Interfaith dialogue refers to cooperative and positive interaction between people of different religious traditions and/or spiritual or humanistic beliefs, at both the individual and institutional levels. It is distinct from syncretism or alternative religion, in that dialogue involves promoting understanding between different religions or beliefs to increase acceptance of others, rather than to synthesize new beliefs; the Archdiocese of Chicago's Office for Ecumenical and Interreligious Affairs defines "the difference between ecumenical and interreligious relations", as follows: "ecumenical" as "relations and prayer with other Christians", "interfaith" as "relations with members of the'Abrahamic faiths'," and "interreligious" as "relations with other religions, such as Hinduism and Buddhism". Some interfaith dialogues have more adopted the name interbelief dialogue, while other proponents have proposed the term interpath dialogue, to avoid implicitly excluding atheists, agnostics and others with no religious faith but with ethical or philosophical beliefs, as well as to be more accurate concerning many world religions that do not place the same emphasis on "faith" as do some Western religions.
Pluralistic rationalist groups have hosted public reasoning dialogues to transcend all worldviews, termed transbelief dialogue. To some, the term interreligious dialogue has the same meaning as interfaith dialogue. Neither are the same as nondenominational Christianity; the World Council of Churches distinguishes between'interfaith' and'interreligious'. To the WCC, interreligious refers to action between different Christian denominations. So, interfaith refers to interaction between different faith groups such as Muslim and Christian or Jew for example. Throughout the world there are local, regional and international interfaith initiatives; the quoted "There will be no peace among the nations without peace among the religions. There will be no peace among the religions without dialogue among the religions" was formulated by Hans Küng, a Professor of Ecumenical Theology and President of the Global Ethic Foundation. Interfaith dialogue forms a major role in the study of peacebuilding. History records examples of interfaith initiatives throughout the ages, with varying levels of success in establishing one of three types of "dialogue" to engender, as described, either understanding, teamwork, or tolerance: "In the dialogue of the head, we mentally reach out to the other to learn from those who think differently from us."
"In the dialogue of the hands, we all work together to make the world a better place in which we must all live together." "In the dialogue of the heart, we share the experience of the emotions of those different from us."The historical effectiveness of interfaith dialogue is an issue of debate. Friar James L. Heft, in a lecture on "The Necessity of Inter-Faith Diplomacy," spoke about the conflicts among practitioners of the three Abrahamic religions. Noting that except for the Convivencia in the 14th and 15th centuries, believers in these religions have either kept their distance or have been in conflict, Heft maintains, "there has been little genuine dialogue" between them. "The sad reality has been that most of the time Jews and Christians have remained ignorant about each other, or worse in the case of Christians and Muslims, attacked each other."In contrast, The Pluralism Project at Harvard University says, "Every religious tradition has grown through the ages in dialogue and historical interaction with others.
Christians and Muslims have been part of one another's histories, have shared not only villages and cities, but ideas of God and divine revelation."The importance of Abrahamic interfaith dialogue in the present has been bluntly presented: "We human beings today face a stark choice: dialogue or death!"More broadly, interfaith dialogue and action have occurred over many centuries: In the 16th century, the Emperor Akbar encouraged tolerance in Mughal India, a diverse nation with people of various faith backgrounds, including Islam, Hinduism and Christianity. Religious pluralism can be observed in other historical contexts, including Muslim Spain. Zarmanochegas was a monk of the Sramana tradition from India who journeyed to Antioch and Athens while Augustus was ruling the Roman Emprire. "Disputation of Barcelona – religious disputation between Jews and Christians in 1263. The apostate Paulus Christiani proposed to King James I of Aragon that a formal public religious disputation on the fundamentals of faith should be held between him and R. Moses b.
Nahman whom he had encountered in Gerona. The disputation took place with the support of the ecclesiastical authorities and the generals of the Dominican and Franciscan orders, while the king presided over a number of sessions and took an active part in the disputation; the Dominicans Raymond de Peñaforte, Raymond Martini, Arnold de Segarra, the general of the Franciscan order in the kingdom, Peter de Janua, were among the Christian disputants. The single representative for the Jewish side was Naḥmanides; the four sessions of the disputation took place on July 20, 27, 30, 31, 1263. Naḥmanides was guaranteed complete freedom of speech in the debate. Two accounts of the disputation, one in Hebrew writte
The Kangaba Cercle is an administrative subdivision of the Koulikoro Region of Mali. Its seat is the town and commune of Benkadi Habaladougou known as Kangaba, it lies at the southwest corner of the region, along the Guinean border, with the Niger River forming its southern edge. The Kangaba Cercle is the smallest cercle in the Koulikoro Region, both in surface area and population, it is divided into nine communes. Balan Bakama Benkadi Kaniogo Karan Maramandougou Minidian Naréna Nouga Séléfougou The Kangaba Cercle is home to Malinké farmers, formed part of the precolonial Mali Empire as well as the Ghana and Mali Empires back to the 8th century, it was the center of Kangaba Province of the Mali Empire, for a period after 1559, was the capital of the empire. In 1599 it became the last center for Mansa Mahmud IV after his defeat at Djenné, a Kangaba city state survived after the empire's fall in 1610. Prior to the Mali Empire, the Manden city-state of Ka-ba served as the capital and name of this province.
From at least the beginning of the 11th century, Mandinka kings known as faamas ruled Manden from Ka-ba in the name of the Ghanas. Sundiata Keita began his revolt against the remnants of the Ghana Empire there, it remained the heartland of the Mali state; the town of Habaladougou Kenieba remains an important Malinké cultural center and home to their sacred Kamablo house, traditionally rebuilt every seven years. The Cercle falls in the more fertile Sudan climate region, forms some of the best farmland in the nation, much devoted to tobacco farming for export
The Azzam Pasha quotation refers to a statement made by Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam, the Secretary-General of the Arab League from 1945 to 1952, in which he declared in 1947 that, were a war to take place with the proposed establishment of a Jewish state, it would lead to "a war of extermination and momentous massacre which will be spoken of like the Mongolian massacre and the Crusades." The quote was universally cited for decades as having been uttered on the eve of the outbreak of hostilities between Israel and the Arab states several months later. The source of the quote was traced by the computer scientist Brendan McKay to an October 11, 1947 article in the Egyptian newspaper Akhbar al-Yom, titled "A War of Extermination", which included the quote, with the added words "Personally, I hope the Jews do not force us into this war, because it would be a war of extermination and momentous massacre...". The historian Efraim Karsh considers this quote a "genocidal threat"; the Israeli historian Tom Segev has disputed Karsh's interpretation, saying that "Azzam used to talk a lot" and pointing to another statement from May 21, 1948, in which Azzam Pasha declared his desire for "equal citizenship for Jews in Arab Palestine".
The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine was set up in May 1947 to develop proposals for the partition of Palestine. Recommendations to this effect were made in September of that year; the majority plan proposed a distinct two-state solution, the minority plan foresaw a federal state. The Arab countries were unanimous in their negative reactions to both plans, spoke of taking up arms were either of these proposals enacted. For Ernest Bevin, the British Foreign Secretary, the majority plan would only lead to an outbreak of generalised violence, as unjust to the Arabs, whilst the minority plan was inapplicable since it assumed a prior accord between Jews and Arabs. On September 15, Azzam Pasha, held in high esteem by David Ben-Gurion, met a Zionist delegation in London, consisting of Abba Eban, David Horowitz, both liaison officers with the Jewish Agency who were accompanied by the journalist Jon Kimche; the emissaries stated that there was no doubt that a Jewish state would be established and requested that the Arab states accept the consequences and cooperate.
They were willing to give cast-iron guarantees against any form of Jewish expansionism. Azzam Pasha, in his capacity as Secretary General of the Arab League, suggested that the Zionist project be abandoned, that the Jews could integrate themselves into Arab society on the basis of autonomous entities, he argued that it was pointless to appeal to political realism when the whole Zionist project demonstrated the efficacy of will-power. There was no option but war; the Zionists, would be thrown out in the future, just as the Crusaders had been. His Zionist interlocutors read this statement as a fascist declaration, according to Henry Laurens, to see that, as with the Jews of Europe, emancipation from enslavement for the Arabs was seen as requiring recourse to force. In Horowitz's account, Azzam declared, "We shall try to defeat you. I am not sure we'll succeed. We were able to drive out the Crusaders, it may be. But it's too late to talk of peaceful solutions." On being informed of the content of Azzam's declaration, Ben-Gurion, who considered Azzam the "most honest and humane among Arab leaders", who had earlier, on June 18, 1947, ordered the Haganah to prepare for a war he himself thought inevitable, synthesized Azzam's position in the following words: "As we fought against the Crusaders, we will fight against you, we will erase you from the earth."
At the pan-Arab summit of the 19th September 1947, which convened at Saoufar in Lebanon, the League decided to employ all available means to ensure the independence of Palestine as an Arab state. On October 11, the editor of Akhbar al-Yom, Mustafa Amin, ran an interview he had obtained from Azzam Pasha to report on the outcome of the summit; the article was entitled, "A War of Extermination,", in one passage contained the following words. I wish that the Jews do not drive us to this war, as this will be a war of extermination and momentous massacre which will be spoken of like the Tartar massacre or the Crusader wars. I believe that the number of volunteers from outside Palestine will be larger than Palestine's Arab population, for I know that volunteers will be arriving to us from India and China to win the honor of martyrdom for the sake of Palestine... You might be surprised to learn that hundreds of Englishmen expressed their wish to volunteer in the Arab armies to fight the Jews. In early December 1947 Azzam told a rally of students in Cairo that "The Arabs conquered the Tartars and the Crusaders and they are now ready to defeat the new enemy," echoing sentiments he had expressed to a journalist the previous day.
A Jewish Agency memorandum, submitted on February 2, 1948, to the U. N. Palestine Commission, tasked with the implementation of the partition resolution, yet again to the U. N. secretary-general on March 29, 1948, referred to the Azzam Pasha quotation, citing the October 11, 1947 article in Akhbar al-Yom.... The "practical and effective means" contrived and advocated by the Arab States were never envisaged as being limited by the provisions of the Charter. "This war," he said, "will be a war of extermination and a momentous massacre which will be spoken of like the Mongol massacres and the Crusades." At the time of the utterance, according to Segev, the Arab–Israeli conflict was raging in
Gungrave is an anime television series based on the video game of the same name, created by Yasuhiro Nightow. The series is directed by Toshiyuki Tsuru, written by Yōsuke Kuroda, animated by Madhouse; the series follows Brandon Heat and Harry MacDowell as they rise through the ranks of the Millennion crime syndicate. Gungrave aired on TV Tokyo from October 7, 2003, to March 2004, totaling twenty-six episodes. Like the Gungrave video game, its sequel Gungrave: Overdose, the series' music is provided by Tsuneo Imahori. In 2003, Geneon Entertainment, formally Pioneer Entertainment, announced the license of Gungrave in North America. On July 3, 2008, Geneon Entertainment and Funimation Entertainment announced an agreement to distribute select titles in North America after Geneon ceased distribution of their own titles in October 2007. While Geneon Entertainment will still retain the license, Funimation Entertainment will assume exclusive rights to the manufacturing, marketing and distribution of select titles.
Gungrave was announced as one of the several titles under the agreement on December 30, 2008. As of November 26, 2010, Funimation has licensed the anime series; the anime series returned to US television on May 2011 on the Funimation Channel. Gungrave opens thirteen years after Brandon Heat is betrayed and killed by his best friend Harry MacDowell, he is reborn through the use of necrolyzation as Beyond The Grave, begins a quest of revenge against the crime syndicate. The series backtracks to Brandon's youth, follows him and Harry as they rise through the criminal underworld, detailing the circumstances that led to their eventual falling-out. Brandon Heat / Beyond the GraveVoiced by: Tomokazu Seki. After their friends were killed and Harry joined the crime syndicate Millennion, led by Big Daddy. After joining Millennion, Brandon was assigned to a small collection crew in the West District, where they collected the organization's income from its illegal race track betting and black market operations.
After being proven by a special assignment recommended by Harry, his affiliation with Maria, risking his life for Big Daddy, Brandon began to move up within the ranks of the organization. Brandon was trained by Millennion's Bear Walken to be a sweeper forming his own elite sweeper unit within Millennion called "True Graves"; as Harry rose to power, Brandon remained loyal to the syndicate. Brandon confronted Harry for betraying the organization, but found himself unable to kill his friend. Instead, Harry kills Brandon during his moment of hesitation. Brandon was resurrected by Dr. Tokioka as "Beyond the Grave", his purpose is to destroy the friend who betrayed him. At the end of the anime, Brandon chose to protect Harry instead of killing him out of respect for their old friendship. It's unknown whether he lives or dies when Mika arrives, he acts like a parental figure to Mika, told her to move on as he no longer belongs to the living. Harry McDowellOld Harry Voiced by: Tsutomu Isobe; when he was young, he could not stand being held back or put in his place.
He used his ambition to rise in the ranks of Millennion with the help of his best friend, Brandon Heat. Impatient by nature, Harry began to plot the murder of Millennion's leader, Big Daddy, when he could not advance any further in the syndicate; as Harry's dreams become reality, he grows insane. The slightest sign of hesitation is taken as betrayal, betrayal is punished with death. Harry succeeded in killing Big Daddy as well as hundreds of others in his quest for freedom, earning him the name "Bloody Harry". One of his victims was Brandon Heat. Now, thirteen years Harry targets Big Daddy's daughter, Mika Asagi, as his next victim. However, Brandon has returned as Beyond the Grave to protect her against Harry's push to destroy the last piece of Big Daddy's legacy. Maria AsagiVoiced by: Kikuko Inoue. Throughout the series, Maria makes her feelings for Brandon clear; when she accepts Mr. Asagi's offer to live with him after her Uncle Jester dies, Maria is unaware that she is moving into the home of Big Daddy, head of Millenion.
Brandon follows her and joins Millenion in hopes of being close to her, for a while it works out. It is, he finds it harder and harder to face Maria with every person he kills, soon he stops visiting her altogether. Maria figures out what is going on, once she does, the strong-willed woman decides to confront the man she loves. However, vowing to follow Big Daddy, he refuses to give up his life as a hit man for the mob and calmly but coldly rejects Maria, who marries Big Daddy. Mika AsagiVoiced by: Kumi Sakuma. After the incident at her home, her mother tells her to seek protection from Brandon. Throughout the series, she goes through many hardships as she sees those close to her pass away one by one, her personality is similar to Maria's. In order to stop Brandon from going out and wearing out his body in episode 24, she confesses that she cares for him and asks if he thinks of her as family, she tells him they should just give up on revenge and runaway together. However, Brandon tells her to move on without him since he is no
Dawn Alice Lake was an Australian television comedian, singer and actor whose career spanned more than four decades. Bert Newton described her as "our greatest comedienne - Australia's Lucille Ball", she was associated in show business with her husband Bobby Limb. Dawn Lake was born to the youngest of four children, she married entertainer Bobby Limb in 1953 and they had one daughter, born in 1955. She was married to Limb for 46 years, though the marriage had its ups and downs, including a separation for a year in 1973, she lost her brother, David, to suicide in 1965. Bobby Limb died in 1999, she started her career as a singer in a local dance hall when she was 21, soon after was contracted to Joe Taylor's Celebrity Club circuit. She met Bobby Limb at this time. After their marriage in 1953, they went to the UK where she had won a contract to sing with the BBC Show Band, their careers went well in England over the next four years, with Lake appearing as a guest on the Cyril Stapleton radio show, with the couple appearing at the London Palladium and on the Moss Empire circuit.
On their return to Australia in 1957 she appeared on the Tivoli circuit, sang on 2UE and ABC radio stations with Bobby Limb's band. While she came to prominence on radio programs compered by Jack Davey and George Wallace, she found her greatest fame through her collaborations with Bobby Limb on the early Australian television programs The Mobil Limb Show produced by TCN9, Bobby Limb's Sound of Music, for two years in the mid-1960s, Here's Dawn. Limb's production company created the situation comedy series The Private World of Miss Prim as a vehicle for Lake, but the series was short-lived. Lake was subsequently a regular for the 1967 season of the top-rated sketch comedy program The Mavis Bramston Show. Through the 1970s she guest starred in Australian drama series such as Division 4 and Glenview High, appeared as a panellist on Graham Kennedy's game show Blankety Blanks, she made a few appearances in dramatic feature films of this period, with roles in Squeeze a Flower, Alvin Purple, the controversial Wake in Fright.
She returned to the stage at this time, appearing such shows as Some of My Best Friends Aren't, Just for Arthur, Move Over Mrs Markham and The Mating Season. In her life she participated in a series of national concerts for seniors, organised by Limb. Bobby Limb and Dawn Lake entertained Australian troops in Vietnam, were active in the campaign to elect the Whitlam Labor government in 1972, including taking part in the campaign song, It's Time, her most enduring character was Ethel. "You tell'em, luv!" was Ethel's catchcry, a line, adopted by Federal politicians during parliamentary Question Time. Anderson, Doug "One out of the box, stage: Dawn Lake, Entertainer, 1927-2006" in The Sydney Morning Herald, Weekend Edition, 21–22 January 2006, p. 38 Dawn Lake on IMDb
Rudolf Belling was a German sculptor. At the beginning of the 20th century Rudolf Belling’s name was something like a battlecry; the composer of the "Dreiklang" evoked hefty discussions. He was the first, who took up again thoughts of the famous Italian sculptor Benvenuto Cellini, who, at his time, that a sculpture should show several good views; these were the current assumptions at the turn of the century. However they foreshadow an indication of sculpture being three-dimensional. Rudolf Belling amplified: a sculpture should show only good views, and so he became an opponent to one of the German head scientists of art in Berlin, Adolf von Hildebrandt, who, in his book, The problem of Form in Sculpture said: "Sculpture should be comprehensible – and should never force the observer to go round it". Rudolf Belling disproved the current theories with his works, his theories of space and form convinced critics like Carl Einstein and Paul Westheim, influenced generations of sculptors after him. It is just this point.
From 1933 on, Belling had no chance to work in his home country. His works were marked degenerate, many of them were smashed; as his political opinions were not in conformity with the Nazi regime, he was banned from working as well as from his membership of the Prussian Academy of Arts, Berlin. The academy president advised him in the name of the Minister of Arts to resign. In 1935 Rudolf Belling stayed for eight months in New York City, where he had an exhibition in the Weyhe Gallery with his most important works from the Modern Classic Period, he gave courses of lectures on modern sculpture and his own theories. America offered him a marvellous possibility at that time to live his life there, he returned to Germany because his nine-year-old son Thomas was in danger there since his mother, Rudolf Belling’s first wife, had been Jewish. He emigrated once again, in 1937, this time to Istanbul, Turkey, he worked there for thirty years. From 1937 on he was professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Istanbul, re-organizing the department of sculpture and mediating introductions towards modern art, basing his work on traditional studies.
In 1939 he managed to fly out his son illegally from Berlin to Turkey. In 1942 he married his second wife Yolanda Carolina Manzini, from an Italian-German family, in 1943 his daughter Elisabeth was born. From 1951 to 1966, he was professor at the Istanbul Technical University, at the department of architecture. 1955, he got the Federal Cross of Merit. He was called back to the Academy in Berlin West only in 1956, the same year the works which stayed in New York could be received back with the help of the Foreign Office. At the age of eighty, he decided to return to Germany again, where he lived in Krailling, near Munich, he died in Munich in June 1972, being decorated by the German government with the Federal Cross of Merit with Star. The archive is meanwhile managed by his daughter Elisabeth Weber-Belling