Measure for Measure
Measure for Measure is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1603 or 1604. Published in the First Folio of 1623, where it was listed as a comedy, the play's first recorded performance occurred in 1604; the play's main themes include justice, "morality and mercy in Vienna," and the dichotomy between corruption and purity: "some rise by sin, some by virtue fall." Mercy and virtue prevail, as the play does not end tragically, with virtues such as compassion and forgiveness being exercised at the end of the production. While the play focuses on justice overall, the final scene illustrates that Shakespeare intended for moral justice to temper strict civil justice: a number of the characters receive understanding and leniency, instead of the harsh punishment to which they, according to the law, could have been sentenced. Measure for Measure is called one of Shakespeare's problem plays, it continues to be classified as a comedy, albeit a dark one, though its tone may defy those expectations.
Vincentio, the Duke of Vienna, makes it known that he intends to leave the city on a diplomatic mission. He leaves the government in the hands of Angelo. In the next scene, we find a group of soldiers on a Vienna street, expressing their hopes, in irreverent banter, that a war with Hungary is afoot, that they will be able to take part. Mistress Overdone, the operator of a brothel frequented by these same soldiers and tells them "there's one yonder arrested and carried to prison was worth five thousand of you all." She tells them that it is "Signor Claudio," and that "within these three days his head to be chopped off" as punishment for "getting Madam Julietta with child." Lucio, one of the soldiers, revealed to be Claudio's friend, is astonished at this news and rushes off. Comes Pompey Bum, who works for Mistress Overdone as a pimp, but disguises his profession by describing himself as a mere'tapster', avers to the imprisonment of Claudio and outrageously explains his crime as "Groping for trouts in a peculiar river."
He informs Mistress Overdone of Angelo's new proclamation, that "All houses in the suburbs of Vienna must be plucked down." The brothels in the city "shall stand for seed: they had gone down too, but that a wise burgher put in for them." Mistress Overdone is distraught. "What shall become of me?" she asks. Pompey replies with a characteristic mixture of bawdy humor and folk-wisdom, "fear you not: good counselors lack no clients: though you change your place, you need not change your trade... Courage! There will be pity taken on you: you that have worn your eyes out in the service, you will be considered." Claudio is led past Pompey and Overdone on his way to prison, explains what has happened to him. Claudio married Juliet, but, as they have not completed all the strict legal technicalities, they were still considered to be unmarried when Juliet became pregnant. Angelo, as the interim ruler of the city, decides to enforce a law that fornication is punishable by death, so Claudio is sentenced to be executed.
Claudio's friend, visits Claudio's sister, Isabella, a novice nun, asks her to intercede with Angelo on Claudio's behalf. Isabella obtains an audience with Angelo, pleads for mercy for Claudio. Over the course of two scenes between Angelo and Isabella, it becomes clear that he lusts after her, he offers her a deal: Angelo will spare Claudio's life if Isabella yields him her virginity. Isabella refuses, but when she threatens to publicly expose his lechery, he tells her that no one will believe her because his reputation is too austere, she visits her brother in prison and counsels him to prepare himself for death. Claudio begs Isabella to save his life, but Isabella refuses, she believes that it would be wrong for her to sacrifice her own immortal soul to save Claudio's transient earthly life. The Duke has not in fact left the city, but remains there disguised as a friar in order to secretly view the city's affairs the effects of Angelo's strict enforcement of the law. In his guise as a friar, he befriends Isabella and arranges two tricks to thwart Angelo's evil intentions: First, a "bed trick" is arranged.
Angelo has refused to fulfill the betrothal binding him to Mariana, because her dowry had been lost at sea. Isabella sends word to Angelo that she has decided to submit to him, but making it a condition of their meeting that it occur in perfect darkness and in silence. Mariana agrees to take Isabella's place, she has sex with Angelo, although he continues to believe he has enjoyed Isabella. After having sex with Mariana, Angelo goes back on his word, sending a message to the prison that he wishes to see Claudio's head, necessitating the "head trick." The Duke first attempts to arrange the execution of another prisoner whose head can be sent instead of Claudio's. However, the villain Barnardine refuses to be executed in his drunken state; as luck would have it, a pirate named Ragozine, of similar appearance to Claudio, has died of a fever, so his head is sent to Angelo instead. This main plot concludes with the'return' to Vienna of the Duke as himself. Isabella and Mariana publicly petition him, he hears their claims against Angelo, which Angelo smoothly denies.
As the scene develops, it appears that Friar Lodowick will be blamed for the'false' accusations leveled against Ang
A movie theater, cinema, or cinema hall known as a picture house or the pictures, is a building that contains an auditorium for viewing films for entertainment. Most, but not all, theaters are commercial operations catering to the general public, who attend by purchasing a ticket; some movie theaters, are operated by non-profit organizations or societies that charge members a membership fee to view films. The film is projected with a movie projector onto a large projection screen at the front of the auditorium while the dialogue and music are played through a number of wall-mounted speakers. Since the 1970s, subwoofers have been used for low-pitched sounds. In the 2010s, most movie theaters are equipped for digital cinema projection, removing the need to create and transport a physical film print on a heavy reel. A great variety of films are shown at cinemas, ranging from animated films to blockbusters to documentaries; the smallest movie theaters have a single viewing room with a single screen.
In the 2010s, most movie theaters have multiple screens. The largest theater complexes, which are called multiplexes—a design developed in the US in the 1960s—have up to thirty screens; the audience members sit on padded seats, which in most theaters are set on a sloped floor, with the highest part at the rear of the theater. Movie theaters sell soft drinks and candy, some theaters sell hot fast food. In some jurisdictions, movie theaters can be licensed to sell alcoholic drinks. A movie theater may be referred to as a movie theatre, movie house, film house, film theater or picture house. In the US, theater has long been the preferred spelling, while in the UK, Australia and elsewhere it is theatre. However, some US theaters opt to use the British spelling in their own names, a practice supported by the National Association of Theatre Owners, while apart from North America most English-speaking countries use the term cinema, alternatively spelled and pronounced kinema; the latter terms, as well as their derivative adjectives "cinematic" and "kinematic" derive from Greek κινῆμα, κινήματος —"movement", "motion".
In the countries where those terms are used, the word "theatre" is reserved for live performance venues. Colloquial expressions applied to motion pictures and motion picture theaters collectively, include the silver screen and the big screen. Specific to North American term is the movies, while specific terms in the UK are the pictures, the flicks and for the facility itself the flea pit. A screening room is a small theater a private one, such as for the use of those involved in the production of motion pictures or in a large private residence; the etymology of the term "movie theater" involves the term "movie", a "shortened form of moving picture in the cinematographic sense", first used in 1896 and "theater", which originated in the "...late 14c. "open air place in ancient times for viewing spectacles and plays". The term "theater" comes from the Old French word "theatre", from the 12th century and "...directly from Latin theatrum'play-house, theater. The use of the word "theatre" to mean a "building where plays are shown" dates from the 1570s in the English language.
The earliest precursors to movies were magic lantern shows. Magic lanterns used a glass lens, a shutter and a powerful lamp to project images from glass slides onto a white wall or screen; these slides were hand-painted. The invention of the Argand lamp in the 1790s, limelight in the 1820s and the intensely bright electric arc lamp in the 1860s increased the brightness of the images; the magic lantern could project rudimentary moving images, achieved by the use of various types of mechanical slides. Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. Still photographs were used on after the widespread availability of photography technologies after the mid-19th century.
Magic lantern shows were given at fairs or as part of magic shows. A magic lantern show at the 1851 World's Fair caused a sensation among the audience; the next significant step towards movies was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828, when Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "persistence of vision". Roget showed that when a series of still images are shown in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement, an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device which spun a disk with an image on its surface at a high rate of speed. The French Lumière brothers' first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. From 1894 to the late 1920s, movie theaters showed silent films, which were films with no synchronized recorded sound or dialogue.
The Times of India
The Times of India is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group It is the third-largest newspaper in India by circulation and largest selling English-language daily in the world according to Audit Bureau of Circulations. It is the oldest English-language newspaper in India still in circulation, albeit under different names since its first edition published in 1838, it is the second-oldest Indian newspaper still in circulation after the Bombay Samachar. Near the beginning of the 20th century, Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India, called The Times of India "the leading paper in Asia". In 1991, the BBC ranked The Times of India among the world's six best newspapers, it is owned and published by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd., owned by the Sahu Jain family. In the Brand Trust Report 2012, The Times of India was ranked 88th among India's most-trusted brands. In 2017, the newspaper was ranked 355th; the Times of India issued its first edition on 3 November 1838 as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce.
The paper published Wednesdays and Saturdays under the direction of Raobahadur Narayan Dinanath Velkar, a Maharashtrian Reformist, contained news from Britain and the world, as well as the Indian Subcontinent. J. E. Brennan was its first editor. In 1850, it began to publish daily editions. In 1860, editor Robert Knight bought the Indian shareholders' interests, merged with rival Bombay Standard, started India's first news agency, it wired Times dispatches to papers across the country and became the Indian agent for Reuters news service. In 1861, he changed the name from the Bombay Times and Standard to The Times of India. Knight fought for a press free of prior restraint or intimidation resisting the attempts by governments, business interests, cultural spokesmen and led the paper to national prominence. In the 19th century, this newspaper company employed more than 800 people and had a sizeable circulation in India and Europe. Subsequently, The Times of India saw its ownership change several times until 1892 when an English journalist named Thomas Jewell Bennett along with Frank Morris Coleman acquired the newspaper through their new joint stock company, Coleman & Co. Ltd.
Sir Stanley Reed edited The Times of India from 1907 until 1924 and received correspondence from the major figures of India such as Mahatma Gandhi. In all he lived in India for fifty years, he was respected in the United Kingdom as an expert on Indian current affairs. He christened Jaipur as "the Pink City of India". Bennett Coleman & Co. Ltd was sold to sugar magnate Ramkrishna Dalmia of the then-famous industrial family, the Dalmiyas, for Rs 20 million in 1946, as India was becoming independent and the British owners were leaving. In 1955 the Vivian Bose Commission of Inquiry found that Ramkrishna Dalmia, in 1947, had engineered the acquisition of the media giant Bennett Coleman & Co. by transferring money from a bank and an insurance company of which he was the Chairman. In the court case that followed, Ramkrishna Dalmia was sentenced to two years in Tihar Jail after having been convicted of embezzlement and fraud, but for most of the jail term he managed to spend in hospital. Upon his release, his son-in-law, Sahu Shanti Prasad Jain, to whom he had entrusted the running of Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. rebuffed his efforts to resume command of the company.
In the early 1960s, Shanti Prasad Jain was imprisoned on charges of selling newsprint on the black market. And based on the Vivian Bose Commission's earlier report which found wrongdoings of the Dalmia – Jain group, that included specific charges against Shanti Prasad Jain, the Government of India filed a petition to restrain and remove the management of Bennett and Company. Based on the pleading, Justice directed the Government to assume control of the newspaper which resulted in replacing half of the directors and appointing a Bombay High Court judge as the Chairman. Following the Vivian Bose Commission report indicating serious wrongdoings of the Dalmia–Jain group, on 28 August 1969, the Bombay High Court, under Justice J. L. Nain, passed an interim order to disband the existing board of Bennett Coleman and to constitute a new board under the Government; the bench ruled that "Under these circumstances, the best thing would be to pass such orders on the assumption that the allegations made by the petitioners that the affairs of the company were being conducted in a manner prejudicial to public interest and to the interests of the Company are correct".
Following that order, Shanti Prasad Jain ceased to be a director and the company ran with new directors on board, appointed by the Government of India, with the exception of a lone stenographer of the Jains. Curiously, the court appointed D K Kunte as Chairman of the Board. Kunte had no prior business experience and was an opposition member of the Lok Sabha. In 1976, during the Emergency in India, the Government transferred ownership of the newspaper back to Ashok Kumar Jain; the Jains too landed themselves in various money laundering scams and Ashok Kumar Jain had to flee the country when the Enforcement Directorate pursued his case in 1998 for alleged violations of illegal transfer of funds to an overseas account in Switzerland. On 26 June 1975, the day after India declared a state of emergency, the Bombay edition of The Times of India carried an entry in its obituary column that read "D. E. M. O'Cracy, beloved husband of T. Ruth, father of L. I. Bertie, brother of Faith and Justice expired on 25 June".
The move was a critique of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's 21-month st
Dhobi Ghat (film)
Dhobi Ghat, released internationally as Mumbai Diaries, is a 2011 Indian drama film directed by Kiran Rao in her directorial debut. The film was produced by Aamir Khan Productions, Reliance Entertainment, Shree Ashtavinayak Cine Vision Ltd, stars Prateik Babbar, Monica Dogra, Kriti Malhotra and Aamir Khan in the lead roles. Gustavo Santaolalla was signed to compose the score and soundtrack of the film, which includes a song by Ryuichi Sakamoto. Dhobi Ghat had its world premiere in September 2010 at the Toronto International Film Festival and was released on 21 January 2011 in cinemas; the film being tagged an Art and Parallel cinema was critically successful, as it well received and appreciated by critics, although it had a below-average performance at the box office. The film was longlisted for the 65th BAFTA Awards in the Best Film Not in the English Language category. Arun, a reclusive artist, moves into a run-down flat in the older part of Mumbai. After attending an exhibition of his works, he meets Shai, an American banker who has come to Mumbai to devote time to her hobby and takes her back to his flat, where they have a one-night stand.
The next morning, Arun expresses his disinterest in continuing the relationship and Shai angrily storms out. Shortly after, Munna, a dhobi who dreams about getting a break in Bollywood, arrives to deliver Arun's laundry. Arun moves into a new apartment the next day. While unpacking, he finds a small container, left by the previous tenant of the apartment. In it, he finds a silver chain, a ring, three video tapes by Yasmin Noor; the tapes turn out to be video diaries. In the tape, she is happy, shows her apartment, the same one Arun is occupying now; the next morning, Arun is informed by his manager that art dealers, impressed with his art, have decided to open a gallery in Sydney featuring his works. Arun is pleased by this, as it would give him a chance to visit his ex-wife and child, settled in Australia, he begins to work on a new painting. When Munna delivers laundry to Shai's house, they soon become friends. Munna agrees to show Shai around Mumbai and help her gather photographs about the occupations of the poor.
In return, Shai agrees to shoot a portfolio of Munna to help him get into the film industry. Arun continues watching Yasmin's tapes and learns more about her life, including that she has married a man who seems distant. Shai obtains Arun's new address from Munna. Shai's father's construction company. Shai starts shooting photos of Arun from the construction site without Arun being aware of it. Munna continues struggling to find work in films. To earn a living, he kills rats by night, he disapproves of his brother's criminal activity but they are close, Munna's brother uses his underworld contacts to try to get Munna a break in the industry. In the meantime, Munna shows Shai the different facets of Mumbai, including the dhobi ghaat, where he works as a launderer. Munna develops feelings for Shai but is unable to express them because of his working-class status. One day, Arun invites her to his house, he apologises about their first meeting. Munna sees them together and feels betrayed but Shai is able to convince him to keep helping her.
One night, while Munna is at his rat-killing job, Shai takes pictures. Dismayed, Munna flees from her. Arun watches the final video by Yasmin, her tone has changed since the previous tape, in which she revealed learning that her husband was in an extramarital affair. She indicates that she intends to commit suicide. Shaken by the knowledge that Yasmin might have hanged herself in that room, Arun flees the apartment and moves into a new one. Munna arrives home to find, he and his family relocate to a new flat and Munna visits his brother's contact in the film industry to show him his portfolio. Arun studies the painting he has been working on, now complete. Yasmin is prominently featured along with other things. Shortly after, Shai finds Munna and Munna again tries to flee her, she asks about Arun's whereabouts. Still hurt, Munna lies to her and they exchange an abrupt farewell before Shai leaves. Moments Munna changes his mind and runs after Shai's car, weaving through the traffic; the film ends when Munna gives Shai Arun's new address.
Prateik Babbar as Munna Monica Dogra as Shai Kriti Malhotra as Yasmin Aamir Khan as Arun Kitu Gidwani as Vatsala Nafisa Khan as Amma The soundtrack of the film was composed by Academy Award-winning Gustavo Santaolalla and includes a song by Ryuichi Sakamoto. All of the songs were only included in the film. No soundtrack of Dhobi Ghat was released in the market. Two other songs included in the movie are "Ab Ke Sawaan Ghar Aazaa", a thumri in Raga Tilak Kamod sung by Begum Akhtar and "Dil Tadap Tadap Ke Kah Raha Hai Aa Bhi Ja", from the film Madhumati and sung by Mukesh and Lata Mangeshkar. In an interview, Rao expressed that the film was meant to be a tribute to Mumbai and that she sought to reveal other sides of the city not portrayed; the film was shot in Mumbai using "guerilla" techniques. Due to the 2008 Mumbai attacks, shooting was delayed when, citing safety concerns, the government denied Rao permission to shoot scenes at a railway station. According to the director, Mumbai is the "fifth character" in Dhobi Ghat.
The movie was shot at skycrapers under construction, M
A drive-in theater or drive-in cinema is a form of cinema structure consisting of a large outdoor movie screen, a projection booth, a concession stand and a large parking area for automobiles. Within this enclosed area, customers can view movies from the comfort of their cars; some drive-ins have small playgrounds for a few picnic tables or benches. The screen can be as simple as a wall, painted white, or it can be a steel truss structure with a complex finish; the movie's sound was provided by speakers on the screen and by individual speakers hung from the window of each car, which were attached by wire. These systems were superseded by the more economical and easier to maintain method of broadcasting the soundtrack at a low output power on AM or FM radio to be picked up by a car radio; this allows the soundtrack to be picked up in stereo by the audience on an in-car stereo system, higher quality and fidelity than the simple speakers used in the old systems. A partial drive-in theater – Theatre de Guadalupe – was opened in Las Cruces, New Mexico, on April 23, 1915: Seven hundred people may be comfortably seated in the auditorium.
Automobile entrances and places for 40 or more cars within the theater grounds and in-line position to see the pictures and witness all performances on the stage is a feature of the place that will please car owners. The first movie shown by the Theatre de Guadalupe was Bags of Gold, produced by Siegmund Lubin. Theatre de Guadalupe soon was renamed De Lux Theater before closing in July 1916. In 1921, a drive-in was opened by Claude V. Caver in Texas. Caver obtained a permit from the city to project films downtown. With cars parked bumper-to-bumper, patrons witnessed the screening of silent films from their vehicles. In the 1920s, "outdoor movies" became a popular summer entertainment, but few "drive-in" experiments were made due to logistical difficulties; the drive-in theater was patented in Camden, New Jersey by chemical company magnate Richard M. Hollingshead, Jr. whose family owned and operated the R. M. Hollingshead Corporation chemical plant in Camden. In 1932, Hollingshead conducted outdoor theater tests in his driveway at 212 Thomas Avenue in Riverton.
After nailing a screen to trees in his backyard, he set a 1928 Kodak projector on the hood of his car and put a radio behind the screen, testing different sound levels with his car windows down and up. Blocks under vehicles in the driveway enabled him to determine the size and spacing of ramps so all automobiles could have a clear view of the screen. Hollingshead applied for a patent of his invention on August 6, 1932, he was given U. S. Patent 1,909,537 on May 16, 1933. Hollingshead's drive-in opened in New Jersey June 6, 1933, on Admiral Wilson Boulevard in Pennsauken Township, a short distance from Cooper River Park. Rosemont Avenue now runs through, it offered a 40 by 50 ft screen. He advertised his drive-in theater with the slogan, "The whole family is welcome, regardless of how noisy the children are." The first film shown was the Adolphe Menjou film Wife Beware. Failing to make a profit, Hollingshead sold the theater after three years to a Union, New Jersey theater owner who moved the infrastructure to that city, but the concept caught on nationwide.
The April 15, 1934, opening of Shankweiler's Auto Park in Orefield, was followed by Galveston's Drive-In Short Reel Theater, the Pico Drive-In Theater at Pico and Westwood boulevards in Los Angeles and the Weymouth Drive-In Theatre in Weymouth, Massachusetts. In 1937, three more opened in Ohio and Rhode Island, with another 12 during 1938 and 1939 in California, Maine, Massachusetts, New York and Virginia. Early drive-in theaters had to deal with sound issues; the original Hollingshead drive-in had speakers installed on the tower itself which caused a sound delay affecting patrons at the rear of the drive-in's field. In 1935, the Pico Drive-in Theater attempted to solve this problem by having a row of speakers in front of the cars. In 1941, RCA introduced in-car speakers with individual volume controls which solved the noise pollution issue and provided satisfactory sound to drive-in patrons. Just before World War II, 9 of the 15 drive-in movie theaters open in the United States were operated by Philip Smith, who promoted a family-friendly environment by allowing children to enter free and built playgrounds.
The drive-in's peak popularity came in the late 1950s and early 1960s in rural areas, with some 4,000 drive-ins spread across the United States. Among its advantages was the fact that older adults with children could take care of their infant while watching a movie, while youth found drive-ins ideal for a first date. Revenue is more limited than regular theaters. There were abortive attempts to create suitable conditions for daylight viewing such as large tent structures, but nothing viable was developed. During the 1950s, the greater privacy afforded to patrons gave drive-ins a reputation as immoral, they were labeled "passion pits" in the media. Beginning in the 1970s, many drive-ins changed from family fare to exploitation films, as a way to offset declining patronage and revenue. During the 1970s, some drive-ins began to show pornographic movies in less family-centered time slots to bring in extra income; this allowed censored materials to be viewed by a wide audience, some for whom viewing was still illegal in many states, it was reliant upon the whims of local ordinances controlling such material.
It required a remote location distant from populated areas such as towns and cities. During their height, s
A three-dimensional stereoscopic film is a motion picture that enhances the illusion of depth perception, hence adding a third dimension. The most common approach to the production of 3D films is derived from stereoscopic photography. In this approach, a regular motion picture camera system is used to record the images as seen from two perspectives, special projection hardware or eyewear is used to limit the visibility of each image to the viewer's left or right eye only. 3D films are not limited to theatrical releases. 3D films have existed in some form since 1915, but had been relegated to a niche in the motion picture industry because of the costly hardware and processes required to produce and display a 3D film, the lack of a standardized format for all segments of the entertainment business. Nonetheless, 3D films were prominently featured in the 1950s in American cinema, experienced a worldwide resurgence in the 1980s and 1990s driven by IMAX high-end theaters and Disney-themed venues.
3D films became successful throughout the 2000s, peaking with the success of 3D presentations of Avatar in December 2009, after which 3D films again decreased in popularity. Certain directors have taken more experimental approaches to 3D filmmaking, most notably celebrated auteur Jean-Luc Godard in his films 3x3D and Goodbye to Language; the stereoscopic era of motion pictures began in the late 1890s when British film pioneer William Friese-Greene filed a patent for a 3D film process. In his patent, two films were projected side by side on screen; the viewer looked through a stereoscope to converge the two images. Because of the obtrusive mechanics behind this method, theatrical use was not practical. Frederic Eugene Ives patented his stereo camera rig in 1900; the camera had two lenses coupled together 13⁄4 inches apart. On June 10, 1915, Edwin S. Porter and William E. Waddell presented tests to an audience at the Astor Theater in New York City. In red-green anaglyph, the audience was presented three reels of tests, which included rural scenes, test shots of Marie Doro, a segment of John Mason playing a number of passages from Jim the Penman, Oriental dancers, a reel of footage of Niagara Falls.
However, according to Adolph Zukor in his 1953 autobiography The Public Is Never Wrong: My 50 Years in the Motion Picture Industry, nothing was produced in this process after these tests. The earliest confirmed 3D film shown to an out-of-house audience was The Power of Love, which premiered at the Ambassador Hotel Theater in Los Angeles on 27 September 1922; the camera rig was a product of the film's producer, Harry K. Fairall, cinematographer Robert F. Elder, it was filmed dual-strip in black and white, single strip color analglyphic release prints were produced using a color film invented and patented by Harry K. Fairall. A single projector could be used to display the movie but anaglyph glasses were used for viewing; the camera system and special color release print film all received U. S Patent No. 1,784,515 on Dec 9, 1930. After a preview for exhibitors and press in New York City, the film dropped out of sight not booked by exhibitors, is now considered lost. Early in December 1922, William Van Doren Kelley, inventor of the Prizma color system, cashed in on the growing interest in 3D films started by Fairall's demonstration and shot footage with a camera system of his own design.
Kelley struck a deal with Samuel "Roxy" Rothafel to premiere the first in his series of "Plasticon" shorts entitled Movies of the Future at the Rivoli Theater in New York City. In December 1922, Laurens Hammond premiered his Teleview system, shown to the trade and press in October. Teleview was the first alternating-frame 3D system seen by the public. Using left-eye and right-eye prints and two interlocked projectors and right frames were alternately projected, each pair being shown three times to suppress flicker. Viewing devices attached to the armrests of the theater seats had rotary shutters that operated synchronously with the projector shutters, producing a clean and clear stereoscopic result; the only theater known to have installed Teleview was the Selwyn Theater in New York City, only one show was presented with it: a group of short films, an exhibition of live 3D shadows, M. A. R. S; the only Teleview feature. The show ran for several weeks doing good business as a novelty, but Teleview was never seen again.
In 1922, Frederic Eugene Ives and Jacob Leventhal began releasing their first stereoscopic shorts made over a three-year period. The first film, entitled Plastigrams, was distributed nationally by Educational Pictures in the red-and-blue anaglyph format. Ives and Leventhal went on to produce the following stereoscopic shorts in the "Stereoscopiks Series" released by Pathé Films in 1925: Zowie, Luna-cy!, The Run-Away Taxi and Ouch. On 22 September 1924, Luna-cy! was re-released in the DeForest Phonofilm sound-on-film system. The late 1920s to early 1930s saw little interest in stereoscopic pictures. In Paris, Louis Lumiere shot footage with his stereoscopic camera in September 1933; the following March he exhibited a remake of his 1895 short film L'Arrivée du Train, this time in anaglyphic 3D, at a meeting of the French Academy of Science. In 1936, Leventhal and John Norling were hired based on the