The International Atomic Energy Agency is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons. The IAEA was established as an autonomous organisation on 29 July 1957. Though established independently of the United Nations through its own international treaty, the IAEA Statute, the IAEA reports to both the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council; the IAEA has its headquarters in Austria. The IAEA has two "Regional Safeguards Offices" which are located in Toronto, in Tokyo, Japan; the IAEA has two liaison offices which are located in New York City, United States, in Geneva, Switzerland. In addition, the IAEA has laboratories and research centers located in Seibersdorf, Austria, in Monaco and in Trieste, Italy; the IAEA serves as an intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear technology and nuclear power worldwide. The programs of the IAEA encourage the development of the peaceful applications of nuclear energy and technology, provide international safeguards against misuse of nuclear technology and nuclear materials, promote nuclear safety and nuclear security standards and their implementation.
The IAEA and its former Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei, were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on 7 October 2005. The Director General is Rafael Grossi, an Argentinian diplomat served as an IAEA's chief of cabinet, whose appointment was approved at the special session of the IAEA’s General Conference on 2 December 2019, as the successor of Yukiya Amano, who died in July 2019. In 1953, the President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower, proposed the creation of an international body to both regulate and promote the peaceful use of atomic power, in his Atoms for Peace address to the UN General Assembly. In September 1954, the United States proposed to the General Assembly the creation of an international agency to take control of fissile material, which could be used either for nuclear power or for nuclear weapons; this agency would establish a kind of "nuclear bank." The United States called for an international scientific conference on all of the peaceful aspects of nuclear power.
By November 1954, it had become clear that the Soviet Union would reject any international custody of fissile material if the United States did not agree to a disarmament first, but that a clearing house for nuclear transactions might be possible. From 8 to 20 August 1955, the United Nations held the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in Geneva, Switzerland. In October 1957, a Conference on the IAEA Statute was held at the Headquarters of the United Nations to approve the founding document for the IAEA, negotiated in 1955–1957 by a group of twelve countries; the Statute of the IAEA was approved on 23 October 1956 and came into force on 29 July 1957. Former US Congressman W. Sterling Cole served as the IAEA's first Director General from 1957 to 1961. Cole served only one term, after which the IAEA was headed by two Swedes for nearly four decades: the scientist Sigvard Eklund held the job from 1961 to 1981, followed by former Swedish Foreign Minister Hans Blix, who served from 1981 to 1997.
Blix was succeeded as Director General by Mohamed ElBaradei of Egypt, who served until November 2009. Beginning in 1986, in response to the nuclear reactor explosion and disaster near Chernobyl, the IAEA increased its efforts in the field of nuclear safety; the same happened after the 2011 Fukushima disaster in Japan. Both the IAEA and its Director General, ElBaradei, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005. In ElBaradei's acceptance speech in Oslo, he stated that only one percent of the money spent on developing new weapons would be enough to feed the entire world, that, if we hope to escape self-destruction nuclear weapons should have no place in our collective conscience, no role in our security. On 2 July 2009, Yukiya Amano of Japan was elected as the Director General for the IAEA, defeating Abdul Samad Minty of South Africa and Luis E. Echávarri of Spain. On 3 July 2009, the Board of Governors voted to appoint Yukiya Amano "by acclamation," and IAEA General Conference in September 2009 approved.
He took office on 1 December 2009. After Amano's death, his Chief of Coordination Cornel Feruta of Romania was named Acting Director General; the Board of Governors is expected to appoint a permanent replacement in October, who would assume office by 1 January 2020. The IAEA's mission is guided by the interests and needs of Member States, strategic plans and the vision embodied in the IAEA Statute. Three main pillars -- or areas of work -- underpin the IAEA's mission: Security; the IAEA as an autonomous organisation is not under direct control of the UN, but the IAEA does report to both the UN General Assembly and Security Council. Unlike most other specialised international agencies, the IAEA does much of its work with the Security Council, not with the United Nations Economic and Social Council; the structure and functions of the IAEA are defined by the IAEA Statute. The IAEA has three main bodies: the Board of Governors, the General Conference, the Secretariat; the IAEA exists to pursue the "safe and peaceful uses of nuclear sciences and technology".
The IAEA executes this mission with three main functions: the inspection of existing nuclear facilities to ensure their peaceful use, providing information and developing standards to ensure the safety and security of nuclear facilities, as a hub for the various fields of
Joe Aresimowicz is a Democratic member of the Connecticut House of Representatives and the current Speaker of the House. From 2013 to 2017, he served as Majority Leader. Aresimowicz grew up in Berlin, Connecticut and he attended public schools in Berlin through high school, he is a graduate of the defunct National Labor College in Maryland. Aresimowicz served in the United States Army Reserve as a combat medic, was honorably discharged after over a decade of service, he and his family reside in Berlin, where his two youngest children attend Berlin public schools and his oldest son coaches football with him at Berlin High School. He is a member of St. Paul's Roman Catholic Church in Kensington. Aresimowicz is an ally of organized labor. In addition to his part-time job at the Connecticut General Assembly, Aresimowicz is employed by AFSCME Council 4a, which represents state and municipal workers, where he serves as the education coordinator, teaching classes on organizing and bargaining, he works with the municipal unions to avoid conflicts of interest with his state leadership duties.
He does not negotiate contracts, but he does represent some employees in grievances against the state. The CT Mirror reported that his pay as a Union coordinator totalled $71,128 in 2012, $79,947 in 2013, $88,742 in 2014 and $97,112 in 2015. Upon his accession to House Speaker, the Republican State Central Committee argued that Aresimowicz had an untenable conflict in his ability to properly lead the House of Representatives and confront the insurmountable and rising costs of employee labor agreements, pension contributions and health care costs, because of his close connections to Connecticut's public sector union. Upon the request of Aresimowicz, the Office of State Ethics conducted an analysis and recommended that Aresimowicz be able to assume the position; the republican majority leader Themis Klarides agreed, stating that each speaker has had different issues based on what you do for a living and as long as you have a part-time legislature, you’re going to have those issues. Before joining the state legislature, Aresimowicz served three terms on the Berlin Town Council.
Aresimowicz was elected to the Connecticut House of Representatives in 2004 to represent the 30th Assembly District of Berlin and Southington. In 2013, he was elected the Majority Leader and in 2017 he became the Speaker of the House. In 2018 Aresimowicz was involved in a scandal over nepotism in the Uconn Huskies football program; the Hartford Courant reported that Public Act 18-175, a bill about State management of online data, included a one paragraph amendment to the end of the 11-page bill that read, “A state employee, employed at a constituent unit of the state system of higher education and a member of the immediate family of such state employee may be employed in the same department or division of such constituent unit.” It was alleged that this legislation had been introduced on behalf of University of Connecticut Football Coach Randy Edsall so that he could employ his own son, Corey Edsall. Aresimowicz introduced this legislation that created a loophole for Edsall’s son after Edsall spoke to him about the matter.
Aresimowicz commented that “As a head coach for over 20 years I’ve talked to other coaches who say Corey is a first class coach and knows what he is doing,” he told the Hartford Courant. “I believe that UConn has the checks and balances in place to ensure that no one is taking advantage of this situation.” The State Ethics Board called this loophole amendment “An affront to all Connecticut citizens." Aresimowicz has been honored by a variety of groups, including the Connecticut Early Childhood Alliance, the New England Secondary School Consortium, the American Legion, the Connecticut State Firefighters Association, the Connecticut Police Chiefs Association, the Alliance of Connecticut YMCAs, the Connecticut State Medical Society, the Connecticut River Salmon Association. Connecticut House Democrats, State Representative Joe Aresimowicz
Thomas Antisell was a physician, scientist and Young Irelander. He fought in the American Civil War, served as an advisor to the Japanese Meiji government. Thomas Antisell was born in Dublin, 16 January 1817, the youngest son of Thomas Christopher Antisell KC and Margaret Daly. Antisell attended the Dublin School of Medicine, the Apothecaries' Hall of Ireland, the Royal College of Surgeons in London, graduating from the latter with an MD in November 1839, he studied chemistry in Paris and Berlin in 1844. Upon his return to Dublin in 1845, he secured a lectureship in botany at the Peter St. School of Medicine, teaching there until 1848. After this, he opened a clinic at his residence of 25 Richmond Street, Portobello. Antisell worked as an assistant to Robert Kane, between 1845 and 1847, produced textbooks on Irish geology and chemistry, he became a member of the Royal Dublin Society in 1844. Antisell was a member of the Young Ireland movement of the 1840s, joined the Irish Confederation in 1847.
With a group of five friends in the republican movement, Antisell set up a short-lived revolutionary newspaper, The Irish Tribune, in June 1848. The paper was closed down on the grounds of sedition in July 1848 after just five issues. Following the closure of the paper, Antisell emigrated to the United States, arriving in New York on 22 November 1848; some sources claim. Although he was no longer politically active following his departure from Ireland, he was a close friend of the John Mitchel and his family. Antisell married his first wife, Eliza Ann Nowlan, in 1841. Eliza died shortly after their arrival in America. Antisell set up and operated a clinic and medical laboratory in New York city from 1848 to 1854, whilst lecturing in chemistry in a number of medical colleges in Massachusetts and Vermont, he took up a post as expedition geologist and botanist on state surveys in southern Arizona, New Mexico, California, working with Lt John G. Parke investigating the proposed routes for the Southern Pacific railroad from 1854 to 1856.
His work on the geology of the region added to greater understanding of the science in America. In 1856, Antisell was employed as chief examiner in the US Patent Office in Washington, D. C. with responsibility for chemical inventions. This work allowed him to lecture in chemistry at Georgetown University, Washington covering other subjects such as toxicology, military surgery, physiology and pathology, over the periods 1858 to 1869, 1880 to 1882. Antisell served in the Union Army during the American Civil War, firstly as a brigade surgeon in the US Volunteers from 1861, as the medical director of the 12th army corps, he concluded his service as surgeon-in-charge of Harewood hospital, Washington in October 1865, being granted a brevet commission as colonel. From 1866 to 1871, he was chief chemist in the US Department of Agriculture. Antisell married his second wife, Marion Stuart Forsyth from Detroit, in 1854, they went on to have six daughters and six sons. In 1848, he was Professor of Chemistry at Berkshire Medical College.
1854 saw him as Professor of Chemistry at the Medical College at Vermont. From 1869 to 1870 he was Professor of Chemistry at Maryland Agricultural College. Antisell was one of several scientists that were hired in 1871 as foreign advisors to work in Hokkaido in northern Japan under Horace Capron, he was selected for his strong background in chemistry coupled with geology. However, he disagreed with Capron on whether or not Hokkaido's severe winter climate would hinder development, he came into conflict with the Japanese government over his salary; as a result, Hokkaido Colonisation Office hired another geologist, Antisell's report excluded in the 1875 compilation of official reports. He served his remaining time in Japan as a chemist for the Ministry of Finance, where he developed inks used for the printing of paper currency. For his services, he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun by Emperor Meiji before his departure in 1876. Upon returning to the United States, Antisell was conferred with a PhD in 1876 by Georgetown University, once again took up duties at the Patent Office, remaining there until his retirement.
Antisell published in numerous journals on topics such as agricultural chemistry, oceanography, city sanitation, animal disease, but he did not publish a significant treatise. He died in Washington on 14 June 1893, is buried in the Congressional Cemetery. A manual of agricultural chemistry, with its application to the soils of Ireland Irish geology, in a series of chapters, containing an outline of the science of geology Suggestions towards the improvement of the sanitary condition of the metropolis Home cyclopedia of the arts and manufactures "Geological reconnaissance of southern California and Arizona", United States: explorations and surveys, vii "Synoptical tables of botanical localities", John Torney, Reports of explorations and surveys to ascertain the most practical and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi river to the Pacific ocean Royal Dublin Society record