Internal passport of Russia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Internal Russian passport
Russian passport.jpg
Cover of the Internal Russian passport
Date first issued2007
Issued by Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs
Valid in Russia
and for travel to:
 Abkhazia
 Armenia
 Belarus (from Russia or by air from Kazakhstan)
 Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan
Type of documentInternal passport
PurposeIdentification, proof of residence
Eligibility requirementsRussian Federation citizenship, and age 14+
ExpirationRenewed at age 20 and 45
Cost300 , 1500 in case of loss or damage

The Internal Russian passport (officially in Russian: Паспорт гражданина Российской Федерации, commonly referred to as внутренний паспорт, общегражданский паспорт) is a mandatory identity document for all Russian citizens residing in Russia who are aged 14 or over. The Internal Russian passport is an internal passport used for travel and identification purposes within Russia, which is distinct from the International Russian passport used by Russian citizens to travel in and out of Russian borders.

After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Soviet Union internal passport continued to be issued until 1997, when it was replaced by the Russian internal passport; the current Russian internal passports were first issued in 2007.[1]

The Russian government is planning to replace the Internal Passport with a biometric, credit card size card; the Universal electronic card issued between 2013 and 2016 was planned to replace the Russian Internal passport as the sole national identity document for Russian citizens but was scrapped in early 2017.

History[edit]

In 1992, passports – or other photo identification documents – became necessary to board a train. Train tickets started to bear passenger names, allegedly, as an effort to combat speculative reselling of the tickets.

On 9 December 1992, special pages were introduced which were affixed in Soviet passports, certifying that the bearer of the passport was a citizen of Russia; these pages were optional unless travelling to the other former Soviet republics which continued to accept Soviet passports; for other occasions, other proofs of citizenship were accepted as well. Issuance of the pages continued until the end of 2002.[citation needed]

On 8 July 1997, the currently-used design of the Russian internal passport was introduced.[2] Unlike the Soviet passports, which had three photo pages, the new passports only have one. A passport is first issued at the age of 14, and then replaced upon reaching the ages of 20 and 45; the text in the passports is in Russian, but passports issued in autonomous entities may, on the bearer's request, contain an additional page duplicating all data in one of the official local languages.

A deadline for exchanging old passports for the new ones was initially set at year-end of 2001, but then extended several times and finally set at 30 June 2004; the government had first regulated that having failed to exchange one's passport would constitute a punishable violation. However, the Supreme Court ruled to the effect that citizens cannot be obliged to exchange their passports; the Soviet passports ceased to be valid as means of personal identification since mid-2004, but it is still legal (though barely practical) to have one.

The propiska was formally abandoned soon after adoption of the current Constitution in 1993, and replaced with "residency registration" which, in principle, was simply notification of one's place of residence.

Nevertheless, under the new regulations, permanent registration records are stamped in citizens' internal passports just as were propiskas; this has led to the widespread misconception that registration was just a new name for the propiska; many continue to call it "propiska". This misconception is partly reinforced by the fact that the existing rules for registration make it an onerous process, dependent on the consent of landlords, which effectively prevents tenants of flats from registering.

Internal Russian passports are issued only inside the country. Russian citizens who live abroad can get internal passport only if they visit Russia, i.e., it is not possible to get internal passport in the Russian consulate abroad. In practice, Russian citizens who live abroad often do not get new internal passports at all, as the law allows them to prove their identity with an international Russian passport (travel document).

Description[edit]

The First page of the Passport
The bio data page / second page of the passport

Each passport has a data page and a signature page. A data page has a visual zone which contains a photograph of the passport holder, data about the passport, and data about the holder:

  • Surname
  • Given name and patronymic
  • Sex
  • Date of birth
  • Place of birth

Special mentions shall be made in the passport:

  • on the registration of a citizen within a community/at a specific address and on removal from the registration records;
  • on the military conscription of citizens who have attained 18 years of age;
  • on the registration and termination of a marriage;
  • for children under 14 years of age;
  • for any previously issued basic identity documents of a citizen of the Russian Federation on the territory of the Russian Federation;
  • for the extradition of the main documents of identity of the citizen of the Russian Federation outside the Russian Federation – only about valid ones at the time mention is made.

At the citizen's request, the passport may also include:

  • the holder's blood type and the Rh factor (added by the medical facility where the citizen's blood type and Rh were tested, for example after a blood transfusion or donation);
  • the holder's tax identification number.

Passport validity:

  • Issued at or after 14 years of age – valid until the age of 20;
  • Issued at or after 20 years of age – valid until the age of 45;
  • Issued at or after 45 years of age – valid in perpetuity.

Upon reaching the age of 20 and 45, the passport must be replaced within 30 days after birthday. While undergoing military conscription, the passport can be issued or replaced at their place of residence at the end of the set period of military service. If a citizen is imprisoned, administration of a penal entity should return passport or render obtainment of a new one upon punishment is complete.

Replacement with identity cards[edit]

In November 2010 the Ministry of Internal Affairs announced the cancellation of internal passports with the aim of replacing them with plastic identity cards or driver's licenses by 2025. Country-wide replacement was postponed until 15 March 2018 not to interfere with 2016 Duma election;[3] this date however places start of the campaign three days before the 2018 presidential election.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Russian passport history (PDF)
  2. ^ Decree of the President of the Russian Federation from 13.03.1997 N 232 ‘About main identity document of the citizen of the Russian Federation on the territory of the Russian Federation’ (Указ Президента РФ от 13.03.1997 №232 Об основном документе удостоверяющем личность гражданина Российской Федерации на территории Российской Федерации).
  3. ^ Russian Federal Government Decree №315 from 16.04.2016 (Russian)