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Interceptor aircraft

An interceptor aircraft, or interceptor, is a type of fighter aircraft designed for the defensive interception role against an attacking enemy aircraft bombers and reconnaissance aircraft, as they approach. There are two general classes of interceptor: lightweight aircraft built for high performance over short range, heavier aircraft designed to fly at night or in adverse weather and operate over longer ranges. For daytime operations, conventional fighters fill the interceptor role, as well as many other missions. Daytime interceptors have been used in a defensive role since the World War I era, but are best known from several major actions during World War II, notably the Battle of Britain where the Supermarine Spitfire and Hawker Hurricane developed a good reputation. Few aircraft can be considered dedicated daytime interceptors. Exceptions include the Messerschmitt Me 163B—the only rocket-powered, manned military aircraft to see combat—and to a lesser degree designs like the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15, which had heavy armament intended for anti-bomber missions.

Night fighters and bomber destroyers are, by definition, interceptors of the heavy type, although they were referred to as such. In the early Cold War era the combination of jet-powered bombers and nuclear weapons created air force demand for capable interceptors. Examples of classic interceptors of this era include the F-106 Delta Dart, Sukhoi Su-15, English Electric Lightning. Through the 1960s and 1970s, the rapid improvements in design led to most air-superiority and multirole fighters, such as the Grumman F-14 Tomcat and McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, having the performance to take on the point defense interception role, the strategic threat moved from bombers to intercontinental ballistic missiles. Dedicated interceptor designs became rare, with the only used examples designed after the 1960s being the Tornado F3, Mikoyan MiG-25 "Foxbat", Mikoyan MiG-31 "Foxhound", the Shenyang J-8 "Finback"; the first interceptor squadrons were formed during World War I to defend London against attacks by Zeppelins and against fixed-wing long-range bombers.

Early units used aircraft withdrawn from front-line service, notably the Sopwith Pup. They were told about their target's location before take-off from a command centre in the Horse Guards building; the Pup proved to have too low performance to intercept Gotha G. IV bombers, the superior Sopwith Camels supplanted them; the term "interceptor" was in use by 1929. Through the 1930s, bomber aircraft speeds increased so much that conventional interceptor tactics appeared impossible. Visual and acoustic detection from the ground had a range of only a few miles, which meant that an interceptor would have insufficient time to climb to altitude before the bombers reached their targets. Standing combat air patrols were only at great cost; the conclusion at the time was that "the bomber will always get through". The invention of radar made possible early, long-range detection of aircraft on the order of 100 miles, both day and night and in all weather. A typical bomber might take twenty minutes to cross the detection zone of early radar systems, time enough for interceptor fighters to start up, climb to altitude and engage the bombers.

Ground controlled interception required constant contact between the interceptor and the ground until the bombers became visible to the pilots and nationwide networks like the Dowding system were built in the late 1930s to coordinate these efforts. The introduction of jet power increased speeds from 300 miles per hour to 600 miles per hour in a step and doubled operational altitudes. Although radars improved in performance, the gap between offense and defense was reduced. Large attacks could so confuse the defense's ability to communicate with pilots that the classic method of manual ground controlled interception was seen as inadequate. In the United States, this led to the introduction of the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment to computerize this task, while in the UK it led to enormously powerful radars to improve detection time The introduction of the first useful surface-to-air missiles in the 1950s obviated the need for fast reaction time interceptors as the missile could launch instantly.

Air forces turned to much larger interceptor designs, with enough fuel for longer endurance, leaving the point-defense role to the missiles. This led to the abandonment of a number of short-range designs like the Avro Arrow and Convair F-102 in favor of much larger and longed-ranged designs like the North American F-108 and MiG-25. Only the USSR continued interceptor design after the 1960s, as only the USAF continued to make use of a powerful strategic bomber force. In the 1950s, during the Cold War, a strong interceptor force was crucial for the great powers as the best means to defend against an unexpected nuclear attack by strategic bombers. Hence, for a brief period of time they faced rapid development. At the end of the 1960s, a nuclear attack became unstoppable with the introduction of ballistic missiles capable of approaching from outside the atmosphere at speeds as high as 5–7 km/s; the doctrine of mutually assured destruction replaced the trend of defense strengthening, making interceptors less strategically logical.

The utility of interceptors waned as the role merged with that of the heavy air superiority fighter, dominant in military thinking. The interceptor mission is, by its nature, a difficult one. Consider the desire to protect a single target from attack by long-range bombers; the bombers have the

Godzilla Island

Godzilla Island is a television show spinoff of the Godzilla franchise. It premiered on October 6, 1997, ran for a total of 256 three-minute episodes, finishing on September 30, 1998. Set in 2097, most of Earth's kaiju live on an island out in the Pacific Ocean called Godzilla Island, monitored by G-Guard; the creatures living on the island include Godzilla, Godzilla Junior, Mothra Leo, Fire Rodan, King Ghidorah, Mecha-King Ghidorah, Anguirus, Hedorah, Baragon, King Caesar, Megalon, SpaceGodzilla, Gorosaurus and Jet Jaguar. Torema and Zaguresu's kaiju include a black-coloured Mechagodzilla, a mechanical King Ghidorah, a new version of Hedorah, Jigora, a powered-up version of SpaceGodzilla, a different version of Fake Godzilla, Proto Moguera and Gororin. One kaiju that did not appear in a Godzilla movie, a miniature version of Dogora appears for a few episodes, working with Zaguresu. For unknown reasons, Ebirah, Manda, the Showa Mechagodzilla, King Kong, Minilla, Oodako and Shockiras were not included.

None of the Showa- or Heisei-era kaiju from Toho's other non-Godzilla movies appear in this series either. An unusually large number of tie-in toys were produced for this series by Bandai, because this series was, in fact, created through the use of action figures. A CD of theme music composed by Akira Ifukube, was released in 1997 by Polygram entitled'Welcome To Godzilla Island'. In 2007, a 4-disc DVD set including every episode of the show was released in Japan at a price of 16000 yen. G-Guard Commander: Jiro Dan Lucas: Kenichiro Shimamura Torema: Maimi Okuwa Zaguresu, Xilien: Naoko Aizawa Narrator: Yutaka Aoyama

Value chain management capability

Value chain management capability refers to an organisation's capacity to manage the internationally dispersed activities and partners that are part of its value chain. Value chain management capability is a higher level capability that draws together a variety of lower level capabilities; each of the lower level capabilities are valuable and necessary as such, they come together to form a higher level capability that enables a more holistic approach to management of international value chains. The elements of a company's value chain have been changing in the 21st century and the role of location in international business is changing. Revolutionary developments in ICT have profoundly reconstituted the nature of international business. Additionally, the importance of location is challenged by a ‘global shift’ in the economy; as multinationals have started to move their mobile assets globally to create a perfect fit with their immobile assets, their value chains have become disintegrated and scattered worldwide.

The outcome is a ‘global factory’, a structure reflecting the combination of innovation and distribution of goods and services globally. These developments influence small and medium-sized enterprises. To survive, a firm must be capable of managing the internationally dispersed value creating operations amidst an overload of information; the dimensions of value chain management capability presented below are based on a longitudinal case study. The empirical data was collected through a series of interviews with top managers in a globally operating technology-based SME; the employees and the culture in the organization need to be internationally oriented, to have a global mindset. This includes most the courage and enthusiasm to operate internationally. Moreover, hiring people with complementary language skills and different cultural backgrounds are the most important; this may result in an organization, tuned to global business: “It is not just about communicating, but co-operating with different people in different environments.”

The interviewees recognized a need to expand the pool of technological know-how through partnerships as a basic prerequisite for internationalization of software SMEs. If the R&D network is small, the firm has to start searching for a new partner when facing new kinds of requirements; this is costly in terms of both money. In software, where the product life-cycles are short, the time to market is crucial. Therefore, a larger number of potential R&D partners gives the option of more choosing the best partner for innovative projects from existing network, hence speeds up the development process. Moreover, previous research asserts that innovativeness presumes potential for creativity; this study unveiled an additional aspect of technological capability. Strong technological know-how is not enough to utilize the technologies. To bring value to the customer good understanding of the specific area where the technology is used was seen necessary. Thus, in addition to knowing the technology and having potential for creativity, technological capability includes good knowledge of the context where the technology is applied.

This links further to knowing the customer, its business. Market and marketing-related capabilities are important for value chain management and the growing emphasis on services and software poses new requirements to marketing. Market orientation appears to be crucial for steering the value chain effectively. Moreover, customer orientation was the most emphasized element of market orientation. Additionally, technology-based business, which focuses on system sales requires strong focus on marketing and partner training, because selling systems or solutions is more challenging than selling products. A well functioning market intelligence system is important to keep track of the markets. Moreover, when operating internationally, it is important to know each of the markets the firm operates in. However, this is not always possible, therefore a network of partners is needed. A network of partners is the key to the flexibility of the operations; the ability to approach potential partners with high success rate may be a critical factor in enabling a firm to achieve a position, beneficial to it.

Despite the benefits of networking small firms face challenges with large partners. In the case of the partner being larger firm, the small operator may not have any chance of influencing the partner organization. Through establishing good personal relations and frequent contacts to the managers in the larger value chain members they try to make sure the large partner remembers their existence and would turn to them when in need of the expertise they can provide. Network capability includes both, management of individual partnerships as well as management of the whole network. Management of individual partnerships is however emphasized more than the management of the portfolio as a whole, hence the portfolio of partnerships may be quite fragmented. In literature it is suggested that linking different parts of the value chain

Sebasti√°n Olivarez

Leandro Sebastián Olivarez is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a defender for Ferro Carril Oeste, on loan from Godoy Cruz. Olivarez began his Godoy Cruz career in 2011, appearing on the substitutes bench in a Copa Argentina tie with Sportivo Italiano on 24 November, he made his professional debut during the 2011–12 Argentine Primera División season, playing the full ninety minutes in a goalless draw against Independiente on 22 April 2012. Forty Primera División appearances Olivarez scored his first senior goal in the club's 2017–18 league opener versus Atlético Tucumán on 27 August 2017. 2018 saw Olivarez leave Godoy Cruz on loan to join Belgrano, which preceded a further loan move to Ferro Carril Oeste in January 2019. As of 3 January 2019. Sebastián Olivarez at Soccerway

2017 Utah Utes football team

The 2017 Utah Utes football team represented the University of Utah during the 2017 NCAA Division I FBS football season. The team was coached by thirteenth-year head coach Kyle Whittingham and played their home games in Rice-Eccles Stadium in Salt Lake City, Utah, they competed as members of the South Division of the Pac-12 Conference. They finished the season 3 -- 6 in Pac-12 play to finish in fifth place in the South Division, they were invited to the Heart of Dallas Bowl. Utah announced their 2017 football schedule on January 18, 2017; the Utes played FCS North Dakota, in-state rival BYU, San Jose State in out-of-conference play. In Pac-12 conference play, the Utes did not play cross-divisional foes Oregon State. Source: Source


Pieksänmaa is a former municipality of Finland. It became part of the town of Pieksämäki in 2007. Pieksänmaa was formed in 2004 when the municipalities of Pieksämäen maalaiskunta, Jäppilä and Virtasalmi were consolidated to a single municipality. Pieksänmaa itself was consolidated to Pieksämäki three years later, it is part of the Southern Savonia region. The municipality had a population of 8,754 and covered an area of 1,788.17 km² of which 249.40 km² was water. The population density was 5.7 inhabitants per km². The municipality was unilingually Finnish. Media related to Pieksänmaa at Wikimedia Commons