Andrew Michael Odlyzko is a Polish-American mathematician and a former head of the University of Minnesota's Digital Technology Center and of the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute. He began his career in 1975 at Bell Telephone Laboratories, where he stayed for 26 years before joining the University of Minnesota in 2001. Odlyzko received his B. S. and M. S. in mathematics from the California Institute of Technology and his Ph. D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1975. In the field of mathematics he has published extensively on analytic number theory, computational number theory, cryptography and computational complexity, combinatorics and error-correcting codes. In the early 1970s, he was a co-author of one of the founding papers of the modern umbral calculus. In 1985 he and Herman te Riele disproved the Mertens conjecture. In mathematics, he is known best for his work on the Riemann zeta function, which led to the invention of improved algorithms, including the Odlyzko–Schönhage algorithm, large-scale computations, which stimulated extensive research on connections between the zeta function and random matrix theory.
As a direct collaborator of Paul Erdős, he has Erdős number 1. More he has worked on communication networks, electronic publishing, economics of security and electronic commerce. In 1998, he and Kerry Coffman were the first to show that one of the great inspirations for the Internet bubble, the myth of "Internet traffic doubling every 100 days," was false. In the paper "Content is Not King", published in First Monday in January 2001, he argues that the entertainment industry is a small industry compared with other industries, notably the telecommunications industry. In 2012 he became a fellow of the International Association for Cryptologic Research and in 2013 of the American Mathematical Society. In the paper "Metcalfe's Law is Wrong", Andrew Odlyzko argues that the incremental value of adding one person to network of n people is the nth harmonic number, so the total value of the network is n log n. Since this curves upward, it implies that Metcalfe's conclusion – that there is a critical mass in networks, leading to a network effect – is qualitatively correct.
But since this linearithmic function does not grow as as Metcalfe's law, it implies that many of the quantitative expectations based on Metcalfe's law were excessively optimistic. For example, by Metcalfe, if a hypothetical network of 100,000 members has a value of $1M, doubling its membership would increase its value times, or in other words quadruple to $4M. However, per Odlyzko, that its value would only grow by 200,000 log / 100,000 log times, or in other words more than double to $2.1M. Binomial type Digital media Metcalfe's law Montgomery's pair correlation conjecture Reed's law Riemann hypothesis Andrew Odlyzko: Home Page Digital Technology Center at the University of Minnesota Andrew Odlyzko, Tragic loss or good riddance? The impending demise of traditional scholarly journals Andrew Odlyzko, Content is Not King, First Monday, Vol. 6, No. 2. Montgomery–Odlyzko law at MathWorld
Ralph C. Merkle is a computer scientist, he is one of the inventors of public key cryptography, the inventor of cryptographic hashing, more a researcher and speaker of cryonics. While an undergraduate, Merkle devised Merkle's Puzzles, a scheme for communication over an insecure channel, as part of a class project; the scheme is now recognized to be an early example of public key cryptography. He co-invented the Merkle–Hellman knapsack cryptosystem, invented cryptographic hashing, invented Merkle trees. While at Xerox PARC, Merkle designed the Khufu and Khafre block ciphers, the Snefru hash function. Merkle was the manager of compiler development at Elxsi from 1980. In 1988, he became a research scientist at Xerox PARC. In 1999 he became a nanotechnology theorist for Zyvex. In 2003 he became a Distinguished Professor at Georgia Tech, where he led the Georgia Tech Information Security Center. In 2006 he returned to the San Francisco Bay Area, where he has been a senior research fellow at IMM, a faculty member at Singularity University, a board member of the Alcor Life Extension Foundation.
He was awarded the IEEE Richard W. Hamming Medal in 2010. Ralph Merkle is a grandnephew of baseball star Fred Merkle. Merkle is married to the video game designer best known for her game, River Raid. Merkle is on the Board of Directors of the cryonics organization Alcor Life Extension Foundation. Merkle appears in the science fiction novel The Diamond Age, involving nanotechnology. 1996 Paris Kanellakis Award for the Invention of Public Key Cryptography. 1998 Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology for computational modeling of molecular tools for atomically-precise chemical reactions 1999 IEEE Koji Kobayashi Computers and Communications Award 2000 RSA Award for Excellence in Mathematics for the invention of public key cryptography. 2008 International Association for Cryptographic Research fellow for the invention of public key cryptography. 2010 IEEE Hamming Medal for the invention of public key cryptography 2011 Computer History Museum Fellow "for his work, with Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman, on public key cryptography."
2011 National Inventors Hall of Fame, for the invention of public key cryptography 2012 National Cyber Security Hall of Fame inductee Other references: Ralph C. Merkle, Secrecy and public key systems, UMI Research Press, 1982, ISBN 0-8357-1384-9. Robert A. Freitas Jr. Ralph C. Merkle, Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines, Landes Bioscience, 2004, ISBN 1-57059-690-5. Paul Kantor, Gheorghe Mureşan, Fred Roberts, Daniel Zeng, Frei-Yue Wang, Hsinchun Chen, Ralph Merkle, "Intelligence and Security Informatics": IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics, ISI 2005, Atlanta, GA, US, May 19–20... Springer, 2005, ISBN 3-540-25999-6. Interview at Google Videos in the Death in the Deep Freeze documentary Nova Southeastern University, Nanotechnology Expert Ralph Merkle to Speak on "Life and Death" Ralph Merkle's personal website Oral history interview with Martin Hellman – from 2004, Palo Alto, California. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Hellman describes his invention of public key cryptography with collaborators Whitfield Diffie and Ralph Merkle at Stanford University in the mid-1970s.
He relates his subsequent work in cryptography with Steve Pohlig and others
Michael O. Rabin
Michael Oser Rabin is an Israeli mathematician and computer scientist and a recipient of the Turing Award. Rabin was born in 1931 in Breslau, the son of a rabbi. In 1935, he emigrated with his family to Mandate Palestine; as a young boy, he was interested in mathematics and his father sent him to the best high school in Haifa, where he studied under mathematician Elisha Netanyahu, a high school teacher. After high school, he was drafted into the army during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War; the mathematician Abraham Fraenkel, a professor of mathematics in Jerusalem, intervened with the army command, Rabin was discharged to study at the university in 1949. He received an M. Sc. from Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1953 and a Ph. D. from Princeton University in 1956. Rabin became Associate Professor of Mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley and MIT. Before moving to Harvard University as Gordon McKay Professor of Computer Science in 1981, he was a professor at the Hebrew University. In the late 1950s, he was invited for a summer to do research for IBM at the Lamb Estate in Westchester County, New York with other promising mathematicians and scientists.
It was there that he and Dana Scott wrote the paper "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problems". Soon, using nondeterministic automata, they were able to re-prove Kleene's result that finite state machines accept regular languages; as to the origins of what was to become computational complexity theory, the next summer Rabin returned to the Lamb Estate. John McCarthy posed a puzzle to him about spies and passwords, which Rabin studied and soon after he wrote an article, "Degree of Difficulty of Computing a Function and Hierarchy of Recursive Sets."Nondeterministic machines have become a key concept in computational complexity theory with the description of the complexity classes P and NP. Rabin returned to Jerusalem, researching logic, working on the foundations of what would be known as computer science, he was an associate professor and the head of the Institute of Mathematics at the Hebrew University at 29 years old, a full professor by 33. Rabin recalls, "There was no appreciation of the work on the issues of computing.
Mathematicians did not recognize the emerging new field". In 1960, he was invited by Edward F. Moore to work at Bell Labs, where Rabin introduced probabilistic automata that employ coin tosses in order to decide which state transitions to take, he showed examples of regular languages that required a large number of states, but for which you get an exponential reduction of the number of states if you go over to probabilistic automata. In 1969, Rabin proved that the second-order theory of n successors is decidable. A key component of the proof implicitly showed determinacy of parity games, which lie in the third level of the Borel hierarchy. In 1975, Rabin finished his tenure as Rector of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the USA as a visiting professor. Gary Miller was there and had his polynomial time test for primality based on the extended Riemann hypothesis. While there, Rabin invented the Miller–Rabin primality test, a randomized algorithm that can determine quickly whether a number is prime.
Rabin's method was based on previous work of Gary Miller that solved the problem deterministically with the assumption that the generalized Riemann hypothesis is true, but Rabin's version of the test made no such assumption. Fast primality testing is key in the successful implementation of most public-key cryptography, in 2003 Miller, Robert M. Solovay, Volker Strassen were given the Paris Kanellakis Award for their work on primality testing. In 1976 he was invited by Joseph Traub to meet at Carnegie Mellon University and presented the primality test. After he gave that lecture, Traub had said, "No, no, this is revolutionary, it's going to become important."In 1979, Rabin invented the Rabin cryptosystem, the first asymmetric cryptosystem whose security was proved equivalent to the intractability of integer factorization. In 1981, Rabin reinvented a weak variant of the technique of oblivious transfer invented by Wiesner under the name of multiplexing, allowing a sender to transmit a message to a receiver where the receiver has some probability between 0 and 1 of learning the message, with the sender being unaware whether the receiver was able to do so.
In 1987, together with Richard Karp, created one of the most well-known efficient string search algorithms, the Rabin–Karp string search algorithm, known for its rolling hash. Rabin's more recent research has concentrated on computer security, he is the Thomas J. Watson Sr. Professor of Computer Science at Harvard University and Professor of Computer Science at Hebrew University. During the spring semester of 2007, he was a visiting professor at Columbia University teaching Introduction to Cryptography. Rabin is a foreign member of the United States National Academy of Sciences, a member of the French Academy of Sciences and a foreign member of the Royal Society. In 1976, the Turing Award was awarded jointly to Rabin and Dana Scott for a paper written in 1959, the citation for which states that the award was granted: For their joint paper "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problems," which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines, which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept.
Their classic paper has been a continuous source of inspiration for subsequent work in this field. In 1995, Rabin was awarded the Israel Prize, in computer sciences. In 2010, Rabin was awarded the Tel Aviv University
David Kahn (writer)
David Kahn is a US historian and writer. He has written extensively on the history of cryptography and military intelligence. Kahn's first published book, The Codebreakers - The Story of Secret Writing, has been considered to be a definitive account of the history of cryptography. David Kahn was born in New York City to Florence Abraham Kahn, a glass manufacturer, Jesse Kahn, a lawyer. Kahn has said he traces his interest in cryptography to reading Fletcher Pratt's Secret and Urgent as a boy. Kahn is a founding editor of the Cryptologia journal. In 1969, Kahn married Susanne Fiedler, they have two sons and Michael. He attended Bucknell University. After graduation, he worked as a reporter at Newsday for several years, he served as an editor at the International Herald Tribune in Paris for two years in the 1960s. It was during this period that he wrote an article for the New York Times Magazine about two defectors from the National Security Agency; this article was the origin of The Codebreakers. The Codebreakers comprehensively chronicles the history of cryptography from ancient Egypt to the time of its writing.
It is regarded as the best account of the history of cryptography up to its publication. Most of the editing, German translating, insider contributions were from the American World War II cryptographer, Bradford Hardie III. William Crowell, the former deputy director of the National Security Agency, was quoted in Newsday as saying "Before he came along, the best you could do was buy an explanatory book, too technical and dull."Kahn a newspaper journalist, was contracted to write a book on cryptology in 1961. He began writing it part-time, at one point quitting his regular job to work on it full-time; the book was to include information on the National Security Agency, according to the author James Bamford writing in 1982, the agency attempted to stop its publication, considered various options, including publishing a negative review of Kahn's work in the press to discredit him. A committee of the United States Intelligence Board concluded that the book was "a valuable support to foreign COMSEC authorities" and recommended "further low-key actions as possible, but short of legal action, to discourage Mr. Kahn or his prospective publishers".
Kahn's publisher, the Macmillan company, handed over the manuscript to the federal government for review without Kahn's permission on March 4, 1966. Kahn and Macmillan agreed to remove some material from the manuscript concerning the relationship between the NSA and its British counterpart, the GCHQ, in part because Kahn felt pressure from the surveillance placed on him by the intelligence community; the Codebreakers did not cover most of the history concerning the breaking of the German Enigma machine. Nor did it cover the advent of strong cryptography in the public domain, beginning with the invention of public key cryptography and the specification of the Data Encryption Standard in the mid-1970s; the book was republished in 1996, the new edition included an additional chapter covering the events since the original publication. The Codebreakers was a finalist for the non-fiction Pulitzer Prize in 1968. Kahn was awarded a doctorate from Oxford University in 1974, in modern German history under the supervision of the Regius professor of modern history, Hugh Trevor-Roper.
Kahn continued his work as a reporter and op-ed editor for Newsday until 1998, served as a journalism professor at New York University. Despite past differences between Kahn and the National Security Agency over the information in The Codebreakers, Kahn was selected in 1995 to become NSA's scholar-in-residence. On October 26, 2010, Kahn attended a ceremony at NSA's National Cryptologic Museum to commemorate his donation of his lifetime collection of cryptologic books and artifacts to the museum and its library; the collection is housed at the NCM library and is non-circulating, but photocopying and photography of items in the collection are allowed. Kahn lives in New York City, he has lived in Washington, D. C.. Plaintext in the new unabridged: An examination of the definitions on cryptology in Webster's Third New International Dictionary The Codebreakers – The Story of Secret Writing Hitler's Spies: German Military Intelligence in World War II The Codebreakers – The Story of Secret Writing Revised edition Cryptology goes Public Notes & correspondence on the origin of polyalphabetic substitution Codebreaking in World Wars I and II: The major successes and failures, their causes and their effects Kahn on Codes: Secrets of the New Cryptology Cryptology: Machines and Methods by Cipher Deavours and David Kahn Seizing the Enigma: The Race to Break the German U-Boats Codes, 1939–1943 The Reader of Gentlemen's Mail: Herbert O. Yardley and the Birth of American Codebreaking How I Discovered World War II's Greatest Spy and Other Stories of Intelligence and Code, Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2014.
ISBN 978-1466561991 Bamford, James. The Puzzle Palace: Inside the National Security Agency, America's Most Sec
Gustavus J. Simmons is a retired cryptographer and former manager of the applied mathematics Department and Senior Fellow at Sandia National Laboratories, he has worked with authentication theory, developing cryptographic techniques for solving problems of mutual distrust and in devising protocols whose function can be trusted though some of the inputs or participants cannot be. Simmons was born in West Virginia and was named after his grandfather, a prohibition officer, gunned down three years before Gustavus was born, he began his post-secondary education at Deep Springs College, received his Ph. D in mathematics from the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. Simmons has published over 170 papers, many of which are devoted to asymmetric encryption techniques, his technical contributions include the development of subliminal channels which make it possible to conceal covert communications in digital signatures and the mathematical formulation of an authentication channel paralleling in many respects the secrecy channel formulated by Claude Shannon in 1948.
In the 1980s, he helped form the International Association for Cryptologic Research. He is the creator of the Ramsey/graph theory-based mathematical game Sim. At Sandia, Simmons was involved in the command and control of nuclear weapons, in using authentication to make possible the verification of compliance with arms control treaties, in the cryptographic aspects of verifying adherence to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty for nuclear weapons. In a review of Contemporary Cryptology, Don Coppersmith summarized the problem: Is the host substituting a false signal to mask the fact that it is continuing tests? Is the monitor using the device to transmit other information than that allowed by the treaty? Who supplies the hardware? Can that person cheat? In 1947 he was one of 40 finalists in the Westinghouse Science Talent Search. In 1986, Simmons was the recipient of the U. S. Department of Energy Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award. In 1991, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from Lund University for his work in authentication theory.
In 1996 he was made a Lifetime Fellow of the Institute of its Applications. In 2005, he was elected an IACR Fellow, "for pioneering research in information integrity, information theory, secure protocols and for substantial contributions to the formation of the IACR." He was invited to write the section on cryptology in the 16th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica and to revise the section for the current edition. Rothschild Professor at Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University and Visiting Fellow of Trinity College, 1995-96, he was awarded the 2009 James F. Zimmerman Award by the University of New Mexico; the award is given to one alumnus of UNM each year in honor of James F. Zimmerman, president of the university from 1927 – 1944. Simmons, Gustavus J. Contemporary Cryptology: The Science of Information Integrity - ISBN 0-7803-5352-8 Simmons, Gustavus J. "Public-key cryptography.
Adi Shamir is an Israeli cryptographer. He is a co-inventor of the Rivest–Shamir–Adleman algorithm, a co-inventor of the Feige–Fiat–Shamir identification scheme, one of the inventors of differential cryptanalysis and has made numerous contributions to the fields of cryptography and computer science. Born in Tel Aviv, Shamir received a Bachelor of Science degree in mathematics from Tel Aviv University in 1973 and obtained his Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Computer Science from the Weizmann Institute in 1975 and 1977 respectively. After a year as a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Warwick, he did research at Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1977–1980 before returning to be a member of the faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science at the Weizmann Institute. Starting from 2006, he is an invited professor at École Normale Supérieure in Paris. In addition to RSA, Shamir's other numerous inventions and contributions to cryptography include the Shamir secret sharing scheme, the breaking of the Merkle-Hellman knapsack cryptosystem, visual cryptography, the TWIRL and TWINKLE factoring devices.
Together with Eli Biham, he discovered differential cryptanalysis, a general method for attacking block ciphers. It emerged that differential cryptanalysis was known — and kept a secret — by both IBM and the National Security Agency. Shamir has made contributions to computer science outside of cryptography, such as finding the first linear time algorithm for 2-satisfiability and showing the equivalence of the complexity classes PSPACE and IP. Shamir has received a number of awards, including the following: the 2002 ACM Turing Award, together with Rivest and Adleman, in recognition of his contributions to cryptography the Paris Kanellakis Theory and Practice Award. R. G. Baker Award the UAP Scientific Prize The Vatican's PIUS XI Gold Medal the 2000 IEEE Koji Kobayashi Computers and Communications Award the Israel Prize, in 2008, for computer sciences. An honorary DMath degree from the University of Waterloo 2017 Japan Prize in the field of Electronics and Communication for his contribution to information security through pioneering research on cryptography he was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 2018 for substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge
Ronald Linn Rivest is a cryptographer and an Institute Professor at MIT. He is a member of MIT's Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and a member of MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, he was a member of the Election Assistance Commission's Technical Guidelines Development Committee, tasked with assisting the EAC in drafting the Voluntary Voting System Guidelines. Rivest is one of the inventors of the RSA algorithm, he is the inventor of the symmetric key encryption algorithms RC2, RC4, RC5, co-inventor of RC6. The "RC" stands for "Rivest Cipher", or alternatively, "Ron's Code", he authored the MD2, MD4, MD5 and MD6 cryptographic hash functions. In 2006, he published his invention of the ThreeBallot voting system, a voting system that incorporates the ability for the voter to discern that their vote was counted while still protecting their voter privacy. Most this system does not rely on cryptography at all. Stating "Our democracy is too important", he placed ThreeBallot in the public domain.
Rivest collaborates with other researchers in combinatorics, for example working with David A. Klarner to find an upper bound on the number of polyominoes of a given order and working with Jean Vuillemin to prove the deterministic form of the Aanderaa–Rosenberg conjecture. Rivest earned a Bachelor's degree in Mathematics from Yale University in 1969, a Ph. D. degree in Computer Science from Stanford University in 1974 for research supervised by Robert W. Floyd. Rivest is a co-author of Introduction to Algorithms, a standard textbook on algorithms, with Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson and Clifford Stein, he is a member of the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in the Theory of Computation Group, a founder of its Cryptography and Information Security Group. He was a founder of RSA Data Security, of Peppercoin. Rivest has research interests in algorithms and voting, his former doctoral students include Avrim Blum, Burt Kaliski, Ron Pinter, Robert Schapire, Alan Sherman, Mona Singh.
His publications include: Cormen, Thomas H.. Introduction to Algorithms. MIT Press and McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-262-03141-7. Cormen, Thomas H.. Introduction to Algorithms. MIT Press and McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-262-53196-2. Cormen, Thomas H.. Introduction to Algorithms. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-03384-8. Rivest is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences, is a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery, the International Association for Cryptologic Research, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Together with Adi Shamir and Len Adleman, he has been awarded the 2000 IEEE Koji Kobayashi Computers and Communications Award and the Secure Computing Lifetime Achievement Award, he shared with them the Turing Award. Rivest has received an honorary degree from the Sapienza University of Rome. In 2005, he received the MITX Lifetime Achievement Award. Rivest was named the 2007 the Marconi Fellow, on May 29, 2008 he gave the Chesley lecture at Carleton College, he was named an Institute Professor at MIT in June 2015.
List of Ron Rivest's patents on IPEXL Home page of Ronald L. Rivest Official site of RSA Security Inc. Ron Rivest election research papers The ThreeBallot Voting System