The Angara River is a 1,779-kilometer-long river in Siberia, which traces a course through Russia's Irkutsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai. It is the river, the headwater tributary of the Yenisei River, it was known as the Lower or Nizhnyaya Angara. Below its junction with the Ilim, it was known as the Upper Tunguska and, with the names reversed, as the Lower Tunguska. Leaving Lake Baikal near the settlement of Listvyanka, the Angara flows north past the Irkutsk Oblast cities of Irkutsk, Angarsk and Ust-Ilimsk, it turns west, enters the Krasnoyarsk Krai, joins the Yenisei near Strelka. Four dams of major hydroelectric plants - constructed since the 1950s - exploit the waters of the Angara: Irkutsk Dam, forming the Irkutsk Reservoir, which floods the valley of the river from its source to Irkutsk, raises the water level in Lake Baikal Bratsk Dam, forming the Bratsk Reservoir Ust-Ilimsk Dam, at Ust-Ilimsk, forming the Ust-Ilimsk Reservoir Boguchany Dam, at KodinskThe reservoirs of these dams flooded a number of villages along the Angara and its tributaries, as well as numerous agricultural areas in the river valley.
Due to its effects on the way of life of the rural residents of the Angara valley, dam construction was criticized by a number of Soviet intellectuals, in particular by the Irkutsk writer Valentin Rasputin - both in his novel Farewell to Matyora and in his non-fiction book Siberia, Siberia. The Angara is navigable by modern watercraft on several isolated sections: from Lake Baikal to Irkutsk; the section between the Ust-Ilimsk Dam and the Boguchany Dam has not been navigable due to rapids. However, with the completion of the Boguchany Dam, filling of its reservoir, at least part of this section of the river will become navigable as well. Nonetheless, this will not enable through navigation from Lake Baikal to the Yenisei, as none of the existing three dams has been provided with a ship lock or a boat lift, nor will the Boguchany Dam have one. Despite the absence of a continuous navigable waterway, the Angara and its tributary the Ilim were of considerable importance for Russian colonization of Siberia since ca.
1630, when they formed important water routes connecting the Yenisey with Lake Baikal and the Lena River. The river lost its transportation significance after the construction of an overland route between Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk and the Trans-Siberian Railway; the Angara has the following tributaries: Taseyeva, Oka, Ilim, Kova and Irkeneyeva. "Upper and Lower Angara",'Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1878, p. 26. Angara River, southeast-central Russia Angara River Angara River photo Map of region showing mouth of Angara River Map book of region showing mouth of Angara River Photo of river and dam
S7 Airlines PJSC Siberia Airlines, is an airline headquartered in Ob, Novosibirsk Oblast, with offices in Moscow. As of 2008, it is Russia's biggest domestic airline, with its main bases at Domodedovo International Airport and Tolmachevo Airport. What is now S7 Airlines started in 1957 as "the Tolmachevo united squadron" of the General Directorate of Civil Aviation of the Soviet Union. After the Soviet Union disintegration and during the 1990s Russian economic reforms, a state-run Siberia Airlines was created based on the squadron in 1992 and privatized in 1994; the same year Siberia was assigned an IATA airline code. In 1997, Siberia Airlines tried to buy Vnukovo Airlines, to make Moscow its next main hub, but this didn't eventuate. After the 1998 Russian financial crisis, Vnukovo Airlines was heading towards bankruptcy, Siberia Airlines advised it to merge, but Vnukovo refused. In 1999, Siberia Airlines signed a document to take over Vnukovo Airlines, in the event Vnukovo ceased operations due to insolvency.
Siberia Airlines began merging with Vnukovo Airlines in 2001. The same year, the airline absorbed Baikal Airlines and in 2004, the airline absorbed Chelyabinsk Airlines and Enkor. In 2002, Siberia Airlines began its services from Vnukovo Airlines' former base Moscow-Vnukovo, but after some time it shifted all flights to Moscow-Domodedovo; the first non-Russian aircraft, Airbus A310s, were acquired in 2004. In summer 2004, during the Farnborough Airshow, the company signed a memorandum of understanding to purchase fifty Sukhoi Superjet 100s, with the first to be delivered in 2007. However, the airline subsequently dropped its plans to order this aircraft, citing that the aircraft's changed specifications no longer met its requirements. Siberia Airlines rebranded itself as S7 Airlines in 2005. In line with an International Air Transport Association resolution, from December 2006 the airline began to publish its fares for international destinations originating in Russia in euros, rather than US dollars.
This resulted in a fare increase. Fuel surcharges were published in euros, its domestic fares were still to be shown in the local currency. In December 2006, the airline became the second Russian air carrier to complete, pass, the IATA Operational Safety Audit, the first global air safety standard, it was announced in April 2007 that a new division had been set up within the airline, called Globus. This division was to focus on charter flights for tourists to foreign holiday destinations; the aircraft for this division would be drawn from the mainline fleet, but during 2010–2014, ten Boeing 737–800 aircraft were leased with an all-economy layout, with the option for a further ten aircraft. S7 joined the Oneworld airline alliance in 2010. In November 2015, S7 Airlines made an offer to acquire a majority stake in bankrupt Transaero. However, the proposal was rejected by shareholders. In 2016, American band OK Go partnered with S7 to film a "zero-g" music video for their song "Upside Down & Inside Out", aboard a reduced gravity aircraft.
On 28 August 2018, S7 announced the investment of $192.87 million for a new manufacturing plant of its business plan "Victory" in Moscow. The investment is expected to produce 1000 jobs. According to the Official Airline Guide, in 2019 S7 ranked sixth in the top ten list of most punctual European airlines. In December 2018, a few months after the completion of its purchase of Sea Launch the parent holding company was renamed from S7 Group to S7 AirSpace Corporation to reflect the transition from an aviation-only business. On 31 March 2019, chairwoman and co-owner Natalia Fileva died after the Epic LT private plane, that she was in, crashed while landing at Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport. There are financial and operational performance S7 Airlines starting from 2011: S7 Airlines operates to 150 destinations domestically within Russia and internationally throughout Europe and Asia. S7 has codeshare agreements with the following airlines: As of March 2019, the S7 Airlines fleet consists of the following aircraft: On 29 May 2007, the airline announced a proposed order for fifteen Boeing 787 Dreamliners scheduled for delivery in 2014, with an option for ten additional aircraft.
However, the order was cancelled on 29 January 2009, with S7 stating that it was considering the possibility of taking the aircraft under a leasing scheme. As of November 2008, all Soviet-made aircraft had left the fleet. In April 2018, S7 renewed interest in the Sukhoi Superjet by planning to purchase 25 Sukhoi Superjet 75 aircraft, with an option of 50 more for the new modification of the Superjet family, become the launch customer; these will replace the airline's aging Embraer E-170 aircraft. The airline plans to take deliveries of this aircraft from 2023. In October 2018, the airline took delivery of its first Boeing 737 MAX 8 and became the Russian launch customer of the aircraft type. At different times, the S7 Airlines fleet has consisted of the following aircraft: On 4 October 2001, Siberia Airlines Flight 1812, a Tupolev Tu-154M, registration RA-85693, en route from Tel Aviv to Novosibirsk crashed into the Black Sea off Sochi, after being hit with a S-200V surface-to-air missile launched as part of a Ukrainian Air Defense exercise staged off Cape Opuk in Crimea.
All 78 people on board were killed. On 24 August 2004, Siberia Airlines Flight 1047, a Tupolev Tu-154B2, registration RA-85556, en route from Moscow to Sochi exploded and crashed due to a terrorist bombing near Rostov-on-Don, killing all 46 people on board. On 9 July 2006, S7 Airlines Flight 778, an Airbus A310 carrying 193 passengers and 10 cre
Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject. Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, about 625 km to the south-east. Saint Petersburg is one of the most modern cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital; the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg. An admirer of everything German, Peter the Great named the city, Sankt-Peterburg.
On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd, meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German name Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad, meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg". Local residents refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter; the city's traditional nicknames among Russians are the Window to Europe. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was called Ingermanland, inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians; the small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport in order to trade with the rest of Europe, he needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On 12 May 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On 27 May 1703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city; the city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia. Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city; the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals; the project is evident in the layout of the streets.
In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two, his endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow, but four years in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737; the city was divided into five boroughs, the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka. It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt. Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Bodaybo is a town and the administrative center of Bodaybinsky District in Irkutsk Oblast, located on the Vitim River at its confluence with the Bodaybo River, located 1,290 kilometers from Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 15,340 , it was served the needs of the local gold mining industry. The Lena massacre took place near Bodaybo in 1912, it was granted town status in 1925. The Vitim event occurred on September 2002 near the town, it was believed to be caused by a comet nucleus impact. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Bodaybo serves as the administrative center of Bodaybinsky District, to which it is directly subordinated; as a municipal division, the town of Bodaybo, together with the selo of Nerpo in Bodaybinsky District, is incorporated within Bodaybinsky Municipal District as Bodaybinskoye Urban Settlement. The Bodaybo Airport is quite small, it is served by Angara Airlines. Bodaybo has a subarctic climate, with warm summers. Precipitation is somewhat higher in summer than at other times of the year.
Законодательное Собрание Иркутской области. Постановление №9/5-ЗС от 15 апреля 2009 г. «Устав Иркутской области», в ред. Закона №2-У от 14 декабря 2017 г. «О поправках к Уставу Иркутской области». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Областная", №45, 24 апреля 2009 г.. Законодательное Собрание Иркутской области. Закон №49-ОЗ от 21 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Иркутской области», в ред. Закона №12-ОЗ от 23 марта 2017 г. «О внесении изменений в статьи 25 и 33 Закона Иркутской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Иркутской области" и Закон Иркутской области "О порядке рассмотрения Законодательным Собранием Иркутской области предложений о присвоении наименований географическим объектам и о переименовании географических объектов"». Вступил в силу после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Областная", №71, 25 июня 2010 г.. Законодательное Собрание Иркутской области. Закон №67-оз от 2 декабря 2004 г.
«О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Бодайбинского района Иркутской области», в ред. Закона №107-ОЗ от 6 ноября 2012 г. «О распространении действия Закона Иркутской области "О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Бодайбинского района Иркутской области" на всю территорию нового субъекта Российской Федерации — Иркутской области и внесении в него изменений». Вступил в силу с 31 декабря 2004 г. но не ранее чем через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Восточно-Сибирская правда", №248–249, 14 декабря 2004 г.. Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Formations of Irkutsk Oblast
Nordwind Airlines, LLC is a Russian scheduled and charter airline. The company is headquartered in Moscow, its main hub is at Sheremetyevo International Airport. Nordwind Airlines operates service between airports in Russia and holiday destinations around the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. Nordwind Airlines was founded in August 2008 by the Russian and Turkish branches of tour operator Pegas Touristik and operated 3 Boeing 757-200s; the number of passengers transported was as follows: On April 29, 2013, two surface-to-air missiles were fired by unknown forces in Syria at a Nordwind Airlines jet flying from Sharm El Sheikh to Kazan. The pilots took the plane continued onto Kazan undamaged. In 2017, the airline acquired 2 used A330s. Nordwind serves 97 destinations in 26 countries including 8 countries and 22 cities in Europe, 8 countries and 12 cities in the Middle East and Africa, 3 countries and 3 cities in South America and 6 countries and 14 cities in Asia; the Nordwind Airlines fleet comprises the following aircraft: The fleet included the following aircraft: Airbus A320-200 Boeing 757-200 Boeing 767-300 Official website Official website
Ulaanbaatar anglicised as Ulan Bator, is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag, its population as of 2014 was over 1.3 million half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about 1,300 meters in a valley on the Tuul River, it is the country's cultural and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system. The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers, in 1778. Prior to that occasion it changed location twenty-eight times, each new location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21; the city's official website lists Moscow, Seoul and Denver as sister cities.
Ulaanbaatar has been given numerous names in its history. Before 1911, the official name was Ikh Khüree or Daa Khüree, or Khüree; the Chinese equivalent, Dà kùlún, was rendered into Western languages as "Kulun" or "Kuren". Upon independence in 1911, with both the secular government and the Bogd Khan's palace present, the city's name changed to Niĭslel Khüree, it is called Bogdiin Khuree in the folk song "Praise of Bogdiin Khuree". In western languages, the city at that time was most referred to as Urga; when the city became the capital of the new Mongolian People's Republic in 1924, its name was changed to Ulaanbaatar. On the session of the 1st Great People's Khuraldaan of Mongolia in 1924, a majority of delegates expressed their wish to change the capital city's name to Baatar Khot. However, under pressure from Turar Ryskulov, a Soviet activist of the Communist International, the city was named Ulaanbaatar Khot. In Europe and North America, Ulaanbaatar continued to be known as Urga or Khure until 1924, afterward as Ulan Bator.
The Russian spelling is the Russian phonetic equivalent of the Mongolian name, according to Russian spelling conventions. This form was defined two decades before the Mongolian name got its current Cyrillic script spelling and'Ulaanbaatar' transliteration. Today, English speakers sometimes refer to the city as UB. Human habitation at the site of Ulaanbaatar dates from the Lower Paleolithic, with a number of sites on Bogd Khan, Buyant-Ukhaa and Songinokhairkhan mountains, revealing tools which date from 300,000 years ago to 40,000–12,000 years ago; these Upper Paleolithic people hunted mammoth and woolly rhinoceros, the bones of which are found abundantly around Ulaanbaatar. A number of Xiongnu-era royal tombs have been discovered around Ulaanbaatar, including the tombs of Belkh Gorge near Dambadarjaalin monastery and tombs of Songinokhairkhan. Located on the banks of the Tuul River, Ulaanbaatar has been well within the sphere of Turco-Mongol nomadic empires throughout history. Wang Khan, Toghrul of the Keraites, a Nestorian Christian monarch whom Marco Polo identified as the legendary Prester John, is said to have had his palace here and forbade hunting in the holy mountain Bogd Uul.
The palace is said to be where Genghis Khan stayed with Yesui Khatun before attacking the Tangut in 1226. Founded in 1639 as a yurt monastery, Ulaanbaatar Örgöö, was first located at Lake Shireet Tsagaan nuur in what is now Burd sum, Övörkhangai, around 230 kilometres south-west from the present site of Ulaanbaatar, was intended by the Mongol nobles to be the seat of Zanabazar, the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu. Zanabazar returned to Mongolia from Tibet in 1651, founded seven aimags in Urga establishing four more; as a mobile monastery-town, it was moved to various places along the Selenge and Tuul rivers, as supply and other needs would demand. During the Dzungar wars of the late 17th century, it was moved to Inner Mongolia; as the city grew, it moved less. The movements of the city can be detailed as follows: Shireet Tsagaan Nuur, Khoshoo Tsaidam, Khentii Mountains, Inner Mongolia, Tsetserlegiin Erdene Tolgoi, Usan Seer, Ikh Tamir, Eeven Gol, Burgaltai, Terelj, Uliastai River, Khui Mandal, Udleg, Selbe, Uliastai River, Khui Mandal and Selbe.
In 1778, the city moved from Khui Mandal and settled for good at its current location, near the confluence of the Selbe and Tuul rivers, beneath Bogd Khan Uul, at that time on the caravan route from Beijing to Kyakhta. One of the earliest Western mentions of Urga is the account of the Scottish traveller John Bell in 1721: What they call the Urga is the court, or the place where the prince and high priest reside, who are always encamped at no great distance from one ano