Interlocking directorate

Interlocking directorate refers to the practice of members of a corporate board of directors serving on the boards of multiple corporations. A person that sits on multiple boards is known as a multiple director. Two firms have a direct interlock if a director or executive of one firm is a director of the other, an indirect interlock if a director of each sits on the board of a third firm; this practice, although widespread and lawful, raises questions about the quality and independence of board decisions. According to some observers, interlocks allow for cohesion, coordinated action, unified political-economic power of corporate executives, they allow corporations to increase their influence by exerting power as a group, to work together towards common goals. They help corporate executives maintain an advantage, gain more power over workers and consumers, by reducing intra-class competition and increasing cooperation. In the words of Scott R. Bowman, interlocks "facilitate a community of interest among the elite of the corporate world that supplants the competitive and divisive ethos of an earlier stage of capitalism with an ethic of cooperation and a sense of shared values and goals."Interlocks act as communication channels, enabling information to be shared between boards via multiple directors who have access to inside information for multiple companies.

The system of interlocks forms what Michael Useem calls a "transcorporate network, overarching all sectors of business". Interlocks have benefits over trusts and other monopolistic/oligopolistic forms of organization, due to their greater fluidity, lower visibility, they benefit the involved companies, due to reduced competition, increased information availability for directors, increased prestige. Some theorists believe that because multiple directors have interests in firms in different industries, they are more to think in terms of general corporate class interests, rather than the narrow interests of individual corporations; these individuals tend to come from wealthy backgrounds, socialize with the upper classes, tend to have worked their way up the corporate hierarchy, making it more that they have internalized values that will cause them to support policies that are beneficial to business in general. Furthermore, multiple directors tend to be more appointed to government positions, sit on more non-profit/foundation boards than other directors.

Thus, these individuals tend to contribute disproportionately to the policy-planning and government groups that represent the interests of the corporate class, are the ones that are most to deal with general policy issues and handle political problems for the business class as a whole. These individuals and the people around them are considered to be the "ruling class" in modern politics. However, they do not wield absolute power, they are not monolithic differing on which policies will best serve the interests of the upper classes. Interlocks not only occur between corporations, but between corporations and non-profit institutions such as foundations, think tanks, policy-planning groups, universities, they can be seen as a subset of connections in a larger upper class social network which includes all of the aforementioned types of institutions as well as elite social clubs, schools and gatherings. Multiple directors are "roughly twice as as single directors to be in the Social Register, to have attended a prestigious private school, or to belong to an elite social club."

Analyses of corporate interlocks have found a high degree of interconnectedness amongst large corporations. It has been shown that inbound interlocks have a much greater impact and importance than outbound interlocks, a finding that laid the foundation for further research on inter-organizational networks based on overlapping memberships and other linkages such as joint ventures and patent backward and forward citations. All large U. S. corporations are linked together in a network of interlocks. Most corporations are within 4 "steps" from each other within this network. 15-20% of all directors sit on two or more boards. The largest corporations tend to have the most interlocks, tend to have interlocks with each other, placing them at the center of the network. Major banks, in particular, tend to be at the center of the network and have large numbers of interlocks. With the globalization of financial capital following World War II, multinational interlocks have become progressively more common.

As the Cold War escalated, well-connected members of the CIA harnessed these interconnections to launder money through front foundations, as well as more substantial institutions such as the Ford Foundation. A small number of individuals—a few dozen—bind this multinational network together by participating in transnational interlocks and sitting on the boards of multiple global policy groups. In the United States, the Clayton Act prohibits interlocking directorates by U. S. companies competing in the same industry, if those corporations would violate antitrust laws if combined into a single corporation. However, at least 1 in 8 of the interlocks in the United States are between corporations that are competitors. In 1979 Levin and Roy reported on interlocking directors at 797 corporations in 1970 where the board of directors ranged from 3 to 47 members, with a mean size of 13. Only 18% of the 8623 directors were on more than one board, though the mean number of interlockers for a corporation was 8.


Jorge Costa

Jorge Paulo Costa Almeida, known as Costa, is a Portuguese retired footballer who played as a central defender, a manager. Nicknamed Bicho and Tanque by his colleagues and fans for his aggressive and physical playing style, he spent most of his professional career with Porto, being team captain for several seasons and winning a total of 24 major titles, notably eight Primeira Liga championships and the 2004 Champions League. Having earned 50 caps for Portugal, Costa represented the nation at one World Cup and one European Championship. After retiring, he worked as a manager for several clubs. Born in Porto, Costa made his professional debut with F. C. Penafiel on loan from hometown club FC Porto; the following season he was loaned, to fellow Primeira Liga side C. S. Marítimo, playing 31 games including a controversial one in the Estádio das Antas where he scored an own goal. In the 1992–93 campaign, Costa joined FC Porto making his way. Five seasons he switched to jersey No. 2 worn by João Domingos Pinto being named team captain as the veteran retired.

His career three only met four black spots: two serious knee injuries and a feud with coach Octávio Machado early in 2001–02, which forced him into "exile" at Charlton Athletic. However, the image of Costa as the captain went untouched, Porto fans turned against Machado with massive criticism of his team management and coaching forcing him outside the club. Additionally, in 1996–97's UEFA Champions League, Costa was involved in an incident with A. C. Milan's George Weah on 20 November 1996, with the Liberian breaking his nose, alleging that he had been racially abused. Costa strenuously denied the accusations of racism and was not charged by UEFA as no witnesses could verify Weah's allegations, not his Milan teammates. Weah, on the other hand, was suspended for six matches, attempted to apologise to Costa but this was rebuffed by the Portuguese, who considered the charges of racist insults levelled against him to be defamatory and took the Liberian to court. With José Mourinho in charge, Costa returned to Porto next season, was unanimously chosen as captain of a side that went on to win a championship-cup–UEFA Cup treble, making him the third Porto captain in a row to lift cups at international level.

The player's winning streak continued as the next season he lifted the Champions League and the Intercontinental Cup. In January 2006, after having been deemed surplus to requirements by new coach Co Adriaanse, Costa signed for Standard Liège from Belgium, reuniting with former Porto teammate Sérgio Conceição, helped his new side to a runner-up finish in the league, he decided to retire from the game in June after alleging personal reasons, despite having a running contract until 2007. Costa made his full international debut for Carlos Queiroz' Portugal on 11 November 1992 in a 2–1 friendly win over Bulgaria in Saint-Ouen-sur-Seine, France, he played alongside Fernando Couto as the team reached the semi-finals of UEFA Euro 2000 in Belgium and the Netherlands. Costa scored the first of two goals on 15 November 2000, in a 2–1 exhibition defeat of Israel at the Estádio 1º de Maio in Braga, he retired from international football after a group stage elimination at the 2002 FIFA World Cup in South Korea and Japan, having played in 50 games.

In 1991, Costa was an undisputed starter as the Portuguese team won the FIFA U-20 World Cup. In the 2006–07 season, Costa began his coaching career with S. C. Braga, first as assistant to Rogério Gonçalves, whom he replaced in February 2007. In his first season he led the Minho side to the fourth place and the semi-finals of the domestic cup reaching the round-of-16 in the UEFA Cup, being ousted by Tottenham Hotspur 4–6 on aggregate. After again guiding Braga to the UEFA Cup group stage, Costa was fired midway through his second year, he moved to second level's S. C. Olhanense in the following campaign finishing the season as champions and returning the Algarve team to the first division after 34 years. After helping Olhanense to the 13th position in the following campaign – thus safe from relegation – he left the club, joining another top division club, Académica de Coimbra. On 21 December 2010, Costa announced his departure from Académica and his retirement from coaching, citing personal reasons.

The team was placed in ninth position after the 14th round narrowly escaping relegation. In May 2011, however, he announced his comeback. On 24 October 2012, AEL Limassol FC appointed Costa as their new manager, on the eve of a Europa League group stage tie against Fenerbahçe SK. In the following summer he moved teams but stayed in Cyprus, penning a 1+1 deal with Anorthosis Famagusta FC. From 2014 until November 2016, Costa coached the Gabon national team, being ousted from the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations group stage after one win and two losses, he returned to club duties on 15 May 2017.

Bentley Mark VI

The Bentley Mark VI is an automobile from Bentley, produced from 1946 to 1952. The Mark VI 4-door standard steel sports saloon was the first post-war luxury car from Bentley. Announced in May 1946 and produced from 1946 to 1952 it was both the first car from Rolls-Royce with all-steel coachwork and the first complete car assembled and finished at their factory; these expensive cars were a genuine success. Chassis continued to be supplied to independent coachbuilders. Four-door Saloon, two-door saloon and drophead coupe models with bodies by external companies were listed by Bentley along with the Bentley-bodied saloon; this first Bentley factory finished car was given the name Bentley Mark VI standard steel sports saloon. This shorter wheelbase chassis and engine was a variant of the Rolls-Royce Silver Wraith of 1946 and, with the same standard steel body, became the cautiously introduced Silver Dawn of 1949. In 1952 both Rolls Royce Silver Dawn and Bentley Mk VI standard steel bodies were modified to incorporate a boot of about twice the size and the result became known as the R type Bentley based on the Chassis number at which the change took place.

The name of the Rolls Royce Silver Dawn was not changed after the modification that started with the "E" series in these cars. Mark VI engines and chassis were modified to provide higher performance and sold to be bodied by selected coachbuilders as the first Bentley Continentals; the Mark VI ​4 1⁄4-litre used an F-head straight-6 engine 4.3 L in size. The manufacturer refused to disclose a horse power value for the car but an Autocar Magazine road test reproduced in 1950 reported that top gear provided "flexibility down to 6 mph" and the ability to "climb a hill of 1 in 9 maximum gradient, complicated by bends", all of which supported the manufacturer's contention that power, along with low speed torque, were adequate.. In 1951, a ​4 1⁄2-litre, 4.6 L version of the engine was introduced. The increase in displacement was accomplished by increasing the bore from 3 1/2 inch to 3 5/8 inch; the version is sometimes casually referred to as the "big bore" engine, the earlier version as the "small bore" version.

The 4 1/2 L version of the engine is as well equipped with a Vokes 30 full flow oil filter. Carburation in RHD cars were two horizontal constant-vacuum SU carburetors. LHD cars had a single dual downdraught Stromberg carburetor type AAV26M and a different inlet manifold as fitted in the Rolls Royce Silver Dawn and Silver Wraith. A four-speed syncromesh manual transmission was fitted in all Bentley MK VI with the change lever to the right of the driver on RHD cars and on the column on LHD versions. ​4 1⁄4-litre cars had chassis numbers from B 1 AJ through B 400 LJ, with the final two letters indicating the series in which it was built. The "big bore" cars serial numbers begin with B 1 MB and ended with B 300 PV; each alphabetic series only contained either or odd numbers, 13 was always skipped for the odd-numbered sequences. The 4.3 L was referred to as the ​4 1⁄4 L and can be identified from its single exhaust in RHD cars. The 4.6 L features a twin exhaust in RHD cars. In LHD cars the twin exhaust system was only fitted with the introduction of the R-type.

In addition for "standard steel" Mark VI saloons the single hinged ventilation flap centrally mounted on the top of the bonnet, directly ahead of the windscreen was replaced, on cars, with two hinged ventilation flaps, mounted at or below knee height, one on each side of the bonnet, ahead of the front doors. The oil filler cap is another way to identify engine type; the chassis used leaf springs at the rear and independent coil springing at the front. A control on the steering wheel centre adjusts the hardness of the rear springing by hydraulically adjusting the rear dampers; this is done via opening a check valve that provides pressure by diverting transmission oil to the dampers. A pedal-operated central lubrication system type Bijur-Girling allows oil to be applied to moving parts of the suspension from a central reservoir by using a foot pedal; the 12.25 in drum brakes were assisted by the traditional Rolls-Royce mechanical servo at the transmission. Employing its experience with the steel bodies made in short runs since 1936 by partly-owned subsidiary Park Ward the Car Division of Rolls-Royce offered their lowest priced chassis with a factory-supplied body all-steel so it could be exported all over the world.

The factory bodies with a Gurney-Nutting-Blatchley refined shape were made by Pressed Steel Ltd of Cowley and sent to the Bentley works at Crewe for painting and fitting out with traditional wood and leather. They featured rear hinged "suicide" doors at the front with concealed hinges, a sliding sunroof, a permanently closed windscreen with an electric defrosting and demisting unit hidden in the scuttle and a second heater that made use of the coolant and was fitted with an electric fan beneath the left front seat. Twin screenwipers were fitted and provision was made for the fitting of a radio with a short and flexibly mounted aerial that could be swung up above the centre of the screen. A 4.6-litre, factory bodied car tested by