Internal conflict in Peru

The internal conflict in Peru is an ongoing armed conflict between the Government of Peru, the Communist Party of Peru and the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement. The conflict began on May 17, 1980, it is estimated that there have been nearly 70,000 deaths, making it the bloodiest war in Peruvian history, since the European colonization of the country. The high death toll includes many civilian casualties, due to deliberate targeting by many factions. Since 2000, the number of deaths has dropped and the conflict has become dormant. There were low-level resurgences of violence in 2002 and 2014 when conflict erupted between the Peruvian Army and Guerrilla remnants in the VRAEM region; the conflict has lasted for over 39 years, making it the second longest internal conflict in the history of Latin America, after the Colombian armed conflict. Prior to the conflict, Peru had undergone a series of coups with frequent switches between political parties and ideologies. On October 2, 1968, General Juan Velasco Alvarado staged a military coup and became Peru's 56th president under the administration of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces, left-leaning military dictatorship.

Following a period of widespread poverty and unemployment, Velasco himself was overthrown in a bloodless military coup on August 29, 1975. He was replaced by Francisco Morales Bermúdez as the new President of Peru. Morales announced that his rule would provide a "Second Phase" to the previous administration, which would bring political and economic reforms. However, he was unsuccessful in delivering these promises, in 1978, a Constitutional Assembly was created to replace Peru's 1933 Constitution. Morales proclaimed that national elections would be held by 1980. Elections were held for the Constituent Assembly on June 18, 1978, whilst martial law was imposed on January 6, 1979; the Assembly approved the new constitution in July 1979. On May 18, 1980, Fernando Belaunda Terry was elected president. Between February 1966 and July 1980 500 people died of political violence. Many affiliated with Peru's Communist Party had opposed the creation of the new constitution and formed the extremist organization known as the Shining Path.

This led to the emergence of internal conflict, with the first attacks taking place a day before the elections. Despite this, national elections continued and Fernando Belaúnde Terry was elected as the 58th President of Peru in 1980. Terry had served as the country's 55th president prior to Velasco's coup in 1968. During the governments of Velasco and Morales, Shining Path had been organized as a Maoist political group formed in 1970 by Abimael Guzmán, a communist professor of philosophy at the San Cristóbal of Huamanga University. Guzmán had been inspired by the Chinese Cultural Revolution which he had witnessed first-hand during a trip to China. Shining Path members engaged in street fights with members of other political groups and painted graffiti encouraging an "armed struggle" against the Peruvian state. In June 1979, demonstrations for free education were repressed by the army: 18 people were killed according to official figures, but non-governmental estimates suggest several dozen deaths.

This event led to a radicalization of political protests in the countryside and the outbreak of Shining Path's terrorist actions. When Peru's military government allowed elections for the first time in 1980, Shining Path was one of the few leftist political groups that declined to take part, they opted instead to launch guerrilla warfare actions against the state in the province of Ayacucho. On May 17, 1980—the eve of the presidential elections—members of Shining Path burned ballot boxes in the town of Chuschi, Ayacucho; the perpetrators were caught and additional ballots were brought in to replace the burned ballots. The incident received little attention in the Peruvian press. Shining Path opted to fight in the manner advocated by Mao Zedong, they would open up "guerrilla zones" in which their guerrillas could operate and drive government forces out of these zones to create "liberated zones". These zones would be used to support new guerrilla zones until the entire country was a unified "liberated zone".

There is some disagreement among scholars about the extent of Maoist influence on the Shining Path, but the majority of scholars consider Shining Path to be a violent Maoist organization. One of the factors contributing to support for this view among scholars is that Shining Path's economic and political base were located in rural areas and they sought to build up their influence in these areas. On December 3, 1982, the Shining Path formed an armed wing known as the "People's Guerrilla Army". In 1982, the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement launched its own guerrilla against the Peruvian state; the group had been formed by remnants of the Movement of the Revolutionary Left and identified with Castroite guerrilla movements in other parts of Latin America. The MRTA used techniques that were more traditional to Latin American leftist organizations, like wearing uniforms, claiming to fight for true democracy, accusations of human rights abuses by the state. During the conflict, the MRTA and Shining Path engaged in combat with each other.

The MRTA only played a small part in the overall conflict, being declared by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to have been responsible for 1.5 percent of casualties accumulated throughout the conflict. At its height, the MRTA was believed to have consisted of only a few hundred members. Shining Path committed more and more violent attacks o

Basic skills

Basic skills can be compared to higher order thinking skills. Facts and methods are valued under the back-to-basics approach to education. Facts are learned one at a time, in isolation, as compared to an integrated curriculum which combines fields of learning, they are learned from a book or teacher as compared to constructivism or student-centered learning where the learner constructs his or her own knowledge. Direct Instruction is based on teaching basic skills, they are learned for academics sake rather than in context or "real life" as compared to project-based learning. Critics who dismissed some mathematics as "Rainforest algebra" find pages filled with information about rainforests, the environment, or shoe companies like Nike but little information on how to solve the mathematics exercises. A basic skills test is a multiple choice which tests for one area of knowledge, as compared to a standards based assessment which requires an open response that requires integrating many different areas of knowledge such as communication, problem solving and science on a science item.

Mathematical skills such as borrowing or long division are learned without adding cultural context such as multiculturalism or ethnic heritage or issues of social justice. Facts are learned in sequence, rather than spiraling; some curriculum frameworks specify that students in all grade levels as early as Kindergarten will learn elements of number sense, geometry, mathematical communication, problem solving in nearly identical wording between grade levels. Teaching methods that emphasize basic skills tend to be compatible with traditional education rather than student-centered standards based education reform. Materials that are marketed to homeschoolers such as Saxon math and Modern Curriculum Press are based on emphasis on basic skills; such curricula require much less teacher training, less expensive and smaller books, do not require purchasing expensive expendable materials such as scissors, paint, beads as is required by reform mathematics curricula such as Investigations in Number and Space.

Most local and federal education agencies are committed to standards based education reform, based on beliefs which conflict with the outcomes of traditional education. The goal is that all students will succeed at one high world-class level of what students know and are able to do, rather than different students learning different amounts on different tracks, producing some failures and some successes. Higher order thinking skills are emphasized by the new standards. A cited paper by Constance Kamii suggests that teaching of basic arithmetic methods is harmful to learning, guided the thinking behind many of today's used mathematics teaching curricula. In the United Kingdom, basic skills education is literacy and numeracy education for adults who for some reason did not acquire these skills or a level sufficient for everyday adult life when they were at school, it is therefore referred to as "adult basic skills". Skills for life is a basic skills programme running in further education colleges, taken by young people over 16 and by older adults.

Students on vocational courses and apprentices are required to take "key skills" units in communication, application of number and information and communication technology.... Common name for the previous standard literacy and numeracy testing, undertaken in Years 3, 5, 7 & 9; the Literacy and Numeracy test has been replaced by a standard Australia wide test called the NAPLAN test. List of abandoned education methods Mathematically Correct Advocates for teaching basic skills NCTM Math standards organization which switched back to emphasis on basic skills. Standards based education reform Traditional education

Promoter activity

Promoter activity is a term that encompasses several meanings around the process of gene expression from regulatory sequences —promoters and enhancers. Gene expression has been characterized as a measure of how much, how fast and where this process happens. Promoters and enhancers are required for controlling when a specific gene is transcribed. Traditionally the measure of gene products has been the major approach of measure promoter activity. However, this method confront with two issues: the stochastic nature of the gene expression and the lack of mechanistic interpretation of the thermodynamical process involve in the promoter activation; the actual developments in metabolomics product of developments of next-generation sequencing technologies and molecular structural analysis have enabled the development of more accurate models of the process of promoter activation and a better understanding of the complexities of the regulatory factors involved. The process of binding is central in determining the "strength" of promoters, the relative estimation of how "well" a promoter perform the expression of a gene under specific circumstances.

Brewster et al. using a simple thermodynamical model based on the postulate that transcriptional activity is proportional to the probability of finding the RNA polymerase bound at the promoter, obtained predictions of the scaling of the RNA polymerase binding energy. This models support the relationship between the probability of binding and the output of gene expression The problem of gene regulation could be represented mathematically as the probability of n molecules — RNAP, activators and inducers — are bound to a target regions. To compute the probability of bound, it is needed to sum the Boltzmann weights over all possible states of P polymerase molecules on DNA. Here in this deduction P is the effective number of RNAP molecules available for binding to the promoter; this approach is based in statistical thermodynamics of two possible microscopic outcomes: one state where all P polymerases molecules are distributed among all the non-specific sites a promoter occupied and the remaining P-1 polymerases distributed among the non-specific sites.

The statistical weigh of promoter unoccupied Z is defined: Z = N N S! P! ∗! ∗ e − E N S K b T Where the first term is the combinatorial result of taken P polymerase of N N S non-specific sites available, the second term are the Boltzmann weights, where E N S is the energy that represents the average binding energy of RNA polymerase to the genomic background. The total statistical weight Z, can be written as the sum of the Z state and the RNA polymerase on promoter state: Z = Z + Z ∗ e − E S K b T Where E S in the Z state is the binding energy for RNA polymerase on the promoter. To find the probability of a RNA polymerase to binding to a specific promoter, we divide Z by Z which produces: P r o b b o u n d = 1 1 + N N S P ∗ e − Δ E K b T Where, Δ E = E S − E N S An important result of this model is that any transcription factor, regulator or perturbation could be introduced as a term multiplying P in the probability of binding equation; this term for any transcriptional factor