The International Astronomical Union is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy. Among other activities, it acts as the internationally recognized authority for assigning designations and names to celestial bodies and any surface features on them; the IAU is a member of the International Science Council. Its main objective is to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects through international cooperation; the IAU maintains friendly relations with organizations that include amateur astronomers in their membership. The IAU has its head office on the second floor of the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris in the 14th arrondissement of Paris; this organisation has many working groups. For example, the Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature, which maintains the astronomical naming conventions and planetary nomenclature for planetary bodies, the Working Group on Star Names, which catalogs and standardizes proper names for stars.
The IAU is responsible for the system of astronomical telegrams which are produced and distributed on its behalf by the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. The Minor Planet Center operates under the IAU, is a "clearinghouse" for all non-planetary or non-moon bodies in the Solar System; the Working Group for Meteor Shower Nomenclature and the Meteor Data Center coordinate the nomenclature of meteor showers. The IAU was founded on 28 July 1919, at the Constitutive Assembly of the International Research Council held in Brussels, Belgium. Two subsidiaries of the IAU were created at this assembly: the International Time Commission seated at the International Time Bureau in Paris and the International Central Bureau of Astronomical Telegrams seated in Copenhagen, Denmark; the 7 initial member states were Belgium, France, Great Britain, Greece and the United States, soon to be followed by Italy and Mexico. The first executive committee consisted of Benjamin Baillaud, Alfred Fowler, four vice presidents: William Campbell, Frank Dyson, Georges Lecointe, Annibale Riccò.
Thirty-two Commissions were appointed at the Brussels meeting and focused on topics ranging from relativity to minor planets. The reports of these 32 Commissions formed the main substance of the first General Assembly, which took place in Rome, Italy, 2–10 May 1922. By the end of the first General Assembly, ten additional nations had joined the Union, bringing the total membership to 19 countries. Although the Union was formed eight months after the end of World War I, international collaboration in astronomy had been strong in the pre-war era; the first 50 years of the Union's history are well documented. Subsequent history is recorded in the form of reminiscences of past IAU Presidents and General Secretaries. Twelve of the fourteen past General Secretaries in the period 1964-2006 contributed their recollections of the Union's history in IAU Information Bulletin No. 100. Six past IAU Presidents in the period 1976–2003 contributed their recollections in IAU Information Bulletin No. 104. As of 1 August 2019, the IAU includes a total of 13,701 individual members, who are professional astronomers from 102 countries worldwide.
81.7% of all individual members are male, while 18.3% are female, among them the union's former president, Mexican astronomer Silvia Torres-Peimbert. Membership includes 82 national members, professional astronomical communities representing their country's affiliation with the IAU. National members include the Australian Academy of Science, the Chinese Astronomical Society, the French Academy of Sciences, the Indian National Science Academy, the National Academies, the National Research Foundation of South Africa, the National Scientific and Technical Research Council, KACST, the Council of German Observatories, the Royal Astronomical Society, the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Science Council of Japan, among many others; the sovereign body of the IAU is its General Assembly. The Assembly determines IAU policy, approves the Statutes and By-Laws of the Union and elects various committees; the right to vote on matters brought before the Assembly varies according to the type of business under discussion.
The Statutes consider such business to be divided into two categories: issues of a "primarily scientific nature", upon which voting is restricted to individual members, all other matters, upon which voting is restricted to the representatives of national members. On budget matters, votes are weighted according to the relative subscription levels of the national members. A second category vote requires a turnout of at least two-thirds of national members in order to be valid. An absolute majority is sufficient for approval in any vote, except for Statute revision which requires a two-thirds majority. An equality of votes is resolved by the vote of the President of the Union. Azerbaijan Cuba N
The Parabrahma Upanishad is one of the medieval era minor Upanishads of Hinduism composed in Sanskrit. The text is attached to the Atharvaveda, is one of the 20 Sannyasa Upanishads; the Parabrahma Upanishad describes the tradition of the sacred thread and topknot hair tuft worn by housesholders and why both are abandoned by Sannyasi after they have renounced for monastic lifestyle in the Hindu Ashrama system. The text asserts that knowledge is the inner sacrificial string of the renouncers, knowledge is their true topknot; these wandering monks, states Patrick Olivelle, consider Brahman as their inner "supreme string on which the entire universe is strung like pearls on a string". This repeated emphasis on knowledge and the abandonment of external dress and rituals in exchange for the inner equivalent of Atman-Brahman in this medieval era text is similar to those in the ancient Upanishads; the text is notable for its repeated and extended discussion of why Sannyasis renounce topknot and sacred thread they wear as householders.
Their hair tuft and thread is no longer external, but internal, states the text, in the form of knowledge and their awareness of Atman-Brahman that threads the universe into unified oneness. The Parabrahma Upanishad links Brahma to consciousness of man when he is awake, Vishnu to his consciousness in dreaming state, Maheshvara to his consciousness in deep sleep, Brahman as the Turiya, the fourth state of consciousness; the Upanishad calls those who have a mass of hair for topknot and visible sacred string across their chest as "pseudo-Brahmin" with hollow symbols, who aren't acquiring spiritual self-knowledge. The true mendicant, the true seeker of liberation, asserts the text, abandons these external symbols, focuses on meditating upon and understanding the nature of his soul, ultimate reality and consciousness within the heart, he is a knower of the Veda, of good conduct, the threads of his string are true principles, he wears knowledge within. He pays no heed to external rites, he devotes himself to inner knowledge for liberation with Om and Hamsa.
The first chapter of the Parabrahma Upanishad is identical to the first chapter of more ancient Brahma Upanishad. The text shares many sections with Kathashruti Upanishad; the text references and includes fragments of Sanskrit text from the Chandogya Upanishad section 6.1, Aruni Upanishad chapter 7. The composition date or author of Parabrahma Upanishad is not known, but other than chapter 1 it borrows from Brahma Upanishad, the rest of the text is a late medieval era text. Olivelle and Sprockhoff suggest it to be 14th- or 15th-century text. Manuscripts of this text have been sometimes titled as Parabrahmopanishad. In the Telugu language anthology of 108 Upanishads of the Muktika canon, narrated by Rama to Hanuman, it is listed at number 78. Jabala Upanishad Nirvana Upanishad Para Brahman Paramahamsa Upanishad BibliographyDeussen, Paul. Sixty Upanishads of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7. Deussen, Paul; the Philosophy of the Upanishads. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-1-61640-239-6.
Hattangadi, Sunder. "परब्रह्मोपनिषत्". Retrieved 19 January 2016. Olivelle, Patrick; the Samnyasa Upanisads. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195070453. Olivelle, Patrick; the Asrama System. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195083279. Sprockhoff, Joachim F. Samnyasa: Quellenstudien zur Askese im Hinduismus. Wiesbaden: Kommissionsverlag Franz Steiner. ISBN 978-3515019057. Tinoco, Carlos Alberto. Upanishads. IBRASA. ISBN 978-85-348-0040-2
The Day the Earth Stood Still is a 2008 American science fiction thriller film and a loose adaptation of the 1951 film of the same name. The screenplay by David Scarpa is based on the 1940 classic science fiction short story "Farewell to the Master" by Harry Bates and the 1951 screenplay adaptation by Edmund H. North. Directed by Scott Derrickson and starring Keanu Reeves as Klaatu, this version replaces the Cold War theme of nuclear warfare with the contemporary issue of humankind's environmental damage to the planet, it follows Klaatu, an alien sent to try to eradicate humans from Earth. The film was scheduled for release on May 9, 2008, but was released on a roll-out schedule beginning December 12, 2008, screening in both conventional and IMAX theaters; the critical reviews were negative, with 186 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes showing only 21% of them were positive. In its opening week, the film took the top spot at the U. S. went on to gross over $233 million worldwide. The Day the Earth Stood Still was released on home video on April 7, 2009.
In 1928, a solitary mountaineer encounters a glowing sphere. He loses consciousness and when he wakes, the sphere has gone and there is a scar on his hand where a sample of his DNA has been taken. In the present day, a moving object is detected beyond Jupiter's orbit and forecast to impact Manhattan, it is moving at 30,000 kilometers per second, enough to destroy all life on Earth. The United States government hastily assembles a group of scientists, including Helen Benson and her friend Michael Granier, to develop a survival plan; as it nears the planet, the object slows down just before impact. Revealed to be a large spherical spaceship, it lands in Central Park and is surrounded by NYPD and armed US military forces. An alien emerges and Helen moves forward to greet it. A gigantic humanoid robot appears and temporarily disables everything in the vicinity by emitting a high pitched noise before the wounded alien voices the command "Klaatu barada nikto" to shut down the robot's defensive response.
The alien's exterior is found to be a bioengineered space suit, composed of placenta-like material covering a human-like being. The being ages into Klaatu, who looks like the mountaineer from 1928. Klaatu informs Secretary of Defense Regina Jackson that he is a representative of a group of civilizations, sent to talk to the leaders of Earth about saving the planet; when Jackson instead sends him to be interrogated, Klaatu escapes and reconnects with Helen and her stepson, telling them that he must finish his mission to "save the Earth". The presence of the sphere and other smaller ones that begin to appear all over the world cause widespread panic; the military are thwarted by the robot. The military takes a weapons-free approach, cautiously enclosing the robot, soon nicknamed "GORT", transporting it to Mount Weather, an underground facility in Virginia. Klaatu meets with Mr. Wu, who has lived on Earth for 70 years. Wu tells Klaatu that he has found the human race to be destructive and unwilling to change, which matches Klaatu's experiences.
Klaatu orders the smaller spheres to collect specimens of animal species, to preserve them for reintroduction to the Earth. He clarifies for Helen; when a policeman attempts to take them into custody, Klaatu kills him promptly revives the officer, telling Helen and Jacob that he did this to disarm an obstacle to his mission. Hoping to persuade Klaatu to change his mind about humanity, Helen takes him to the home of Professor Barnhardt, a Nobel Prize winner, they discuss how Klaatu's race went through drastic, collaborative evolution to prevent the demise of their planet. Barnhardt pleads that Earth is at the same precipice, humanity should be given a chance to understand that it too must change. While the adults are talking, Jacob calls the authorities to arrest Klaatu. While the military is examining GORT, the robot transforms into a swarm of winged, insect-like, nano-machines that self-replicate as they consume every man-made object in their path; the swarm soon devours the entire facility. The military capture Helen while Jacob escape on foot.
As they travel, Klaatu learns more about humanity through Jacob. When Jacob contacts Helen and arranges to meet at his father's grave, the Secretary sends her to try to change Klaatu's mind. At the grave, Jacob is heartbroken; as Helen and Jacob have a tear-filled reunion, Klaatu's cumulative observations of humans convince him to stop the swarm. Granier drives them to the Central Park sphere. Klaatu trudges through the swarm to the sphere; the sphere deactivates the swarm, saving humanity, but at the expense of electrical activity on Earth, per Klaatu's warning that there will be "a price to the way of life." The giant sphere leaves the Earth. Keanu Reeves as Klaatu, an alien messenger in human form. Reeves dislikes was impressed by the script, which he deemed a reimagining, he enjoyed the original film as a child and became fonder of it as an adult when he understood how relevant it was. Reeves acknowledged his Klaatu is "inverted" from the original, starting "sinister and tough" but becoming "more human," whereas the original was "more human than human" before revealing hi