Henley Royal Regatta
Henley Royal Regatta is a rowing event held annually on the River Thames by the town of Henley-on-Thames, England. It was established on 26 March 1839, it differs from the three other regattas rowed over the same course, Henley Women's Regatta, Henley Masters Regatta and Henley Town and Visitors' Regatta, each of, an separate event. The regatta lasts for five days ending on the first weekend in July. Races are head-to-head knock out competitions, raced over a course of 1 mile 550 yards; the regatta attracts international crews to race. The most prestigious event at the regatta is the Grand Challenge Cup for Men's Eights, awarded since the regatta was first staged; as the regatta pre-dates any national or international rowing organisation, it has its own rules and organisation, although it is recognised by both British Rowing and FISA. The regatta is organised by a self-electing body of Stewards, who are former rowers themselves. Pierre de Coubertin modelled elements of the organisation of the International Olympic Committee on the Henley Stewards.
The regatta is regarded as part of the English social season. As with other events in the season, certain enclosures at the regatta have strict dress codes; the Stewards’ Enclosure has a strict dress code of lounge suits for men. Entries for the regatta close at 6:00 pm sixteen days before the Regatta. In order to encourage a high quality of racing, create a manageable race timetable and to ensure that most crews race only once a day, each event has a limited number of places. Qualifying races are held on the Friday before the regatta; the regatta's Committee of Management decides at its absolute discretion which crews are obliged to qualify. The qualifying races take the form of a timed processional race up the regatta course, with the fastest crews qualifying. Times are released for non-qualifying crews only; this does not stop an enthusiastic band of unofficial timers with synchronised watches working out how fast their first round opposition might be. If it is apparent that there are a number of outstanding crews in an event, they may be'selected' by the Stewards, to prevent them from meeting too early in the competition.
The regatta insists that selection is not the same as seeding, the main difference being that there is no'rank order' as is the case in, for example, a tennis tournament. The draw is a public event that takes place in the Henley town hall at 3 pm on the Saturday before the regatta. For each event the names of all selected crews are placed on pieces of paper which are drawn at random from the Grand Challenge Cup; these crews are placed on pre-determined positions on the draw chart, as far apart as possible. The remaining qualifying crews are drawn from the cup, filling in from the top of the draw chart downwards, until all places have been filled; each event in the regatta takes the form of a knockout competition, with each race consisting of two crews racing side by side up the Henley course. The course is marked out by two lines of booms, which are placed along the river to form a straight course 2,112 metres long; the course is wide enough to allow two crews to race down with a few metres between them.
As such it is not uncommon for inexperienced steersmen or coxswains to crash into the booms costing their crew the race. The race begins at the downstream end of Temple Island, where the crews attach to a pair of pontoons; the race umpire will call out the names of the two crews and start them when they are both straight and ready. Each crew is assigned to row on either the'Bucks' or'Berks' side of the race course; the coxswains or steersmen are expected to keep their crew on the allocated side of the course at all times during the race, else they risk disqualification. The only exception is when a crew leads by a sizeable margin and is not deemed by the umpire to be impeding the trailing crew. There are several progress markers along the course. Intermediate times are recorded at two of them – "the Barrier" and "Fawley", in addition to the time to the finish; the regatta has official commentary, announced at these points along the course. The commentary is renowned for being unemotional and factual, with the commentator only allowed to announce the rate of striking, which crew is leading, the distance between the crews, the progress marker which the crews are passing.
Henley Royal Regatta has always been raced over a distance of ‘about one mile and 550 yards’ from Temple Island upstream towards Henley Bridge. However, four distinct courses have been used over the regatta's history, with smaller changes being made incrementally. Changes to the course have all been aimed at improving the prospects for safe racing; this ran from a point just upstream of Temple Island. At the first regatta in 1839, the finish line was Henley Bridge itself, but it was quickly realised that this had inherent problems. From 1840 onward the finish was moved downstream slightly. A grandstand was erected for their guests outside the Red Lion. Other spectators could watch from the adjacent roadway while those with carriages surveyed the scene from a vantage p
The Hudson River is a 315-mile river that flows from north to south through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New York Bay between New York City and Jersey City, it drains into the Atlantic Ocean at New York Harbor. The river serves as a political boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York at its southern end. Further north, it marks local boundaries between several New York counties; the lower half of the river is a tidal estuary, deeper than the body of water into which it flows, occupying the Hudson Fjord, an inlet which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation, estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago. Tidal waters influence the Hudson's flow from as far north as the city of Troy; the river is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, who explored it in 1609, after whom Hudson Bay in Canada is named.
It had been observed by Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano sailing for King Francis I of France in 1524, as he became the first European known to have entered the Upper New York Bay, but he considered the river to be an estuary. The Dutch called the river the North River – with the Delaware River called the South River – and it formed the spine of the Dutch colony of New Netherland. Settlements of the colony clustered around the Hudson, its strategic importance as the gateway to the American interior led to years of competition between the English and the Dutch over control of the river and colony. During the eighteenth century, the river valley and its inhabitants were the subject and inspiration of Washington Irving, the first internationally acclaimed American author. In the nineteenth century, the area inspired the Hudson River School of landscape painting, an American pastoral style, as well as the concepts of environmentalism and wilderness; the Hudson was the eastern outlet for the Erie Canal, when completed in 1825, became an important transportation artery for the early-19th-century United States.
The source of the Hudson River is Lake Tear of the Clouds in the Adirondack Park at an altitude of 4,322 feet. However, the river is not cartographically called the Hudson River until miles downstream; the river is named Feldspar Brook until its confluence with Calamity Brook, is named Calamity Brook until the river reaches Indian Pass Brook, flowing south from the outlet of Henderson Lake. From that point on, the stream is cartographically known as the Hudson River; the U. S. Geological Survey uses this cartographical definition; the longest source of the Hudson River as shown on the most detailed USGS maps is the "Opalescent River" on the west slopes of Little Marcy Mountain, originating two miles north of Lake Tear of the Clouds, several miles, past the Flowed Lands, to the Hudson River. And a mile longer than "Feldspar Brook", which flows out of that lake in the Adirondack Mountains. Popular culture and convention, more cite the photogenic Lake Tear of the Clouds as the source. Using river names as seen on maps, Indian Pass Brook flows into Henderson Lake, the outlet from Henderson Lake flows east and meets the southwest flowing Calamity Brook.
The confluence of the two rivers is. South of the outlet of Sanford Lake, the Opalescent River flows into the Hudson; the Hudson flows south, taking in Beaver Brook and the outlet of Lake Harris. After its confluence with the Indian River, the Hudson forms the boundary between Essex and Hamilton counties. In the hamlet of North River, the Hudson flows in Warren County and takes in the Schroon River. Further south, the river forms the boundary between Saratoga Counties; the river takes in the Sacandaga River from the Great Sacandaga Lake. Shortly thereafter, the river leaves the Adirondack Park, flows under Interstate 87, through Glens Falls, just south of Lake George although receiving no streamflow from the lake, it next goes through Hudson Falls. At this point the river forms the boundary between Saratoga Counties. Here the river has an elevation of 200 feet. Just south in Fort Edward, the river reaches its confluence with the Champlain Canal, which provided boat traffic between New York City and Montreal and the rest of Eastern Canada via the Hudson, Lake Champlain and the Saint Lawrence Seaway.
Further south the Hudson takes in water from the Batten Kill River and Fish Creek near Schuylerville. The river forms the boundary between Saratoga and Rensselaer counties; the river enters the heart of the Capital District. It takes in water from the Hoosic River. Shortly thereafter the river has its confluence with the Mohawk River, the largest tributary of the Hudson River, in Waterford; the river reaches the Federal Dam in Troy, marking an impoundment of the river. At an elevation of 2 feet, the bottom of the dam marks the beginning of the tidal influence in the Hudson as well as the beginning of the lower Hudson River. South of the Federal Dam, the Hudson River begins to widen considerably; the river enters the Hudson Valley, flowing along the west bank of Albany and the east bank of Rensselaer. Interstate 90 crosses the Hudson into Albany at this point in the river; the Hudson leaves the Capital District, forming the boundary between Greene and Columbia Counties. It meets its confluence with Schodack Creek, widening at this point.
After flowing by Hudson, the river forms the boundary between Ulster and Columbia Counties and Ulster and Dutchess Counties, passing Germantown and Kingston. The Delaware and Hudson Canal meets the river at t
British Rowing the Amateur Rowing Association, is the governing body for the sport of rowing. It is responsible for the training and selection of individual rowers and crews representing Great Britain and for participation in and the development of rowing and indoor rowing in England. Scottish Rowing and Welsh Rowing oversee governance in their respective countries, organise their own teams for the Home International Regatta and input to the GB team organisation. British Rowing is a member of the British Olympic Association and the International Rowing Federation known as FISA; the ARA had it roots in the desire to form crews drawn from the leading English clubs'for the purpose of defeating the foreign or colonial invader' although in fact this aim was not fulfilled until much later. A series of meetings were held in Putney from 1877 culminating in the formation of the Metropolitan Rowing Association in 1879 by Cambridge University Boat Club, Dublin University Boat Club, Kingston Rowing Club, Leander Club, London Rowing Club, Oxford University Boat Club, Royal Chester Rowing Club, Thames Rowing Club and Twickenham Rowing Club.
Molesey Boat Club joined soon afterward. In 1882 the Metropolitan Rowing Association changed its name to the Amateur Rowing Association, having gained additional member clubs from outside London, began its evolution into the governing body of rowing. In 1886 the ARA issued General Rules for Regattas; the ARA adopted Henley Royal Regatta's restrictive definition of "amateur" which not only excluded those who made their living as profession oarsmen but anyone "who is or has been by trade or employment for wages a mechanic, artisan or labourer." Moreover, the new rules stated that only clubs affiliated to the ARA could compete in regattas held under ARA rules, that ARA affiliated clubs could not compete under any other rules, nor against crews not affiliated to the ARA. This ruling was socially divisive excluding any club with a mixed membership, it resulted in the formation of a breakaway organisation in 1890, the National Amateur Rowing Association, whose clubs could draw their membership from all social classes and occupations.
The schism in English rowing was to remain for over half a century as a regular cause of controversy and bad feeling. Change only came after the Australian national eight, preparing for the Berlin Olympics in 1936, was excluded from the Grand Challenge Cup at Henley because the crew, who were all policemen, were deemed to be ‘manual workers’; the embarrassment caused persuaded the ARA and the Stewards of Henley Royal Regatta of the need for change, on 9 June 1937, the offending references to manual labourers, mechanics and menial duties were deleted from the ARA rules, with Henley following suit the following day. The ARA and NARA amalgamated in 1956. David Lunn-Rockliffe, Executive Secretary of the ARA from 1976–1987 and co-founder of the River and Rowing Museum at Henley-on-Thames, oversaw the transition to a more professional organization. In 1998, the ARA followed FISA in removing all references to amateurism from its rules. Professional rowers are now permitted; the name Amateur Rowing Association remained because of its heritage and because no agreement could be reached on alternatives.
In 2009, a decision was taken to rename the organisation as'British Rowing'. Five English rowing clubs retained the right to appoint representatives directly to the Council of British Rowing, they were: London Rowing Club, Leander Club, Thames Rowing Club, Oxford University Boat Club and Cambridge University Boat Club. This right was, removed from the five clubs in September 2012. Sir Steve Redgrave, multiple Olympic Gold medallist in rowing, was the Honorary President of British Rowing from 2001 until 2013. Dame Di Ellis, former chairman of British Rowing, succeeded him as Honorary President. British Rowing operates a points system to allow rowers to compete with those of a similar standard. Competitors gain points in both sculling by winning a qualifying race; when first joining British Rowing, all members begin at zero points. Points are increased by members winning qualifying regattas; the current status levels are Elite, Intermediate 1, Intermediate 2, Intermediate 3, Novice. Each crew members' points are added up and this determines the status of the crew.
The crew is only allowed to race at higher. The table below indicates the maximum number of points that may be held by a crew at each status level. Anyone who has competed for the Senior, Lightweight or U23 international squads will be given 12 points; those representing GB at the World Rowing Junior Championships have their points topped up to 6. There are a number of junior categories; the number represents the age competitors must be younger than, before the first day of September preceding the event. Sweep oar rowing is only allowed at J15 and older for both boys and for girls, due to possible issues of asymmetric muscle development. British Rowing has an awards scheme for coaching that up until 2005 consisted of the Instructor's Award, Bronze Award, Silver Award and the Gold Award; these were overhauled in 2006 as qualifications were brought in line with the Sportscoach UK system that many other sports in the UK have adopted. British Rowing now offers the Level 2, Level 3 and Level 4 coaching awards and other related workshops and training cou
The Washington Huskies are the athletic teams that represent the University of Washington. The school is a member of the Pac-12 Conference. Among its facilities on campus are Husky Stadium, Hec Edmundson Pavilion, Husky Ballpark, Husky Softball Stadium, the Nordstrom Tennis Center, the Dempsey Indoor practice facility, the Conibear Shellhouse. Added was the Husky Track located just north of the Husky Ballpark; the golf team's home course is at the Washington National Golf Club in Auburn. UW students, sports teams, alumni are called Huskies; the husky was selected as the school mascot by student committee in 1923. It replaced the "Sun Dodger," an abstract reference to the local weather, dropped in favor of something more tangible; the costumed "Harry the Husky" performs at sporting and special events, a live Alaskan Malamute named Dubs, has traditionally led the UW football team onto the field at the start of games. The school colors of purple and gold were adopted in 1892 by student vote; the choice was purportedly inspired by the first stanza of Lord Byron's The Destruction of Sennacherib The University of Washington sponsors teams in ten men's and twelve women's NCAA sanctioned sports competing in the Pac-12 Conference with rowing in the Intercollegiate Rowing Association, both track and field programs in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation.
The university football team's first game was in 1889. From 1907 to 1917, Washington football teams were unbeaten in 64 consecutive games, an NCAA Division I-A record. During this period, Washington won 40 games in a row under coach Gil Dobie the second longest winning streak in NCAA Division I-A history. In 1916, Dobie finished his remarkable coaching career at Washington with an undefeated 58-0-3 record; the 1925 team lost to Alabama 21-20 in the Rose Bowl. The 1960 team finished 10-1, under coach Jim Owens, won its second consecutive Rose Bowl by defeating national champion Minnesota 17-7. Coach Owens served from 1957 to 1974. Don James became head coach in 1975 and transformed the team into a national power while compiling a 153-57-2 record. James' first successful year was in 1977 with the team quarterbacked by Warren Moon culminating in a 27-20 victory over Michigan in the Rose Bowl. Washington and Michigan played again in the Rose Bowl in 1981 resulting in a Michigan win 23-11; the next year, the Huskies returned to the Rose Bowl and defeated Iowa 28-0, the last Rose Bowl shutout and the only shutout in the past half century.
Following a two-year hiatus during which cross-state rival WSU prevented the Huskies from Rose Bowl appearances by defeating them in the last game of the 1982 and 1983 seasons, Washington posted an 11-1 record and beat Oklahoma 28-17 to win the Orange Bowl. Senior running back, Jacque Robinson won the MVP award and was the first player to win MVP awards for both the Orange and Rose Bowls; the 1991 team is considered to be the best Washington Husky football team and among the best in college football history. The team went undefeated, winning against opponents by an average score of 42-9 in regular season, including wins over No. 9 Nebraska, No. 7 California and a 34-14 win over No. 4 Michigan in the Rose Bowl. In 2000, Washington finished with an 11-1 record, won its seventh Rose Bowl under the leadership of Marques Tuiasosopo. In 2009, under first-year head coach Steve Sarkisian, the Huskies snapped a 15-game losing streak with a 42-23 victory over Idaho; the following week, Washington crushed the spirits of then-No.
3 USC, winning 16-13 on a last-second field goal. The Huskies rose to No. 25 in the polls after the victory but lost six of their next eight games to fall to 5-7 prior to a season finale showdown against No. 19-ranked California, where the Huskies won 42-10. National Championships awarded or claimed 1960, 1985, 1990, 1991 Pac-12 titles 1916, 1919, 1925, 1936, 1959, 1960, 1963, 1977, 1980, 1981, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995, 2000, 2016, 2018 Bowl history 18 wins, 17 losses, 1 tie NCAA Championships National Champion: Final Four: 1953 Sweet 16: 1984, 1998, 2005, 2006, 2010 Pac-12 Regular Season Titles 1931, 1934, 1943, 1944, 1948, 1951, 1953, 1984, 1985, 2009, 2012, 2019 Pac-12 Tournament Championships 2005, 2010, 2011 NCAA Championships National Champion: Final Four: 2016 Elite Eight: 1990, 2001, 2016 Sweet 16: 1988, 1991, 1995, 2001, 2016, 2017 NWBL Regular Season Titles 1978 NorPac Regular Season Titles 1985, 1986 Pac-10 Regular Season Titles 1988, 1990, 2001 NorPac Tournament Championships 1985 NCAA Championships Championships: Title games: 1996, 1999, 2009 Pac-12 Championships 1996, 2000, 2010 Pacific Coast Conference Championships 1919, 1922Pacific Coast Conference North Division Championships 1923, 1925, 1926, 1929, 1930, 1932, 1952, 1959Pac-10 North 1981, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1998 NCAA Championships 2008NCAA West Region Championships 1989, 1992, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011Pac-12 Championships 2008, 2009 Pac-12 Championships 1993West Regional Champions 20158th NCAA National Championships 2015 Pac-12 Championships 1968, 1972, 1973, 1976, 1982, 1983, 1985, 1987, 1992, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2013 Pac-12 Championships 1938, 1939, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2005 The University of Washington has a swimming team.
Pac-12 Championships 1987, 1988, 1989, 199
Rowing Australia is the governing body for the sport of rowing in Australia. Established in 1925, it is the only organisation recognised by the Federation Internationale des Societies d’Aviron, the Australian Sports Commission, the Australian Olympic Committee, to conduct rowing activities in, on behalf of Australia. RA was established on 1 May 1925 as the Australian Amateur Rowing Council, it was incorporated on 15 November 1982, changed its name to Australian Rowing Council Inc in 1984, changed its name to Rowing Australia Inc on 2 March 1996 and became a public company in January 2007 and so became Rowing Australia Ltd. Prior to 1925, the Interstate Championships and representation at the Olympic Games were managed by the State Associations. A proposal to form the Australian Amateur Rowing Council failed at the 1909 inter-state conference, in favour of the continuation of the conference system. Regulations were brought into effect for the conduct of the Intercolonial and Interstate Championships well prior to the formation of RA.
Whilst there were many debates over rules from the first race, the first request for a conference came from New South Wales in February 1887, in order to discuss the possibility of sending a combined crew from all colonies to compete in England. Rowing Australia and its affiliates represent in excess of 15,000 active members ranging from young rowers at school through to those at universities and in the wider community right through to veterans rowing. Rowing Australia member associations operate in seven states with over 185 schools and 156 clubs offering rowing programs. RA is responsible for selection of representative Australian teams for the Olympic Games, World Championships, World Under 23 Championships, Trans Tasman teams and Junior World Championships. Rowing Australia organises four regattas which are conducted in Australia at the national level: Australian Rowing Championships Australian Masters Rowing ChampionshipsPrevious events include: Youth Cup Australian Youth Olympic Festival Official website
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, from the theoretical to the applied; these ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's founding principle, a popular 1868 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City and Cornell Tech, a graduate program that incorporates technology and creative thinking; the program moved from Google's Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.
Cornell is one of ten private land grant universities in the United States and the only one in New York. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York system, including its agricultural and human ecology colleges as well as its industrial labor relations school. Of Cornell's graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported; as a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered; as of October 2018, 58 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell University. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race.
Cornell counts more than 245,000 living alumni, its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 30 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 14 living billionaires. The student body consists of more than 14,000 undergraduate and 8,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 116 countries. Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty; the university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, 412 men were enrolled the next day. Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds.
Since 1894, Cornell fulfill statutory requirements. Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes, it was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues, civil rights, opposition to the Vietnam War. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor. Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, it has partnerships with institutions in India and the People's Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a "transnational university". On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new'Bridging the Rift Center' to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.
Cornell's main campus is on East Hill in Ithaca, New York, overlooking Cayuga Lake. Since the university was founded, it has expanded to about 2,300 acres, encompassing both the hill and much of the surrounding areas. Central Campus has laboratories, administrative buildings, all of the campus' academic buildings, athletic facilities and museums. North Campus is composed of ten residence halls that house first-year students, although the Townhouse Community houses transfer students; the five main residence halls on West Campus make up the West Campus House System, along with several Gothic-style buildings, referred to as "the Gothics". Collegetown contains two upper-level residence halls and the Schwartz Performing Arts Center amid a mixed-use neighborhood of apartments and businesses; the main campus is marked by an irregular layout and eclectic architectural styles, including ornate Collegiate Gothic and Neoclassical buildings, the more spare international and modernist structures. The more ornat
Walkway over the Hudson
The Walkway over the Hudson is a steel cantilever bridge spanning the Hudson River between Poughkeepsie, New York, on the east bank and Highland, New York, on the west bank. Built as a double track railroad bridge, it was completed on January 1, 1889, formed part of the Maybrook Railroad Line of the New Haven Railroad, it was taken out of service on May 1974, after it was damaged by fire. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979, its entry updated in 2008, it was reopened on October 3, 2009 as a pedestrian walkway as part of the new Walkway Over the Hudson State Historic Park. The New York State Bridge Authority is charged with maintaining the bridge structure; the park is operated by the New York State Office of Parks and Historic Preservation. In 2017, the walkway hosted 593,868 visitors. In 1868, an engineer proposed a railroad bridge across the Hudson River at Poughkeepsie, in a letter published in the Poughkeepsie Eagle newspaper; the proposal seemed so absurd that the Eagle ridiculed it, it was forgotten for a few years.
Over the years, many plans had been made for a fixed span across the Hudson River south of Albany to replace numerous car float and ferry operations. One of the most persistent was chartered in 1868 as the Hudson Highland Suspension Bridge Company, whose proposed bridge would have crossed from Anthony's Nose to Fort Clinton, now the site of the Bear Mountain Bridge, it was never built. The Poughkeepsie Bridge Company was chartered in June 1871 to build the bridge, J. Edgar Thomson of the Pennsylvania Railroad was persuaded to support the effort. Contracts were let to a firm called the American Bridge Company, but the Panic of 1873 intervened and the scheme collapsed. In 1886, the Manhattan Bridge Building Company was organized to finance the construction. Among the prominent backers was Henry Clay Frick, the coal tycoon and associate of Andrew Carnegie; the Union Bridge Company of Athens, which had completed the Michigan Central cantilever bridge at Niagara, was subcontracted to build the Poughkeepsie Bridge.
Dawson and Usher were the foundation engineers, while John F. O'Rourke, P. P. Dickinson and Arthur B. Paine were the structural engineers; the bridge was designed by Charles Macdonald and Arthur B. Paine; as is typical for cantilever bridges, construction was carried out by constructing cribwork, masonry piers, fixed truss sections on falsework, cantilever sections, with the final cantilever interconnection spans floated out or raised with falsework. The first train crossed the bridge on December 29, 1888, it was formally opened for scheduled passenger service on January 1, 1889. Considered an engineering marvel of the day, the bridge has seven main spans; the total length is 6,768 feet, including approaches, the top of the deck is 212 feet above water. It is a multispan cantilever truss bridge, having two river-crossing cantilever spans of 548 feet each, one center span of 546 feet, two anchor spans of 525 feet, two shore spans of 201 feet each, a 2,641 feet approach viaduct on the eastern bank and a 1,033 feet approach viaduct on the western bank.
All seven spans were built of newly available Bessemer Process "mild" steel, while the two approach viaducts were built of iron. It formed part of the most direct rail route between the industrial northeastern states and the midwestern and western states; the bridge was the only fixed Hudson River crossing between Albany and New York City until the construction of the Bear Mountain Bridge in 1924, was advertised as a way to avoid New York City car floats and railroad passenger ferries. Ownership of the bridge passed through several railroads including the Central New England Railway, New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Penn Central and Conrail. A strengthening of the bridge was completed in 1907 to handle heavier freight trains by engineer Ralph Modjeski, of the famed bridge civil engineering firm Modjeski and Masters, who added a third line of trusses down the middle, a central girder, interleaved columns. In 1917–18, the double tracks on the bridge were converted to gantlet track operation to center the weight of heavier NH 2-10-2 steam locomotives.
So, trains were restricted to 12 miles per hour. In 1959, the gantlet tracks were replaced by a centered single track. During World War II, the bridge was a vital link for war freight traffic, guarded around the clock by United States Army soldiers. At its peak, nearly 3,500 train cars crossed over the Hudson on a daily basis. Traffic across the bridge began a slow decline in the 1950s as industry shrank in New England and with it the need for the raw materials railroads excelled at transporting. Traffic from the connecting New York, Ontario & Western ceased when that railroad shut down in 1957. Another connection, the coal-, slate-, cement-hauling Lehigh & New England shut down in 1961. At the same time, some new traffic began crossing the bridge, such as the New Haven's "Super Jet", one of the first trains to carry truck trailers; the Penn Central's acquisition of the New Haven in 1969 discouraged connecting traffic with the Erie Lackawanna, which competed with other Penn Central routes. After 1971, only one through train in each direction, for Erie Lackawanna, crossed the bridge.
While the Penn Central did not connect with the old New Haven on the west side of the bridge, it came close. For a short