Intensive agriculture known as intensive farming and industrial agriculture, is a type of agriculture, both of crop plants and of animals, with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area. It is characterized by a low fallow ratio, higher use of inputs such as capital and labour, higher crop yields per unit land area. Most commercial agriculture is intensive in one or more ways. Forms that rely on industrial methods are called industrial agriculture, characterised by innovations designed to increase yield. Techniques include planting multiple crops per year, reducing the frequency of fallow years, improving cultivars, it involves increased use of fertilizers, plant growth regulators, pesticides and mechanised agriculture, controlled by increased and more detailed analysis of growing conditions, including weather, water and pests. This system is supported by ongoing innovation in agricultural machinery and farming methods, genetic technology, techniques for achieving economies of scale and data collection and analysis technology.
Intensive farms are widespread in developed nations and prevalent worldwide. Most of the meat, dairy products, eggs and vegetables available in supermarkets are produced by such farms; some intensive farms can use sustainable methods, although this may necessitate higher inputs of labor or lower yields. Intensive animal farming involves large numbers of animals raised on limited land, for example by rotational grazing, or in the Western world sometimes as concentrated animal feeding operations; these methods increase the yields of food and fiber per acre as compared to extensive animal husbandry. Paddy-based rice-farming has been practised in Korea since ancient times. A pit-house at the Daecheon-ni archaeological site yielded carbonized rice grains and radiocarbon dates indicating that rice cultivation may have begun as early as the Middle Jeulmun Pottery Period in the Korean Peninsula; the earliest rice cultivation there may have used dry-fields instead of paddies. Agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output.
This in turn contributed to unprecedented population growth, freeing up a significant percentage of the workforce, thereby helped enable the Industrial Revolution. Historians cited enclosure, four-field crop rotation, selective breeding as the most important innovations. Industrial agriculture arose in the Industrial Revolution. By the early 19th century, agricultural techniques, seed stocks, cultivars had so improved that yield per land unit was many times that seen in the Middle Ages; the industrialization phase involved a continuing process of mechanization. Horse-drawn machinery such as the McCormick reaper revolutionized harvesting, while inventions such as the cotton gin reduced the cost of processing. During this same period, farmers began to use steam-powered tractors. In 1892, the first gasoline-powered tractor was developed, in 1923, the International Harvester Farmall tractor became the first all-purpose tractor, marking an inflection point in the replacement of draft animals with machines.
Mechanical harvesters, planters and other equipment were developed, further revolutionizing agriculture. These inventions increased yields and allowed individual farmers to manage large farms; the identification of nitrogen and potassium as critical factors in plant growth led to the manufacture of synthetic fertilizers, further increasing crop yields. In 1909, the Haber-Bosch method to synthesize ammonium nitrate was first demonstrated. NPK fertilizers stimulated the first concerns about industrial agriculture, due to concerns that they came with side effects such as soil compaction, soil erosion, declines in overall soil fertility, along with health concerns about toxic chemicals entering the food supply; the discovery of vitamins and their role in nutrition, in the first two decades of the 20th century, led to vitamin supplements, which in the 1920s allowed some livestock to be raised indoors, reducing their exposure to adverse natural elements. Following World War II synthetic fertilizer use increased rapidly.
The discovery of antibiotics and vaccines facilitated raising livestock by reducing diseases. Developments in logistics and refrigeration as well as processing technology made long-distance distribution feasible. Integrated pest management is the modern method to minimize pesticide use to more sustainable levels. There are concerns over the sustainability of industrial agriculture, the environmental effects of fertilizers and pesticides, which has given rise to the organic movement and has built a market for sustainable intensive farming, as well as funding for the development of appropriate technology. Pasture intensification is the improvement of pasture soils and grasses to increase the food production potential of livestock systems, it is used to reverse pasture degradation, a process characterized by loss of forage and decreased animal carrying capacity which results from overgrazing, poor nutrient management, lack of soil conservation. This degradation leads to poor pasture soils with decreased fertility and water availability and increased rates of erosion and acidification.
Degraded pastures have lower productivity and higher carbon footprints compared to intensified pastures. Management practices which improve soil health and grass productivity inclu
El Vado Lake is a reservoir located in Rio Arriba County, in northern New Mexico in the southwestern United States. Water is impounded by the earth-filled El Vado Dam, on the Rio Chama, 642 feet long and 175 feet high, completed in 1935; the 3,200-acre lake is 5 miles long and over 1 mile wide, lies at an elevation of 6,900 feet. The eastern shore of the lake is the El Vado Lake State Park, featuring over 100 camping and picnic sites, two improved boat ramps; the lake is a destination for trout fishing, as well as for boating. Unlike nearby Heron Lake, boat speeds are not restricted. A 5.5-mile hiking trail runs to the north, crosses the Rio Chama Gorge via a pedestrian suspension bridge, connects to the Heron Lake State Park. El Vado Lake State Park
Taison Barcellos Freda, or Taison, is a Brazilian footballer who plays as a midfielder for Ukrainian Premier League club Shakhtar Donetsk and the Brazil national team. Taison started his career with Brazilian club Internacional and rose to prominence within their youth set up, becoming one of the brightest prospects at the club. Taison after making his first team debut in 2009, confirmed his place as one of the rising stars in world football after top scoring in the 2009 Campeonato Gaúcho with 15 goals and starring alongside strike partner Nilmar. Internacional went on to win the tournament after an 8–1 victory over Caxias. Despite never winning the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A Taison does have a Copa Libertadores winners medal after he was an instrumental part in his side's 2010 success, starting both legs of Internacional's aggregate 5–3 final victory over Mexican side Guadalajara. After being linked with a host of clubs across Europe, including Wolfsburg and Napoli Taison signed for Ukrainian club Metalist Kharkiv for an approximate fee of 6 million euros.
He started brightly in Ukraine and pipped Willian to the "best new signing" accolade. The Brazilian scored an incredible Marco van Basten style volley against Rosenborg BK on 8 November 2012 in the Europa League. In the same game he provided the assist for the second in a 3–1 win. Taison signed with Shakhtar Donetsk on 1 January 2013 for a fee of around £12.4 million. He made his debut for Shakhtar in the Champions League against Borussia Dortmund in a 2–2 draw on 13 February 2013, he scored his first goal for Shakhtar and was named Man of the Match in a 3–3 draw with Metalurh Zaporizhya on 19 May 2013, scoring an equalising goal in the 92nd minute. Taison scored in a 3–0 victory over Chornomorets Odesa in the 2012–13 Ukrainian Cup final. On 10 July 2013 Taison scored in a 3–1 victory over Chornomorets in the Ukrainian Super Cup. In November 2019 he was sent-off after reacting to alleged racist abuse, was given a one-match ban. With the abuse, Taison has decided to leave the Ukrainian league. In an interview with the coach of the Ukraine national football team, Mykhaylo Fomenko spoke of him as a possible naturalized.
Taison indicated that he would be to accept a call-up for Ukraine if asked. But on 22 August 2016 newly appointed manager Tite has called him up for the Brazil national football team. On 13 June 2017, Taison scored his first international goal in a match against Australia, that ended 4-0, he scored the 3rd goal of the match. In May 2018 he was named in Tite’s final 23 man squad for the 2018 World Cup in Russia; as of match played 29 February 2020Other – Campeonato Gaúcho & Ukrainian Super Cup As of 2 June 2019 Scores and results list Brazil's goal tally first. Shakhtar Donetsk Ukrainian League: 2012–13, 2013–14, 2016–17, 2017–18, 2018–19 Ukrainian Cup: 2012–13, 2015–16, 2016–17, 2017–18, 2018–19 Ukrainian Super Cup: 2013, 2014, 2015, 2017Individual Football Stars of Ukraine – Best UPL player: 2019 Internacional.com.br