The Inter-Parliamentary Union is a global inter-parliamentary institution established in 1889 by Frédéric Passy and William Randal Cremer. It was the first permanent forum for political multilateral negotiations; the organization was for individual parliamentarians, but has since transformed into an international organization of the parliaments of sovereign states. The national parliaments of 178 countries are members of the IPU, 12 regional parliamentary assemblies are associate members; the IPU has permanent observer status at the United Nations General Assembly. Eight leading personalities of the IPU have received Nobel Peace Prizes: 1901: Frédéric Passy 1902: Charles Albert Gobat 1903: Randal Cremer 1908: Fredrik Bajer 1909: Auguste Marie François Beernaert 1913: Henri La Fontaine 1921: Christian Lange 1927: Ferdinand Buisson The organisation's initial objective was the arbitration of conflicts; the IPU played an important part in setting up the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague.
Over time, its mission has evolved towards the promotion of democracy and inter-parliamentary dialogue. The IPU has worked for establishment of institutions at the inter-governmental level, including the United Nations, an organization with which it cooperates and with which it has permanent observer status. Numerous bodies have expressed interest in the possibility of transforming the IPU into a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, among them the Committee for a Democratic UN, the German Bundestag and the Socialist International; the Liberal International considers this as an option. The headquarters of the union have been moved several times since its inception. Locations: 1892–1911: Bern 1911–1914: Brussels 1914–1920: Oslo 1921–present: Geneva Regional parliamentary assemblies may be admitted by the Governing Council as Associate Members Every Parliament constituted in conformity with the laws of a sovereign State whose population it represents and on whose territory it functions may request affiliation to the Inter-Parliamentary Union.
The decision to admit or readmit a Parliament shall be taken by the Governing Council. It is the duty of the Members of the IPU to submit the resolutions of the IPU within their respective Parliament, in the most appropriate form. Associate MembersThe participating parliamentary assemblies other than national parliaments are the following: The organs of the Inter-Parliamentary Union are: Assembly, meets twice a year; the Assembly is composed of parliamentarians designated as delegates by the Members. The Assembly is assisted in its work by Standing Committees, whose number and terms of reference are determined by the Governing Council. No one delegate may record more than ten votes. Governing Council; the Governing Council holds two sessions a year. The Governing Council is composed of three representatives from each Member; the term of office of a member of the Governing Council lasts from one Assembly to the next and all the members of the Governing Council must be sitting members of Parliament.
The Governing Council elects the President of the Inter-Parliamentary Union for a period of three years. It elects the members of the Executive Committee and appoints the Secretary General of the Union. Executive Committee; the Executive Committee is composed of the President of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, 15 members belonging to different Parliaments and the President of the Coordinating Committee of the Meeting of Women Parliamentarians. The fifteen elected seats are assigned to the geopolitical groups. Only parliamentarians from States where women have both the right to vote and the right to stand for election are eligible to the Executive Committee; the Executive Committee is the administrative organ of the Inter-Parliamentary Union. Secretariat; the Secretariat comprises the totality of the staff of the organisation under the direction of the Secretary General. The Association of Secretaries General of Parliaments is a consultative body of the Inter-Parliamentary Union; the President of the Inter-Parliamentary Union is Gabriela Cuevas Barron, elected to this post for a three-year mandate in October 2017 at the 201st session of the Governing Council of the IPU in Geneva.
As of 2014, the Secretary General of IPU is Mr. Martin Chungong, he is the first African to hold the post in the IPU's 125-year history. He took over from Mr. Anders B. Johnsson, in the post since 1998 until his retirement in June 2014; the IPU Assembly is the principal statutory body that expresses the views of the Inter-Parliamentary Union on political issues. Any proposal to amend the Statutes shall be submitted in writing to the Secretariat of the Union at least three months before the meeting of the Assembly; the Secretariat will communicate all such proposals to the Members of the Union. The consideration of such proposed amendments shall be automatically placed on the agenda of the Assembly. Any sub-amendments shall be submitted in writing to the Secretariat of the Union at least six weeks before t
Jože Snoj is a Slovenian poet, novelist and essayist. He has been awarded the 2012 Prešeren Award for rich literary opus, he was born in Maribor part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, into a wealthy Slovene family. His uncle, Franc Snoj, was a prominent member of the Slovene People's Party and a minister in the Royal Yugoslav Government. In April 1941, after the invasion of Yugoslavia he escaped with his family from the Nazis to the Italian-occupied Lower Carniola. From there, the family had to flee again to Ljubljana in order to escape persecution by the Communist-led partisan movement. In 1947, his uncle Franc Snoj was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment in a staged trial together with other liberal and social democrats who tried to organize a legal opposition to Josip Broz Tito's Communist regime; these experiences influenced Jože Snoj's his literary opus. After graduation in Slavic philology at the University of Ljubljana he started working as a reporter for the newspaper Delo. Together with Dane Zajc, Gregor Strniša, Dominik Smole, Marjan Rožanc, others, he was part of the generation which, influenced by the "modernist turn" of the poet Edvard Kocbek challenged the literary canon established by the Communist regime.
In 1963 he published his first collection of poetry, Mlin stooki, criticised by the literary establishment for its decadent and nihilist content. Snoj moved closer to Catholicism, expressing religious and metaphysical preoccupations in works as Žalostinka za očetom in očetnjavo and Duhovne pesmi. Among his novels, the most famous are Gavženhrib, an autobiographical novel about his war childhood, in which he explores the sources of evil, Jožef ali zgodnje odkrivanje srčnega raka, in which he used the ancient archetypal figure of Joseph in a magical realist setting, in which modern and archaic intermingle. Josip Murn Contributions to the Slovenian National Program Bio
Henry Spotswood Fenimore Cooper was a writer and local environmentalist. He was a longtime contributor to The New Yorker, predominantly covering NASA's space program. Cooper wrote eight books about space exploration throughout his lifetime, he was a noted chronicler of events at a private club in New York City. Cooper was born on November 1933 in New York City, his parents were Henry Sage Fenimore Cooper, a surgeon at Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital, Katherine Lemoine Guy. He was the great-great-grandson of writer James Fenimore Cooper and sixth generation descendant of William Cooper, founder of Cooperstown, New York, he had a brother, James Fenimore Cooper IV, two sisters and Katherine. James died in 2014 and his sisters died within the year prior to that. Cooper spent summers throughout his childhood and life in Cooperstown, grew up swimming in Otsego Lake and in the surrounding forest and fields. Cooper attributed his interest in science writing to elementary school, where he read a copy of From the Earth to the Moon, an 1865 novel by Jules Verne.
From ages 14 to 22, Cooper worked on his family's farm in the town. Henry S. F. Cooper attended the Buckley School in New York City and Phillips Academy Andover in Massachusetts, he subsequently attended Yale University, graduating with a bachelor's degree in English in 1956. During his stay at Yale, Cooper was a frequent writer for the Yale Daily News, wrote the column "Sound and Fury". At Yale in 1955, Cooper and David P. Calleo anonymously wrote Inside Eli, or alternatively How to get on at Yale, which had sketches of Yale organizations and sports; the book or pamphlet was written comically, described as resembling the works of Evelyn Waugh. After graduation, in the summer of 1956, Cooper wrote for the New York Herald Tribune on the persuasion of his mother: Cooper had wished to go to the Middle East, his mother wanted him to find a job, so Cooper persuaded the Herald Tribune to let him write about his travels in the paper. Cooper had hoped to work for The New Yorker since he was 16, he had no immediate response.
Around this time, in 1956, Cooper was drafted into the U. S. Army, where he worked as a clerk-typist within the United States before being discharged in 1958, he attended the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism for several months, before hearing from The New Yorker's editor William Shawn. Shawn was impressed with the two articles and hired Cooper, who ended up working for the company for 35 years, from 1958 to 1993. Cooper wrote for other publications, including The New York Times Book Review, his primary focus at The New Yorker was on the U. S. space program, starting during its period of high publicity in the 1960s. Many of the articles formed the basis of books he authored. In 1972, Cooper served as a judge for the National Book Awards, he earned a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1975 and a science writing award from the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1977. In 1981, Cooper founded the environmental group Otsego 2000, which campaigned against industrial wind turbines, a planned motorboat launching ramp on Otsego Lake in Cooperstown.
Named "Friends of P. R. O. T. E. C. T.", the organization changed its name to Otsego 2000 in 1998. Cooper was the president of the organization for years, subsequently became its chairman. Under Cooper, the organization had worked to promote preservation of the Glimmerglass Historic District, the opening of Cooperstown Farmers' Market, the formation of the Glimmerglass Coalition. Cooper wrote eight books between 1993, with Robert Lescher as his literary agent. Lescher had been an agent to authors such as Georgia O'Keeffe. Cooper retired from authorship and writing at The New Yorker in 1993. From 2006 to about 2016, Cooper edited The Century Bulletin, a chronicle of events at the Century Association, a private club in New York City. Cooper died of lung cancer at his home near Cooperstown on January 31, 2016. In May 2016, Otsego 2000 held a month-long exhibition in memory of Cooper, featuring landscapes that could have been lost without Cooper's environmental efforts. Henry S. F. Cooper married Mary Luke Langben on October 13, 1966, a relationship that ended in divorce.
He had three daughters, Elizabeth and Molly Cooper, three grandchildren. Cooper lived on the Upper East Side of Manhattan. In life, Cooper spent more time in Cooperstown, purchased a house nearby, in Middlefield's Red Creek section. Cooper was a member of the Yale Club, the Century Association, the New York Society Library. In Cooperstown, he was a board member of the Glimmerglass Opera, the Otsego Land Trust, a founder of the Smithy Pioneer Gallery. Cooper was a trustee of the Wrexham Foundation, part of Yale's Manuscript Society, he joined the board in 1957, was twice its chairman. He was a trustee of the Yale University Art Gallery beginning in 1970, of the Yale Library Associates beginning in 1976. Cooper was a member of the Authors Guild, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Municipal Art Society, the Grolier Club, the Coffee House Club; the New York Society Library considered Cooper the éminence grise of its organization, as he served on its board from 1971 to 2015, as Chair from 1985 to 1992.
Cooper co-wrote and edited a history of the society, The New York Society Library: 250 Years. For the Yale Club, he wrote a comprehensive history of its library, History of the Yale Club Library. Cooper stood as a longtime member of the Yale Club Library Committee. During the filming of t
Michael Papas is a Greek-Cypriot independent filmmaker working in England and Cyprus. He is best known for writing and producing The Private Right, The Lifetaker and Tomorrow's Warrior. In 1966, Papas made his feature film debut as producer and director of the politically controversial, critically acclaimed The Private Right. Set in Cyprus and London, it concerns a group of Cypriot guerrilla rebels engaged in the uprising against the British colonials. After being captured, a Cypriot guerrilla leader is tortured by a fellow Cypriot, collaborating with the British army. Years the victim travels to London to seek revenge against his torturer; the Private Right premiered at the 1966 London Film Festival and opened at theatres in England in 1967. Papas withdrew the film from competition at the 1967 Sydney Film Festival because of cuts demanded by the Commonwealth Censor Board; the Sunday Times called the film "a striking debut." Sight & Sound called it "astonishing for a first feature" and added, "Papas achieves a heraldic theatrical power."
The British Film Institute's Monthly Film Bulletin called Papas "a director eager to experiment with film form, more important able to do it with authority." The Times said Papas "manages his box of tricks with striking skill and control, the image he presents of a weirdly unfamiliar nightmare London… is powerfully haunting." Papas's 1975 English film The Lifetaker stars Terence Morgan as a deceived husband who engages his wife and her young lover in a series of deadly games. It had its world premiere at the International Film Festival Rotterdam, where it was both lauded and criticised for its controversial themes of sex and violence and the corruption of youth. According to Papas, the film was scheduled to be released across the UK, but the managing director of EMI distribution cancelled the release after viewing the completed film due to its controversial themes. In Offbeat, a 2012 collection on British cinema edited by Julian Upton, The Lifetaker is called a “stylish and erotically charged tale of obsession”, “not only the quintessence of the kind of film they don’t make anymore, but is radically unlike the kind of film they made then.”
The film is praised for its “consistent use of inch-perfect composition, bold camera moves, sumptuous colour schemes and daring set pieces.” Papas’s 1981 film Tomorrow’s Warrior, shot in the UK and Cyprus and known by its Greek title Avrianos Polemistis, is based on true events from the 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus and stars Christos Zannidis. The story concerns a young Cypriot boy and his family who flee their village in advance of a Turkish invasion, struggling to survive in a Greek refugee camp; the Sunday Times called the initial invasion sequence a "stunning, mind-bending centre piece" that "has few equals anywhere in the cinema." The New Statesman wrote that such sequences "portray man's reasonless inhumanity to man everywhere." In 2011, Papas returned with Little Odysseus and the Cyclops and Secret Paths, which were filmed one after the other. Little Odysseus and the Cyclops is a modern day retelling of a story from Homer's The Odyssey; the fantasy adventure film premiered at Papas's Acropole Cinemas in Nicosia.
Papas was born in Cyprus. His wife, Susan Papas, co-produced his films with him. Together they own and run the Acropole Cinemas in Nicosia, which they opened in 1995, his son, Minos Papas, is a New York-based filmmaker, the director of photography on Little Odysseus and the Cyclops and Secret Paths. Official website
Keith Fitzgerald is a former Democratic member of the Florida House of Representatives, representing the 69th District for two terms from 2007 to 2010. Keith Fitzgerald is a political scientist specializing in American politics with a focus on institutions and public policy, he is the author of Face of the Nation: Immigration, the State, the National Identity. Following a stint at Grinnell College, since 1994 Fitzgerald has been a professor of political science at the New College of Florida, he received his B. A. from the University of Louisville and his Ph. D. from Indiana University. In December 2005, Keith Fitzgerald announced his candidacy for the Florida State House, running as a Democrat in District 69, which contains the city of Sarasota and part of Manatee county. Fitzgerald narrowly defeated Republican Laura Benson 51% to 49% in the November 2006 election. In 2008 Fitzgerald was re-elected. In 2010 however, he was defeated by Ray Pilon. Fitzgerald won the Democratic nomination to challenge Vern Buchanan in Florida's 16th congressional district.
PollingA mid-July 2012 poll showed the incumbent US Rep. Vern Buchanan leading Keith Fitzgerald by a margin of 54%-32%; the poll had a margin of error of +/-4.9%. An independent poll released on September 5, 2012 showed the incumbent US Rep. Vern Buchanan leading Keith Fitzgerald by a margin of 56%-37%; the poll had a margin of error of 4%-5%. FinanceAs of August 3, 2012, Fitzgerald's campaign had $670,000 in the bank, compared to Buchanan's $1.4 million. Democratic Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi and other House Democrats have supported Fitzgerald with at least $34,000 in campaign contributions; the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee reserved $2.5 million of ad time in the Tampa Bay media market, some or all of which may be used to help Fitzgerald. Meanwhile, Buchanan's campaign reserved $4 million in the same market; as of early September 2012, there has been no public announcement of an ad buy from Fitzgerald's campaign. Fitzgerald failed to defeat Rep. Buchanan. Florida House of Representatives - Rep. Keith Fitzgerald official FL House site Keith Fitzgerald for State House official campaign website Profile at Vote Smart Financial information at the Federal Election Commission
Murray Hamilton was an American stage and television character actor who appeared in such films as Anatomy of a Murder, The Hustler, The Graduate, The Amityville Horror and Jaws. Born in Washington, North Carolina, Hamilton displayed an early interest in performing during his days at Washington High School just before America's entry into World War II. Bad hearing kept him from enlisting, so he moved to New York City as a 19-year-old to find a career on stage. In an early role, he performed on stage with Henry Fonda in the classic wartime story Mister Roberts as a replacement for David Wayne, playing Ensign Pulver. In 1950, he was onstage again with Fonda in Critic's Choice. Hamilton was teamed once more with Fonda in 1968 for the drama film The Boston Strangler, his best known performance is as Larry Vaughn, the obdurate mayor of Amity, in the Steven Spielberg thriller Jaws. Hamilton reprised the role in the sequel, Jaws 2 in 1978, he was approached to reprise his role in Jaws: The Revenge, but died in 1986 aged 63.
Other notable big-screen appearances include the critically acclaimed 1959 film Anatomy of a Murder with James Stewart, in which he played the bartender Al Pacquette, who gives testimony in the murder of Barney Quill. He worked again with Stewart in The Spirit of The FBI Story; the actor made dozens of TV guest appearances. In 1955, Hamilton guest-starred on the NBC legal drama Justice, based on case files of the Legal Aid Society of New York. Hamilton appeared in the Perry Mason episode "The Case of the Deadly Double" as the shadowy boyfriend of a woman with a split personality whose brother is Mason's client. In 1959, he appeared in a few episodes of the crime drama The Untouchables, as well as co-starring in the second episode of Rod Serling's television series The Twilight Zone, "One for the Angels", playing Mr. Death opposite Ed Wynn. Hamilton portrayed Calhoun, on of Gunsmoke, which aired in April, 1959, his character is swindled in a land deal along with other members of a wagon train & his wife tries to leave Calhoun with the swindler.
In the 1959-60 television season, Hamilton co-starred with William Demarest, Jeanne Bal, Stubby Kaye in the NBC sitcom Love and Marriage. He played attorney Steve Baker, who resides in an apartment with his wife, two daughters and a father-in-law, he soon appeared as a guest star on another sitcom, The Real McCoys, starring Walter Brennan, on ABC. In 1961, he appeared in another science fiction series,'Way Out, hosted by Roald Dahl, with fellow guest stars Doris Roberts and Martin Huston. In 1986, he played Curtis "Big Daddy" Hollingsworth, Blanche Devereaux's father, in a first-season episode of The Golden Girls. Hamilton complained in a newspaper article about being typecast, stating "After I was first cast as a heavy on The Untouchables, I couldn't persuade them that I could do something else." While comic roles were rare for Hamilton during his Hollywood career, he had one opposite Andy Griffith in the 1958 military comedy No Time for Sergeants, as well as an appearance in Steven Spielberg's raucous comedy 1941, released in 1979.
He appeared in a comedic guest spot on Mama's Family in the second-season episode, "Mama Cries Uncle", as Uncle Roy. He was more cast in dramatic works, such as the stark science-fiction drama Seconds, which starred Rock Hudson. In two of his most distinctive performances, Hamilton appeared with Paul Newman in The Hustler, playing Findley, a wealthy billiards player who gambles for high stakes, with Dustin Hoffman in The Graduate as Mr. Robinson, husband of the seductress Mrs. Robinson. In 1975, Hamilton appeared again with Newman in The Drowning Pool, he worked with Robert Redford in a pair of films, The Way We Were and Brubaker. In early 1982 he appeared as a judge presiding over an impromptu court case on an episode of Bret Maverick. For many years both before and during his film career, Hamilton was a prominent dramatic stage actor, earning a Tony Award nomination for his role in the 1965 production of Absence of a Cello. New York Times theater critic Brooks Atkinson praised his work in the play Stockade, based on a part of the James Jones novel From Here to Eternity: "Murray Hamilton is an ideal Prewitt.
Modest in manner, pleasant of voice, he has a steel-like spirit that brings Prewitt to life." When the actor was suffering from cancer and found film roles harder to come by, his old co-star George C. Scott helped out by getting him a part in the made-for-television movie The Last Days of Patton. Hamilton died of lung cancer at age 63, is interred at Oakdale Cemetery in his native Washington, North Carolina, he and his wife, Terri DeMarco Hamilton, had David. Murray Hamilton on IMDb Murray Hamilton at the Internet Broadway Database Murray Hamilton at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Murray Hamilton at Find a Grave