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Inter-city rail

Inter-city rail services are express passenger train services that cover longer distances than commuter or regional trains. There is no precise definition of inter-city rail. Most broadly, it can include any rail services that are neither short-distance commuter rail trains within one city area, nor slow regional rail trains calling at all stations and covering local journeys only. Most an inter-city train is an express train with limited stops and comfortable carriages to serve long-distance travel. Inter-city rail sometimes provides international services; this is most prevalent in Europe, due to the close proximity of its 50 countries in a 10,180,000 square kilometre area. Eurostar and EuroCity are examples of this. In many European countries the word "InterCity" or "Inter-City" is an official brand name for a network of regular-interval long-distance train services that meet certain criteria of speed and comfort; this use of the term appeared in the United Kingdom in the 1960s and has been imitated.

The speeds of inter-city rail lines are quite diverse, ranging from 50 km/h in a mountainous area or on undeveloped tracks to 200–350 km/h on newly constructed or improved tracks. As a result, Inter-city rail may or may not fall into the category of higher-speed rail or high-speed rail. Ideally, the average speed of inter-city rail service would be faster than 100 km/h in order to be competitive with car and other methods of transport. 50–100 kmThe distance of an inter-city rail journey is at least 50–100 km, although in many large metropolitan areas commuter and regional services cover equal or longer distances. 100–500 kmA distance of 100–500 km is a common journey distance for inter-city rail in many countries. In many cases, railway travel is most competitive at about 2–3 hours journey time. Inter-city rail can compete with highways and short-haul air travel for journeys of this distance. 500–1,000 kmIn journeys of 500–1,000 km, the role of inter-city rail is replaced by faster air travel.

Development of high-speed rail in some countries increases the share of railway for such longer-distance journeys. The Paris-Marseille TGV and Tokyo-Aomori Shinkansen are examples of this type of journey. In conventional non high-speed rail, overnight trains are common for this distance. 1,000 km or moreIn some countries with a dense rail network, large territory, or less air and car transport, such as China and Russia, overnight long-distance train services are provided and used practically. In many other countries, such long-distance rail journey has been replaced by air travel except for tourism or hobbyist purposes, luxury train journeys, or significant cost benefit. Discount Eurail Pass in Europe, Amtrak in the United States, Indian Pacific in Australia are examples. Faster high-speed rail of 350 km, such as the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway in China and Tokyo-Sapporo in the proposed Hokkaido Shinkansen in Japan, may play a significant role in long-distance travel in the future. Railways in Africa are still developing or not used for passenger purposes in many countries, but the following countries have inter-city services between major cities: Algeria SNTF Egypt: Egyptian National Railways Morocco: ONCF South Africa: Shosholoza Meyl Tunisia Tunisian Railways Trains run by China Railway link every town and city in the People's Republic of China mainland, including Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen and Xi'an, as well as onwards from Shenzhen across the border to Kowloon, Hong Kong.

New high-speed lines from 200–350 km/h operation are constructed, many conventional lines are upgraded to 200 km/h operation. There are seven High-Speed Inter-City lines in China, with up to 21 planned, they are operated independently from the parallel High-Speed-Rail-Lines. Japan has six main regional passenger railway companies, known collectively as Japan Railways Group or as JR. Four JR companies operate the "bullet trains" on fast and frequent Shinkansen lines that link all the larger cities, including Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Hiroshima and many more. Many other cities are covered by a network of JR's "limited express" inter-city trains on 1,067 mm, narrow gauge, lines. Major cities are covered by convenient train services of every one hour or more frequent. In addition to the JR Group, Japan has several major regional carriers such as the Kintetsu and Nagoya Railroads. Inter-city railway services crossing the Hong Kong-China border are jointly operated by Hong Kong's MTR Corporation Limited and the Ministry of Railways of the People's Republic of China.

Hung Hom Station is the only station in the territory where passengers can catch these cross-border trains. Passengers are required to go through immigration and customs inspections of Hong Kong before boarding a cross-border train or alighting from such a train. There are four cross-border train services on the conventional line: Between Hong Kong and Beijing Between Hong Kong and Shanghai Between Hong Kong and Guangzhou Between Hong Kong and Zhaoqing A new border-crossing service, the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link, has been approved and has been granted HKD 6.6 billion in funding by the Legisla

Bhikshuka Upanishad

The Bhikshuka Upanishad known as Bhikshukopanishad, is one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism and is written in Sanskrit. The Upanishad describes four kinds of their eating habits and lifestyle. Yoga is the path of spiritual liberation for all four. Of these, the Paramahamsa monks are discussed in this text at greater length, described as loners who are patient with everyone, free from dualism in their thoughts, who meditate on their soul and the Brahman. Bhikshuka means "mendicant" or "monk", is derived from the root word Bhiksu meaning "one who subsists on alms"; the author of the Bhikshuka Upanishad is unknown. It was composed in the late medieval to modern era, most in the 14th or 15th century; the text has ancient roots, as its contents are identical in key details to chapter 4 of the Ashrama Upanishad, dated to about the 3rd century CE. Both texts mention four types of mendicants with nearly identical life styles; the two texts have a few minor differences. The much older Ashrama Upanishad, for example, mentions that each type aspires to know their self for liberation, while the Bhikshuka specifies that they seek this liberation through a yogic path.

The Bhikshuka Upanishad is a minor Upanishad attached to the Shukla Yajurveda. It is classified as one of the Sannyasa Upanishads of Hinduism; the text is listed at number 60 in the serial order in the Muktika enumerated by Rama to Hanuman, in the modern era anthology of 108 Upanishads. Some surviving manuscripts of the text are titled Bhikshukopanishad. Bhikshuka Upanishad consists of a single chapter of five verses; the first verse states that four types of mendicants seek liberation, these are Kutichaka, Bahudaka and Paramahamsa. The text describes the frugal lifestyle of all four, asserts that they all pursue their goal of attaining moksha only through yoga practice; the first three mendicant types are mentioned while the majority of the text describes the fourth type: Paramahamsa mendicants. The Upanishad states. Prominent ancient Rishis who illustrate the Kutichaka group are Gotama, Bharadwaja and Vasishta; the Bahudaka mendicants carry a triple staff walking stick. They wear a topknot hair style and ochre-coloured garments, wear a sacrificial thread.

The Bahudaka do not eat meat or honey, beg for their eight mouthfuls of food a day. The Hamsa mendicants are on the move, staying in villages for just one night, in towns no more than five nights, in sacred places for no more than seven nights; the ascetic practice of Hamsa monks includes daily consumption of the dung of a cow. The Hamsa monks practice the Chandrayana cycle in their food eating habit, wherein they vary the amount of food they eat with the lunar cycle, they eat a single mouthful of food on the day after the dark new moon night, increase their food intake by an extra mouthful each day as the size of the moon increases, reach the maximum fifteen mouthfuls of food for the day after full moon night. Thereafter, they decrease their food intake by a mouthful each day until they reach the new moon night and begin the cycle again with one mouthful the following day; the Bhikshuka Upanishad illustrates the Paramahamsa mendicants with a list of names. The list includes Samvartaka, Svetaketu, Dattatreya, Shuka and Haritaka.

They prefer a life away from others. They live clothed, naked or in rags; the Upanishad dedicates the rest of the verses to describing the beliefs of the Paramhamsa monks. For example, The Paramhamsa monks, who are loners, are to be found in deserted houses, in temples, straw huts, on ant hills, sitting under a tree, on sand beds near rivers, in mountain caves, near waterfalls, in hollows inside trees, or in wide open fields; the Upanishad states that these loners have advanced far in their path of reaching Brahman – they are pure in mind, they are the Paramahamsas. The classification of mendicants in the Bhikshuka Upanishad, their moderate eating habits and their simple lifestyles, is found in many Indian texts such as the Mahabharata sections 1.7.86–87 and 13.129. Gananath Obeyesekere, an Emeritus Professor of Anthropology at the Princeton University, states that the beliefs championed and attributed in Bhikshuka Upanishad are traceable to Vedic literature such as Jaiminiya Brahmana; these views are found in other Upanishads such as the Narada-parivrajakopanishad and Brhat-Sannyasa Upanishad.

In all these texts, the renouncer is accepted to be one who, in pursuit of spirituality, was "no longer part of the social world and is indifferent to its mores". A test or marker of this state of existence is where "right and wrong" popular "truths or untruths", everyday morality, whatever is happening in the world makes no difference to the monk, where after abandoning the "truths and untruths, one abandons that by which one abandons"; the individual is driven by his soul, which he sees to be the Brahman. Asceticism Jabala Upanishad Paramahamsa Upanishad Deussen, Paul. M.. B.. Sixty Upanishads of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7. Knapp, Stephen; the Heart of Hinduism: The Eastern Path to Freedom and Illumination. IUniverse. ISBN 978-0-595-35075-9. Olivelle, Patrick; the Samnyasa Upanisads. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507045-3. Parmeshwaranand, Swami. Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Upanisads. Sarup & Sons. ISBN 978-81-7625-148-8. Tinoco, Carlos Alberto. Upanishads. IBRASA. I

Battle of Campichuelo

The Battle of Campichuelo was a battle fought on 19 December 1810 between revolutionary forces led by Manuel Belgrano and Royalist troops on the right bank of the Paraná River, part of the Paraguay campaign of the Argentine War of Independence. It ended with a victory for the forces of Belgrano; the Primera Junta sent an expedition to Paraguay in response to the belief that there was great party supporting the Revolution, who were oppressed by the Governor, Bernardo de Velasco. On 24 September they agreed to send Gen. Manuel Belgrano, who by decree of 4 September had been invested with the office of governor and captain general of the Banda Oriental; because Royalist Paraguayans had removed all boats on the River Paraná along its borders, Belgrano's forces had to build boats from leather, some canoes and large wooden rafts suitable to carry 60 men and four cannon, as the crossing was expected to be opposed. The river was 1000 meters wide at the crossing point, the current would carry them a league and a half downstream, to El Campichuelo mountain.

The passage started at 11:00 pm on 18 December, when a force of 12 men surprised the enemy, taking two prisoners and some weapons. The main crossing took place from 3:00 am until 6:00 am on 19 December under the command of Maj. Gen Machain, forcing the enemy to abandon their position. Belgrano was operating from the former capital mission of Santa Maria de la Candelaria and nearby sites located in the Argentine province of Corrientes. Belgrano led a small force: half cavalry and infantry, with six small-caliber cannon, they faced a 500-man Royalist force led by Pablo Thompson. Belgrano issued a proclamation asking the Royalists to join the revolutionary ranks.


In molecular biology, the protein family Dispanin is another name for Interferon-induced transmembrane protein. This refers to a family of protein domains which have a specific formation, or in other words, topology containing two alpha helices in within the cell membrane which are called two transmembrane proteins; this includes proteins such as CD225. The function of this protein family is to inhibit cell invasion of many harmful, pathogenic viruses, such as HIV. Henceforth, they are being intensively studied in the hope of drug discovery, they mediate the immune response by interferons. Dispanins have a wide range of functions within the organism, it has a role to play in oncogenesis and germ cell development ( as well as cell adhesion and cell signalling. In particular, IFITMs prevent HIV infection by preventing the virus from entering the host cell, it does this by S-palmitoylation, a process where fatty acids are added to an amino acid named cysteine. The process is of huge interest in research.

Through studying Dispanin, it is hoped that its antiviral properties can be exploited, distributed in the form of medicines and vaccines. Additionally, a type of dispanin, IFITM5, is expressed in cells; this is due to the important role dispanins play in strengthening the bone by bone mineralization. This protein family has two transmembrane helices; the precise crystal structure remains to be elucidated. The sequences across a vast array of organisms, from bacteria to high level eukaryotes all contain the similar sequence motifs; this motif has been shown to undergo post-translational modification through S-palmitoylation. This is important since it increases hydrophobicity, increases its anti-viral properties. Dispanins in eukaryotes and bacteria have high sequence similarities and share several conserved sequence motifs indication a common evolutionary ancestor. There are a number of human genes which encode for Dispanin proteins, they are as listed below: IFITM: IFITM1, IFITM2, IFITM3, IFITM4 PRRT2 AC023157 AL160276 AC068580 DSPC2 TMEM233 TMEM90A TMEM90B TMEM91 TUSC5

William Shelton House

The William Shelton House is a historic house at 40 Pleasant Street in Windsor, Connecticut. Built in 1830, it is a good local example of transitional Federal-Greek Revival architecture executed in brick, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988. The William Shelton House is located northwest of Windsor center, at the southwest corner of Pleasant and East Streets, it is a 2-1/2 story masonry structure, built out of red brick with stone trim. It is covered with two interior chimneys rising through the roof ridge; the main facade is three bays wide, with a center entrance topped by a transom window. The windows lintels; the side gables. A single-story gabled brick ell extends to the right; the house was built in 1830 by William Shelton. The bricks for its construction came from the brickyard of William Mack, located at the foot of Pleasant Street; this house is, along with the Daniel Payne House on Park Avenue, one of the town's best example of the transitional Federal-Greek Revival style.

The half-round gable windows and transom are Federal in style, while the window treatments are Greek Revival. National Register of Historic Places listings in Windsor, Connecticut

Live at the Royal Albert Hall (Bring Me the Horizon album)

Live at the Royal Albert Hall is the second live album and video by British rock band Bring Me the Horizon. It was recorded on 22 April 2016 at the Royal Albert Hall, with accompaniment from the Parallax Orchestra conducted by Simon Dobson; the album was released on 2 December 2016 through the crowdfunding platform PledgeMusic, with all proceeds being donated to Teenage Cancer Trust. On 26 November 2015, it was announced that Bring Me the Horizon would be performing at the Teenage Cancer Trust concerts at the Royal Albert Hall in London on 22 April 2016, being accompanied for the first time by a full live orchestra and choir. Tickets for the show went on sale on 4 December 2015. American rock band PVRIS performed as the opening act. Bring Me the Horizon performed alongside Parallax Orchestra conducted by Simon Dobson, gave live debuts for That's the Spirit tracks "Avalanche" and "Oh No", as well as performing "It Never Ends" and "Empire" for the first time since 2014. Response to the concert was positive.

Writing for The Independent, Steve Anderson awarded it four out of five stars, praising the performances of both the band's recent, more subtle material and their earlier, heavier songs. Tomas Doyle of Rock Sound hailed the show as "a special, special night", highlighting "It Never Ends" as the best song. Metal Injection's Greg Kennelty proclaimed that "Like'em or not, Bring Me the Horizon performed a fantastic set". Following the success of the show, Fish hinted at the possibility of completing a full tour with an orchestra, noting that "It seems a bit of a shame to go to all this effort for months and months for just one night". In March 2016, it was announced that the show would be recorded and released as a live video album, with all proceeds from the release going to Teenage Cancer Trust. After being slated for a 1 September 2016 release, the album was issued on 2 December 2016 on double CD, triple LP, double DVD, Blu-ray and digital download. All lyrics are written by Oliver Sykes.