The International Air Transport Association is a trade association of the world's airlines founded in 1945. IATA has been described as a cartel since, in addition to setting technical standards for airline, IATA organized tariff conferences that served as a forum for price fixing. Consisting of 290 airlines major carriers, representing 117 countries, the IATA's member airlines account for carrying 82% of total available seat miles air traffic. IATA helps formulate industry policy and standards, it is headquartered in Canada in the city of Montréal, with Executive Offices in Geneva, Switzerland. IATA was formed in April 1945 in Cuba, it is the successor to the International Air Traffic Association, formed in 1919 at The Hague, Netherlands. At its founding, IATA consisted of 57 airlines from 31 countries. Much of IATA's early work was technical and IATA provided input to the newly created International Civil Aviation Organization, reflected in the annexes of the Chicago Convention, the international treaty that still governs the technical of international air transport today.
The Chicago Convention did not result in a consensus on the economic regulation of the airline industry. According to Warren Koffler, IATA was formed to fill the resulting void and provide international air carries with a mechanism to fix prices. In the late 1940s, IATA started holding conferences to fix prices for international air travel. IATA secretary J. G Gazdik stated that organization aimed to fix prices at reasonable levels, with due regard being paid to the cost of operations, in order to ensure reasonable profits for airlines. IATA has been described as "the world aviation cartel". IATA enjoyed immunity from antitrust law in several nations. From 1956 to 1975, IATA resolutions capped travel agent commissions at 7% of the airline ticket price; the legal scholar Kenneth Elzinga argued that IATA's commission cap harmed consumers by decreasing the incentive for travel agents to offer improved service to consumers. At a time when many airlines were government owned and loss-making, IATA operated as a cartel, charged by the governments with setting a fixed fare structure that avoided price competition.
The first Traffic Conference was held in 1947 in Rio de Janeiro and reached unanimous agreement on some 400 resolutions. IATA Director-General William Hildred recounted that about 200 of the resolutions at the Rio de Janeiro conference were related to establishing a uniform structure for tariffs charged for international air transportation. According to the economist Pascal Salin, IATA's price fixing regime forced airlines to attempt to differentiate themselves through the quality of their passenger experience. IATA responded by imposing strict limits on the quality of airline service. In 1958, IATA issued a formal ruling baring airlines from serving economy passengers sandwiches with "luxurious" ingredients; the economist Walter Adams observed that the limited service competition permitted by IATA tended to to divert traffic from one air carrier to another without at the same time enlarging the overall air transport market. The American Civil Aeronautics Board did not intervene to stop IATA's price fixing.
The law professor Louis B. Schwartz condemned the board's inaction as an "abdication of judicial responsibility". In 2006, the United States Department of Justice adapted an order withdrawing the antitrust immunity of IATA tariff conferences. IATA states; the main instrument for safety is the IATA Operational Safety Audit. IOSA has been mandated at the state level by several countries. In 2017, aviation posted its safest year surpassing the previous record set in 2012; the new global Western-built jet accident rate became the equivalent of one accident every 7.36 million flights. Future improvements will be founded on data sharing with a database fed by a multitude of sources and housed by the Global Safety Information Center. In June 2014 the IATA set up a special panel to study measures to track aircraft in flight in real time; the move was in response to the disappearance without trace of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 on 8 March 2014. Simplifying the Business was launched in 2004; this initiative has introduced a number of crucial concepts to passenger travel, including the electronic ticket and the bar coded boarding pass.
Many other innovations are being established as part of the Fast Travel initiative, including a range of self-service baggage options. An innovative program, launched in 2012 is New Distribution Capability; this will replace the pre-Internet EDIFACT messaging standard, still the basis of the global distribution system /travel agent channel and replace it with an XML standard. This will enable the same choices to be offered to high street travel shoppers as are offered to those who book directly through airline websites. A filing with the US Department of Transportation brought over 400 comments. IATA members and all industry stakeholders have agreed to three sequential environmental goals: An average improvement in fuel efficiency of 1.5% per annum from 2009 through 2020 A cap on net carbon emissions from aviation from 2020 A 50% reduction in net aviation carbon emissions by 2050 relative to 2005 levels. At the 2013 IATA annual general meeting in Cape Town, South Africa, members overwhelmingly endorsed a resolution on "Implementation of the Aviation Carbon-Neutral Growth Strategy."
A representative for the European Federation for Transport and Environment, criticized the resolution for relying on carbon offsets instead of direct reductions in aviation carbon emissions. IATA provides training services in many areas. A number of standards are defined under the umbrella of IATA
Evans Soligo is a retired Italian footballer who played his entire career for clubs in Italy's Serie B and Lega Pro. Born in Marghera, the inland part of Venice, Soligo started his career at hometown club A. C. Venezia. Since 1998–99 season he was loaned to Serie C1 and Serie C2 clubs Sandonà, SPAL and Lumezzane, which located in northern Italy. After Venezia owner Maurizio Zamparini took over Palermo from by–then A. S. Roma President Franco Sensi in July, Zamparini bought most of the player of Venezia to Palermo in August and planned to sell Venezia to uncredited person. Players namely Stefano Morrone, Daniel Andersson, Igor Budan, Francesco Ciullo, Kewullay Conteh, Arturo Di Napoli, Valentino Lai, Filippo Maniero, Antonio Marasco, Francesco Modesto, Frank Ongfiang, Generoso Rossi, Mario Santana, Ighli Vannucchi and William Viali all left for the Sicily side, but at the start of season he was loaned back to Venezia from Palermo along with Budan and Andrea Guerra. Soligo made his Serie B debut with Venezia, on 19 October 2002 He was in the starting XI and replaced by Anderson in 77th minute, 1 minute after Daniele Amerini scored the equalizing goal.
The match ended in 1–1 with Ternana. Soligo remained in starting XI until round 21, which he appeared as sub, he played his next match on round 35 and played all last 4 matches as one of the starting XI. In 2003–04 season Soligo returned to Palermo but just made 9 league appearances for the Serie B champion. Soligo was not in Palermo's Serie A plan, on 21 July 2004, he was loaned back to Serie B for Triestina, 3 days before the pre–season camp. On 31 January 2005 he was loaned to fellow Serie B team Verona, but he just made 11 league appearances and the team missed the chance to enter the promotion playoffs by finished 1 point less than Ascoli, which Ascoli promoted to Serie A due to Caso Genoa and bankrupt of Torino Calcio. That season saw the bankrupt of Salernitana Sport and Salernitana Calcio 1919 re–admitted to Serie C1, which Soligo left for the re–found Salerno club. With the southern Italy side for 5 seasons, he won Serie C1 Group B champion with the team in 2008 and spent the last 2 seasons at Serie B.
The team avoided relegated in 2009 by finished 1 point more than Cittadella and Rimini, which the latter relegated after losing the playoffs. But after the team relegated again to Lega Pro Prima Divisione, he joined Serie B side Vicenza on free transfer, returned to Veneto region after 5 years at Campania. In summer 2012 he moved to Paganese. After the signing season for the San Marino. PalermoSerie B: 2004SalernitanaSerie C1: 2008 Profile at La Gazzetta dello Sport Profile at Lega–Calcio.it Profile at Football.it Evans Soligo at Soccerway Profile at Palermo
Mackenzie Caquatto is a former artistic gymnast who represented the United States at the 2010 World Championships and competed for the University of Florida. Her younger sister, Bridgette Caquatto, is a former elite gymnast. Caquatto first qualified as an elite gymnast in 2007 and competed at the National Championships that year, finishing 17th, her first senior competition was the 2008 National Championships, where she placed 10th in the all-around. She was named to the national team and qualified to the Olympic Trials, but competed only on the first day, finishing 12th. In 2009, she competed at her first international meets as a member of the national team and placed 5th at the National Championships, despite a knee injury. At the Toyota International in Japan, she competed on the uneven bars, balance beam, floor exercise and won the silver medal on bars with a score of 14.675, behind world silver medalist Koko Tsurumi of Japan. She was the first alternate to the U. S. team for the 2009 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships.
Caquatto started her 2010 season at the City of Jesolo Trophy in Italy, where she had the highest beam score but missed a medal in the all-around because of mistakes on floor exercise. At the 2010 U. S. Classic, she placed 3rd in the all-around, with the second-highest scores on vault and uneven bars but a fall on balance beam, she qualified to the National Championships, where she placed 5th in the all-around after falling on a simple grip change on the uneven bars, her best event. Based on her performance at Nationals, Caquatto advanced to the team selection camp for the 2010 World Championships, she was named to the team. At the World Championships, she placed 9th in the all-around in qualifications but did not advance to the individual all-around final because only two athletes per country can qualify, her teammates Aly Raisman and Rebecca Bross scored higher. In the team final, she scored 14.666 on bars and 15.000 on vault to help the U. S. win the silver medal, behind Russia but ahead of China.
After competing for the University of Florida for the 2010–11 season, Caquatto decided to train for a comeback to elite gymnastics. At the 2011 U. S. Classic, she competed on bars, scoring 14.750, performed a somewhat watered-down routine on balance beam, scoring 14.100. At the National Championships, she competed in the all-around and finished the first day of competition in sixth place with a score of 56.000, counting a fall on beam. However, with solid performances on the second day of competition and injuries to Chellsie Memmel and defending national champion Bross, she placed fourth behind Jordyn Wieber, McKayla Maroney, she took second place on the uneven bars, just 0.050 behind Wieber. Caquatto earned a spot on her fourth national team and was invited to the first world team selection camp, but she injured her ankles on a beam dismount at the camp. After sitting out the beginning of the NCAA season, she began competing on the uneven bars again in early 2012. Caquatto performed the following skills in 2010: *Variation competed for 2011.