csihar, French bassist Heimoth. Sinsaenum released their debut album Echoes of the Tortured in July 2016; the conception of Sinsaenum can be traced as far back as 1998, when French guitarist Frédéric Leclercq began writing a number of death metal songs. After recruiting fellow French guitarist Stéphane Buriez of Loudblast for the project, Leclercq was contacted by American drummer Joey Jordison with the intention of working together, who became involved in the project. Jordison proposed the band name Sinsaenum, which are a modified portmanteau of the words "sin" and "insane"; the trio added Attila Csihar of Norwegian black metal band Mayhem and Sean Zatorsky of American death metal group Dååth as dual lead vocalists, in addition to Seth guitarist Heimoth on the bass to complete the lineup.

The formation of the band was announced on May 20, 2016. Sinsaenum released its self-titled debut extended play on June 6, 2016, featuring the exclusive track "Death Is the Beginning" and album track "The Forgotten One". After a music video for the song "Splendor and Agony", the band's debut full-length album Echoes of the Tortured was released by earMUSIC on July 29, 2016. A lyric video was released for "Anfang des Albtraumes" in August. In early 2017, the band entered the studio again to begin the process of writing and recording what they dubbed as "Sinsaenum II", it was announced in summer that year that the band would release a new EP. The EP, entitled Ashes, was scheduled for release on November 10, featuring new music Japan exclusive bonus tracks, an alternate mix of the track "Dead Souls" from Echoes of the Tortured, remixed by Frédéric Duquesne of French industrial metal group Mass Hysteria; the title track was released with a music video on 29 September 2017. On October 27, they released the Duquesne mix of "Dead Souls" with a lyric video.

Frédéric Leclercq – guitars, keyboards Joey Jordison – drums Stéphane Buriez – guitars Attila Csihar – vocals Sean Zatorsky – vocals Heimoth – bass Echoes of the Tortured Repulsion for Humanity Sinsaenum A Taste of Sin Ashes "Ashes" "Final Resolve" "Hooch" "Army of Chaos" "Splendor and Agony" "Ashes" "Final Resolve" "Nuit Noire" "Hooch" Official website

Sheikh Fazilatunnesa Mujib

Sheikh Fazilatunnesa Mujib, was the wife of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the first President of Bangladesh. She was assassinated with three sons, she was born in Tungipara, Gopalganj in 1930. Her nickname was Renu, her father and mother died. She was paternal cousin of her husband Sheikh Muzibur Rahman; when Begum Fazilatunnesa was only three and Sheikh Mujib was 13, their marriage had been fixed by elders in the family. Renu was only 8 years old when she was married to her husband in 1938. There was a 10-year difference between them. Sheikh Muzibur Rahman was eighteen years old at the time of their marriage; the couple gave birth to two daughters Sheikh Hasina and Sheikh Rehana, as well as three sons Sheikh Kamal, Sheikh Jamal and Sheikh Russel. Fazilatunnesa Mujib was under house arrest during Bangladesh liberation war until 17 December. On 15 August 1975, a group of junior army officers attacked the presidential residence with tanks and assassinated Mujib, his family and personal staff. Only her daughters Sheikh Hasina Wajed and Sheikh Rehana, who were visiting West Germany, escaped.

They were banned from returning to Bangladesh. Others killed included her 10-year-old son Sheikh Russel, two other sons Sheikh Kamal, Sheikh Jamal, daughters-in-law Sultana Kamal and Rosy Jamal, brother Abdur Rab Serniabat and brother-in-lawSheikh Abu Naser, nephew Sheikh Fazlul Haque Mani and his wife Arzoo Moni; the coup was planned by disgruntled Awami League colleagues and military officers, which included Mujib's colleague and former confidant Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad, who became his immediate successor. Lawrence Lifschultz has alleged that the CIA was involved in the coup and assassination, basing his assumption on statements by the US ambassador in Dhaka Eugene Booster. Mujib's death plunged the nation into many years of political turmoil; the coup leaders were soon overthrown and a series of counter-coups and political assassinations paralysed the country. Order was restored after a coup in 1977 gave control to the army chief Ziaur Rahman. Declaring himself President in 1978, Ziaur Rahman signed the Indemnity Ordinance, giving immunity from prosecution to the men who plotted Mujib's assassination and overthrow.

Bangabandhu Memorial Trust in partnership with Malaysian hospital chain KPJ Healthcare built the Sheikh Fazilatunnesa Mujib Memorial KPJ Specialised Hospital and Nursing College in her memory. The hospital was inaugurated by Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina and Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak. A dormitory in Eden college is named after her. Sheikh Fazilatunnesa Mujib Hall is a female dorm in Rajshahi University. Govt. Sheikh Fazilatunnesa Mujib Mohila College is located in Tangail. Assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Sheikh Mujib A History of Bangladesh

113 series

The 113 series is a Japanese suburban electric multiple unit train type introduced in 1963 by Japanese National Railways operated by West Japan Railway Company and Shikoku Railway Company, also operated by East Japan Railway Company and Central Japan Railway Company. The design was derived from the earlier 111 series, used newer MT54 motors with an output of 120 kW, they are used in the mild temperature areas of Japan, due to their brakes not being capable of handling cold weather. The 115 series were built to operate in colder areas; these sets were the first of the 113 series, were put to use on the Sobu and Yokosuka Lines. They had the same body structure as the 111 series. In 1970, AU73X, AU74X, AU75X type air conditioning was fitted experimentally to sets operated in the Kansai area; the test was successful, hence was fitted into the majority of the cars. Production of the -0 series ceased in 1973, most sets have now been withdrawn. Three 113-0 sets were transferred to JR Shikoku from JR East for refurbishment.

Following refurbishment, they differed externally from most 113 series trainsets because they have lower front destination signs and rectangular headlights. Each set came in a different color scheme. All had a ribbon of silver on the top and bottom, the colors were arranged in the same pattern; the last set was withdrawn in 2019. These sets were built for use on the Kosei Line, due to the heavy amounts of snowfall in the region, they feature semi automatic doors and improved brakes. Some trains were transferred to the Sagano Line; these sets were introduced from 1972, were an improved version of the 113-0 series, for use on the Sobu and Yokosuka Lines. They incorporated fire resistant sealed beam headlights and air conditioning; these trains were used around the Boso area, on the Narita Line, Kashima Line, Sotobo Line, Uchibo Line. However, due to minor modifications of the ATC and air conditioning in some trains in April 1972, some of the trains from the Boso area were transferred for use on the Tokaido Line.

These sets were an improvement on the 113-1000 series and these sets were all located at Ofuna. They ran on the Tokaido Line. All 113-1500 series trains were fitted with ATC-5 and ATS-P/SN; these sets are an improvement on the 113-0 series. The seat pitch was extended to 1490 millimeters, a 70 millimeter increase compared to its predecessor; the width of the seat was widened from 880 millimeters to 965 millimeters. Some of them remain in service at Kusatsu Line; these are JR-West 2-car sets which were converted in 2001 by building new cabs at one end of former MoHa cars. KuHa 111-1 KuHa 111-3002 MoHa 110-1 & MoHa 111-1 KuHa 111-1072 KuHa 111-2152 Fukuhara, Shunichi. 111・113系物語: 近郊形電車50年・3000両の軌跡 111・113系物語. Japan: JTB Can Books. ISBN 978-4533092848. "JR East 113 series EMU information". Jreast.co.jp. Archived from the original on 2011-05-22. Retrieved 2011-12-10