A driver's license is an official document plastic and the size of a credit card, permitting a specific individual to operate one or more types of motorized vehicles, such as a motorcycle, truck, or bus on a public road. In most international agreements the wording driving permit is used, for instance in the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic; the term driver's license is American English. In this article, the American terminology and spelling is used but in country specific sections, the local spelling variant is used; the laws relating to the licensing of drivers vary between jurisdictions. In some jurisdictions, a permit is issued after the recipient has passed a driving test, while in others, a person acquires their permit before beginning to drive. Different categories of permit exist for different types of motor vehicles large trucks and passenger vehicles; the difficulty of the driving test varies between jurisdictions, as do factors such as age and the required level of competence and practice.
Karl Benz, inventor of the modern automobile, received a written "Genehmigung" from the Grand Ducal authorities to operate his car on public roads in 1888 after residents complained about the noise and smell of his Motorwagen. Up until the start of the 20th century, European authorities issued similar permits to drive motor vehicles ad hoc, if at all. Mandatory licensing for drivers came into force on 1 January 1904 after the Motor Car Act 1903 received royal assent in the United Kingdom; every car owner had to register their vehicle with their local government authority and be able to prove registration of their vehicle on request. The minimum qualifying age was set at 17; the "driving licence" gave its holder'freedom of the road' with a maximum 20 mph speed limit. Compulsory testing was introduced with the passing of the Road Traffic Act. Prussia a state within the German Empire, introduced compulsory licensing on 29 September 1903. A test on mechanical aptitude had to be passed and the Dampfkesselüberwachungsverein was charged with conducting these tests.
In 1910, the German imperial government mandated the licensing of drivers on a national scale, establishing a system of tests and driver's education requirements, adopted in other countries. In 1909, the Convention with Respect to the International Circulation of Motor Vehicles recognized the need for qualifications and authorization for international driving. In 1929, the notion of an "International Driving Permit" was first mooted in an international convention. In 1949, the United Nations hosted another convention on road traffic that standardised rules on roads, rules, driver's permits and such, it specified that national "driving permits" should be pink and that an "International Driving Permit" for driving in a number of countries should have "grey" covers with white pages and that "The entire last page shall be drawn up in French". In 1968, the Convention on road traffic, ratified in 1977 and further updated in 2011, further modernised these agreements, its main regulations about drivers permits are in Annex 6 and Annex 7.
The active version of those is in force in each contracting party no than "29 March 2011". Article 41 of the convention describes key requirements: every driver of a motor vehicle must hold appropriate documentation. Other countries in Europe introduced driving tests during the twentieth century, the last of them being Belgium where, until as as 1977, it was possible to purchase and hold a permit without having to undergo a driving test; as automobile-related fatalities soared in North America, public outcry provoked legislators to begin studying the French and German statutes as models. On August 1, 1910, North America's first licensing law for motor vehicles went into effect in the U. S. state of New York, though it applied only to professional chauffeurs. In July 1913, the state of New Jersey became the first to require all drivers to pass a mandatory examination before receiving a license. Many countries, including Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, have
2018 Russian presidential election
The 2018 Russian presidential election was held on 18 March 2018. Incumbent Vladimir Putin won reelection for his second consecutive term in office with 77% of the vote. Vladimir Zhirinovsky from the Liberal Democratic Party was the perennial candidate, having unsuccessfully run in five previous presidential elections. Other candidates included Pavel Grudinin, Sergey Baburin, Ksenia Sobchak, Maxim Suraykin, Boris Titov and Grigory Yavlinsky. Anti-corruption activist Alexei Navalny announced his intent to run in December 2016 but was barred from doing so due to a prior criminal conviction, which may have been politically motivated, for corruption. Navalny called for a boycott of the election, he had organized several public rallies against corruption among members of Putin's government. The incumbent Vladimir Putin was eligible to run, he declared his intent to do so on 6 December 2017, being expected to win. This came following several months of speculation throughout the second half of 2017 as, although he was expected to run for another term, Putin made evasive comments including that he had still not decided whether he would like to "step down" from the post of president, that he would "think about running", that he "hadn't yet decided whether to run for another term".
Different sources predicted that he would run as an independent to capitalize more support from the population, although he could have been nominated by the United Russia party as in 2012, Putin chose to run as an independent. The President of Russia is directly elected for a term of six years, since being extended from four years in 2008 during Dmitry Medvedev's administration. According to Article 81 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, a candidate for president must be at least 35 years old, hold no dual nationality, have permanently resided in Russia for the past 10 years, cannot serve more than two terms consecutively. Parties with representation in the State Duma are able to nominate a candidate to run for the office while candidates from registered parties that are not in parliament have to collect at least 100,000 signatures. Independent candidates have to collect at least 300,000 signatures with no more than 7,500 from each federal subject of Russia and from action groups made up of at least 500 people.
The nomination process took place during Russia's winter holiday period, 31 January 2018 was the last day for submitting signatures in support of contested access candidates. On 3 March 2017, senators Andrey Klishas and Anatoly Shirokov submitted to the State Duma draft amendments to the electoral legislation. One of the amendments involves the transfer of elections from the second to the third Sunday in March, i.e. from 11 to 18 March 2018. According to article 5, paragraph 7 of Russian Federal law No. 19-FZ, "If the Sunday on which presidential elections are to be held coincides with the day preceding a public holiday, or this Sunday falls on week including a public holiday or this Sunday in is declared to be a working day, elections are appointed on the following Sunday". The second week of March includes International Women's Day, an official holiday in Russia; the bill passed through the State Duma and Federation Council without delay in May 2017 and was signed into law by Vladimir Putin on 1 June 2017.
On 15 December, the upper house of the Federal Assembly, the Federation Council confirmed that 18 March 2018 will be the date of the election beginning the process of campaigning and registration for candidates. This date is significant in the country as it is the fourth anniversary of Russian annexation of Crimea. A total of 97,000 polling stations were open across the country from 08:00 until 20:00 local time. Political parties represented in the State Duma or the legislative bodies of not less than one-third of the federal subjects could nominate a candidate without collecting signatures; the following parties could nominate candidates without collecting signatures: Civic Platform, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, A Just Russia and United Russia. On 1 July 2017, Chairman of Rodina Aleksey Zhuravlyov announced that his party would only support incumbent president Vladimir Putin in the election. On 11 December, the leader of Civic Platform Rifat Shaykhutdinov said that his party would support Putin.
On 24 December, the leader of A Just Russia Sergey Mironov stated that his party would not put forward a candidate. Senior party member Mikhail Yemelyanov confirmed. Individuals belonging to a party without any seats in the State Duma had to collect 105,000 signatures to become candidates, while those running as independents had to collect 315,000 and to form a group of activists made up of at least 500 people. Multiple political commentators, including former presidential hopeful Irina Khakamada, talked about the difficulty of gathering signatures without the support of a political party, a hurdle which cast doubt on many of the claims of the large number of people who said that they would run for president as independents. However, according to CEC Chairwoman Ella Pamfilova, the conditions for contested-access candidates were easier than because such potential candidates no longer had to collect 1,000,000 signatures. Pamfilova incorrectly predicted that there could be more candidates in this election than there were in 2000, when 11 candidates contested the presidency.
In July 2017, Party of Growth announced that it would hold primaries t
Propiska in the Soviet Union
A propiska was both a residency permit and a migration-recording tool, used in the Russian Empire before 1917 and in the Soviet Union from the 1930s. The word propiska means "inscription", alluding to the inscription in a state internal passport permitting a person to reside in a given place. For a state or third-party owned property, propiska meant a person was included in the rental contract associated with a dwelling. Propiska was certified with a stamp in internal passports. Residing anywhere for longer than a few weeks without a permit was prohibited. In the USSR, there were both temporary propiskas. A third type, the business propiska, was an intermediate type, permitting a person and family to live in an apartment built by an economic entity as long as the person worked for the owner of the housing. In the transition period to the market economy, the permanent propiska in municipal apartments was one factor leading to the emergence of private property rights during privatization; the Russian verb "propisat" is formed by adding the prefix "про~" to the verb "писа́ть".
Here this prefix emphasizes the completion of the action, which supposes permission or other related formal action. The noun propiska meant the clerical procedure of registration, of enrolling the person into the police records of the local population. Dahl's Explanatory Dictionary describes this procedure as "to enroll in a book and stamp it". Page 20 of the internal passport of the Russian Empire was entitled: Russian: "Место для пропи́ски ви́довъ поли́цiею". Five blank pages were filled with stamps with the residential address written in, it allowed a person to reside in his/her relevant locality. Article 61 of the Regulations adopted on February 7, 1897 imposed a fine for those found outside the administrative unit in which they were registered to live; as a clerical term, the noun vid is short for Russian: "вид на жи́тельство". Although translated into English as a "residential permit", in Russian, this combination of words conveys a presence of the right of a resident to live somewhere. In the sense of a " right" the word vid appears in the Russian: "иметь на неё виды".
Among many explanations of "вид", Dahl's Explanatory Dictionary indicates a "certificate of any kind for free passage and living", mentioning "passport" as its synonym. Propiska stamps in the passports of the Russian Empire used one of two verbs to describe the civil act committed: to present or to claim, their non-reflexive form rules out the binding of this act to the owner of the document so it is not the person who appeared in a police department but the passport itself. Vladimir Dahl mentions both verbs in his description of "propiska" procedure as related to passport. Presenting a passport to the officer implied the claim of a person to stay at a designated location. In the Russian Empire, a person arriving for a new residency was obliged to enroll in the registers of the local police authorities; the latter could deny undesirable persons the right to settle. In most cases, this would mean; the verb "propisat" was used as a transitive verb with "vid" being the direct object. After reintroduction of the passport system in the Soviet Union in the 1930s, the noun propiska was associated with the result of residential registration.
In common speech, the stamp in the passport in which the residential address was written into was called "propiska". Permanent propiska confirmed the housing rights of its owner. Temporary propiska could be provided alongside a permanent one when a resident had to live outside the permanent residence for a long period of time; as an example and workers leaving to study or work in other cities received temporary propiskas at their dorms. When reintroduced in the 1930s, the passport system in the USSR was similar to that of the Russian Empire where passports were required in the largest cities and in the territories adjacent to the country's external borders. Officers and soldiers always had special identity documents, while peasants could obtain internal passports only by a special application. In the USSR, the term residential permit was used as a synonym for temporary propiska with regard to foreign nationals. By the end of the 1980s, when emigrants from the USSR could return, those who had lost Soviet citizenship could apply for an identity document with this title.
The "passportization" of the citizen of the USSR reached its all-encompassing scope only in the 1970s. In the 1970s, the right of every adult to have a passport promo
A closed city or closed town is a settlement where travel or residency restrictions are applied so that specific authorization is required to visit or remain overnight. They may be sensitive military establishments or secret research installations that require much more space or freedom than is available in a conventional military base. There may be a wider variety of permanent residents including close family members of workers or trusted traders who are not directly connected with its clandestine purposes. Many closed cities existed in the Soviet Union. After 1991, a number of them still existed in the CIS countries Russia. In modern Russia, such places are known as "closed administrative-territorial formations". Sometimes closed cities may only be represented on classified maps that are not available to the general public. In some cases there may be no road signs or directions to closed cities, they are omitted from railroad time tables and bus routes. Sometimes closed cities may be indicated obliquely as a nearby insignificant village, with the name of the stop serving the closed city made equivocal or misleading.
For mail delivery, a closed city is named as the nearest large city and a special postcode e.g. Arzamas‑16, Chelyabinsk‑65; the actual settlement can be rather distant from its namesakes. People not living in a closed city were subject to document checks and security checkpoints, explicit permission was required for them to visit. To relocate to a closed city, one would need security clearance by the organization running it, such as the KGB in Soviet closed cities. Closed cities were sometimes guarded by a security perimeter with barbed wire and towers; the fact of such a city's existence was classified, residents were expected not to divulge their place of residence to outsiders. This lack of freedom was compensated by better housing conditions and a better choice of goods in retail trade than elsewhere in the country. In the Soviet Union, people working with classified information received a salary bonus. Closed cities were established in the Soviet Union from the late 1940s onwards under the euphemistic name of "post boxes", referring to the practice of addressing post to them via mail boxes in other cities.
They fell into two distinct categories. The first category comprised small communities with sensitive military, industrial, or scientific facilities, such as arms plants or nuclear research sites. Examples are the modern towns of Ozyorsk with a plutonium production plant, Sillamäe, the site of a uranium enrichment facility. Soviet citizens were not allowed access to these places without proper authorization. In addition to this, some bigger cities were closed for unauthorized access to foreigners, while they were accessible to Soviet citizens; these included cities like Perm, a center for Soviet tank production, Vladivostok, the headquarters and primary base of the Soviet Pacific Fleet. The second category consisted of border cities. Comparable closed areas existed elsewhere in the Eastern bloc. Citizens were required to have special permits to enter such areas; the locations of the first category of the closed cities were chosen for their geographical characteristics. They were established in remote places situated deep in the Urals and Siberia, out of reach of enemy bombers.
They were built close to rivers and lakes that were used to provide the large amounts of water needed for heavy industry and nuclear technology. Existing civilian settlements in the vicinity were used as sources of construction labour. Although the closure of cities originated as a temporary measure, to be normalized under more favorable conditions, in practice the closed cities took on a life of their own and became a notable institutional feature of the Soviet system. Movement to and from closed areas was controlled. Foreigners were prohibited from entering them and local citizens were under stringent restrictions, they had to have special permission to travel there or leave, anyone seeking residency was required to undergo vetting by the NKVD and its successor agencies. Access to some closed cities was physically enforced by surrounding them with barbed wire fences monitored by armed guards. "Box" was the unofficial name of a secret Soviet facility much like the closed city, but smaller the size of a factory.
The "box" name was classified, as were the activities there. Incoming mail was addressed to "mailbox #XXXX", thus the name of "box". Most Soviet design bureaus for weapons, space technology, military electronics, etc. were "boxes". Russia has the largest number of closed cities; the policy of closing cities underwent major changes in early 1990s. Some cities, such as Perm, were opened well before the fall of the Soviet Union; the adoption of a new constitution for the Russian Federation in 1993 prompted significant reforms to the status of closed cities, which were renamed "closed administrative-territorial formations". Municipally
Indonesian identity card
The Kartu Tanda Penduduk KTP, is an Indonesian compulsory identity card. Separate versions exist for non-Indonesian residents; the card is issued upon marriage. In the case of Indonesian citizens, the card must be renewed every five years. For non-Indonesian residents, the card's expiry date is the same as that of their residency permit. Since 2011, the Indonesian governments has issued an electronic ID card, the e-KTP, which contains an embedded microchip; the e-KTP project became one of the country's biggest corruption scandals. The general identity card during the Dutch colonial era was called a residence certificate; this card did not record the bearer's religion. Citizens seeking to obtain proof of residence were required to contact their local controleur and pay a fee of 1.5 guilders. The paper card measuring 15x10 cm was signed by heads of local administrations. Two additional types of ID documents were required by Chinese in the Dutch East Indies: the entry permit and the residency permit.
The Japanese occupation ID card was made from paper and was much wider than the current KTP. It featured Japanese and Indonesian text. Behind the main data section was a propaganda spiel that indirectly required the holder to swear allegiance to the Japanese invaders. Hence it became known as KTP-Propaganda. After Indonesia declared independence in 1945, the certificate of residence was replaced with the Indonesian Citizenship Certificate; this document was typed and handwritten. It was in use from 1945 to 1977, it was a paper card without any laminate. The card underwent several changes during this period concerning the rights and responsibilities of the bearer. Different ID cards were issued by different regions and became uniform under the head of Population Registration in 1976. During Suharto’s New Order regime, citizenship cards held by former political prisoners and ethnic Chinese featured special codes to denote their status; this policy allowed government officials to know whether a person was a former political prisoner or of Chinese descent.
The discriminatory codes were abandoned. The KTP was laminated in plastic and stamped with an ink stamp. Cards were issued by the lowest neighborhood administrative levels, known as RT and RW; the cards featured a photo, serial number and thumb print. The background color of the KTP was yellow; when Aceh province was placed under a state of Military Emergency in 2003, it had a different KTP design featuring a red and white background and a garuda bird. The card was signed by the local military commander and head of police; the bearer’s photo was printed directly onto a plastic card. Surveillance and validation remained at the RT/RW levels; this KTP featured a unique serial number. Unlike previous versions, this KTP could be used throughout the country, rather than in a particular city or regency; the e-KTP was trialed in six areas in 2009 and launched nationwide in 2011. The card is supposed to be more durable, contains a microchip, unique serial number and can be used for multiple applications for government services.
Its implementation has become tainted by corruption. In May 2013, it was reported the chip inside the e-KTP could be damaged and rendered useless by photocopying the card; the e-KTP contains unique biometric data and was designed to improve government services and population databases, while reducing fraud and security threats. The e-KTP is the basis for the issuance of Indonesian passports, driving licenses, Taxpayer Identification Numbers, insurance policies, land ownership certificates and other identity documents. Data recording for e-KTP registration involves taking fingerprints from all 10 fingers, although the card's chip records only the right thumb and index finger prints; the e-KTP consists of nine layers to increase security. A chip is implanted between transparent plastic on the top two layers; the chip has an antenna. The wave will be recognized by a detector to verify. Data storage in the chip is in accordance with international standards and NISTIR 7123 Machine Readable Travel Documents ICAO and EU Passport 9303 Specification 2006.
The size of the card is in accordance with ISO/IEC 7810 with a credit card size form factor, 53.98 mm x 85.60 mm. Indonesia's e-ID program achieved 100 million biometric enrollments and de-duplications in just under one year. E-ID data has no expiration date if the cards show expiration dates; the card requires identification with one of the six recognised religions in Indonesia: Islam, Catholicism, Hinduism and Confucianism. In 2006 the need to retain this arrangement was reiterated by Minister of Religious Affairs Maftuh Basyuni: "official religions of the country as vital to ensuring good harmony between religious groups as well as being of use in more practical matters such as marriage and burial." But in 2014, the Minister of Home Affairs suggested that the section should be optional, that is, that it could be left blank. Religious groups want to retain it. Following the ruling of Constitutional Court of Indonesia, As per 1 July 2018, believers of indigenous faith are allowed to put "penghayat kepercayaan" or on religion column in identification card.
Confucianism as an option was
Ministry of Internal Affairs (Russia)
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation is the interior ministry of Russia. Emperor Alexander I of Russia founded its predecessor in 1802 in Imperial Russia; the Ministry has its headquarters in Moscow. The current Minister of Internal Affairs, General of Police Vladimir Kolokoltsev, assumed office in 2012, he had served as the Moscow Police Commissioner between 2009 and 2012. Created by Alexander I on 28 March 1802 in the process of government reforms to replace the aging collegia of Peter the Great, the MVD was one of the most powerful governmental bodies of the Empire, responsible for the police forces and Internal Guards and the supervision of gubernial administrations, its initial responsibilities included penitentiaries, state enterprises, the state postal system, state property, roads, clergy, natural resources, nobility. As the central government began to further partition the countryside, the ispravniks were distributed among the sections. Serving under them in their principal localities were commissaries.
Ispravniki and pristav alike were armed with broad and obscurely-defined powers, combined with the fact that they were for the most part illiterate and wholly ignorant of the law, formed crushing forces of oppression. Towards the end of the reign of Alexander II, the government, in order to preserve order in the country districts created a special class of mounted rural policemen, who, in a time without habeas corpus, were armed with power to arrest all suspects on the spot; these uryadniks became the terror of the countryside. In the towns of the rural countryside, every house was provided with a "guard dog" of sorts, in the form of a porter, charged with the duty of reporting the presence of any suspicious characters or anything of interest to the police. In addition to the above there was the secret police, in direct subordination to the ministry of the interior, of which the principal function is the discovery and extirpation of political sedition, its most famous development was the so-called Third Section instituted by the emperor Nicholas I in 1826.
This was independent of the ordinary police, but was associated with the existing Special Corps of Gendarmes, whose chief was placed at its head. Its object had been to keep the emperor in close touch with all the branches of the administration and to bring to his notice any abuses and irregularities, for this purpose its chief was in constant personal intercourse with the sovereign. Following the growth of the revolutionary movement and assassination of Tsar Alexander II, the Department of State Police inherited the secret police functions of the dismissed Third Section and transferred the most capable Gendarmes to the Okhrana. In 1896 the powers of the minister were extended at the expense of those of the under-secretary, who remained only at the head of the corps of gendarmes. By World War I, the Department had spawned a counter-intelligence section. After the February Revolution of 1917, the Gendarmes and the Okhrana were disbanded as anti-revolutionary. Having won the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks disbanded the tsarist police forces and formed an all-proletarian Workers' and Peasants' Militsiya under the NKVD of the Russian SFSR.
After the establishment of the USSR there was no Soviet NKVD until 1934. In March 1946, all of the People's Commissariats were redesignated as Ministries; the NKVD was renamed the MVD of the USSR, along with its former subordinate, the NKGB which became the MGB of the USSR. The NKVDs of Union Republics became Ministries of Internal Affairs subordinate to MVD of the USSR. Secret police became a part of MVD after Lavrenty Beria merged the MGB into the MVD in March 1953. Within a year Beria's downfall caused the MVD to be split up again. In his efforts to fight bureaucracy and maintain'Leninist principles', Nikita Khrushchev, as the Premier of the Union, called for the dismissal of the All-Union MVD; the Ministry ceased to exist in January 1960 and its functions were transferred to the respective Republican Ministries. The MVD of the Russian SFSR was renamed the Ministry for Securing the Public Order in 1962. Leonid Brezhnev again recreated the All-Union Ministry for Securing the Public Order in July 1966 and assigned Nikolai Shchelokov as Minister.
The MVD regained its original title in 1968. Another role of the reformed MVD was to combat economic crimes, that is, to suppress private business, prohibited by socialist law; this fight was never successful due to the pervasive nature of the black market. By the mid-1980s, the image of the people's militsiya was compromised by the corruption and disorderly behaviour of both enlisted and officer staff. Many high-ranking MVD officers, including the Minister himself, were revealed to be bribed by illegal shadow businesses and criminals; the Russian MVD re-formed as the MVD
South African identity card
The South African smart identity card – known as a Smart ID Card – replaces the old green bar-coded identity book. Both are identity documents; this proof includes a person's photograph, their full name, their date of birth, their place of birth, their unique identity number. South African identity documents include evidence of votes cast in local and national elections, as a means to prevent voter fraud. Identity documents are issued to South African citizens or permanent residence permit holders who are 15 years and six months or older. People, including spouses and children, who are working for the South African government or one of its statutory bodies outside of South Africa qualify to receive a South African identity document. Identity documents are issued by South Africa's National Department of Home Affairs; as of January 2019, South Africans citizens born outside of South Africa, as well as permanent residents, still cannot apply for the new ID card, nor access the online services of Home Affairs.
Only South African citizens born in South Africa may apply for the new Smart ID card. The card is not available to South Africans citizens born outside of South Africa, or South African permanent residents, whom need to apply instead for the old green ID book. South African citizens born in South Africa can apply for a smart ID card in two ways: they can either apply at their local home affairs, or they can apply online at the Home Affairs e-Channel website; the website provides a step-by-step guide on. People in South Africa who need help with applying for their smart ID card can call the Department of Home Affairs contact centre on 0800 601 190. Surname First name Sex Nationality Identity number Date of birth Country of birth South African citizenship status Primary image on front of card, secondary image on back of card Signature National identity cards Department of Home Affairs, Know your new Smart ID Card Department of Home Affairs, Identity documents